1. Cultural policy system
Last update: June, 2015
San Marino was founded in 301 AD and is - beside the Holy See - the only still existing territorial entity of the various independent States on the Italian territory prior to its unification in the 19th century. The Republic of San Marino is 61 km2, has a population of over 31 000 people and is divided up into nine political / administrative municipalities (called Castles).
During the post war years, industrialisation and a revival in tourism were factors which influenced the transformation of San Marino, also from a cultural point of view. The Titano Theatre became a stage for a series of prestigious cultural events as well as traditional civil celebrations. Several contemporary exhibitions organised during the 1950s contributed to the establishment of the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery; the collection of the gallery was made up with works from key exhibitions held throughout the Republic.
In 1950, the first and only edition of the "San Marino Literary Prize" was held in the Republic. This cultural event, organised by the former Government Body for Tourism, saw the participation of the most illustrious intellectuals, poets and writers of that time, whose works were judged by their peers. The prize was unanimously assigned to Eugenio Montale, who participated with a typescript entitled "47 Poems", including a selection of verses composed by him between 1940 and 1950. This typescript became subsequently part of the collection entitled "The storm and other poems". The "San Marino Literary Prize" was the first prize won by Eugenio Montale during his career. On the same occasion, a special prize was assigned also to Leone Traverso for his translations of Eschilo, Gongora, Yeats and George.
In 1956 the San Marino prize for figurative arts, the first important painting event, inaugurated a successful series of San Marino Biennials, which attracted more than 100 000 visitors and gathered 515 artists and 1 312 works. San Marino Biennials caught the attention of the international artistic community and encouraged many painters to take part in these exhibitions. The 6th Biennial which took place in 1967 was, however, the last of this series of exhibitions. Subsequent events organised around the awarding of prizes such as the Olnano Castle Painting Prize (which later became the Serravalle Castle Painting Prize) were held until the 1980s and influenced the State purchase of about 80 works of art.
In the late 1960s, the State Office for Tourism, Sport and Performing Arts, the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs organised several festivals focused on the distinctive aspects of cultures from various parts of the world by involving intellectuals, artists, journalists, ambassadors and Nobel Prize winners of the targeted country. This initiative ended in 1989.
While the 1970s can be characterised as a period of continued focus on the organisation and hosting of several large exhibitions, the 1980s were marked by an important reform of the public administration responsible for culture. Several new cultural institutes were created such as the Office for Social and Cultural Activities. Other State institutions received increased independence such as the State museum, library and archive. The aim of the government's cultural policy was to separate tourism from culture, to grant culture a more official "status" and to promote the image of San Marino; the latter a priority which was carried over into the 1990s. In this context, the main objectives of the government were to promote the active participation of San Marino artists in international fora and to support the cultural development within the country. New centres were opened outside of the city centre (in the Castles of Dogana and Fiorentino) to organise cultural events. Calls were made to open new libraries in the Castles of Serravalle, Domagnano and Faetano.
In 1982, San Marino participated for the first time in the Venice Biennial International Art Exhibition on an equal footing with other countries. In the late 1980s, the role of the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery was discussed more in detail and envisaged as a public museum to monitor and promote new artistic trends. The first step taken in this direction was "Summer 2", which included the participation of local cultural associations and researchers in the selection of public modern art works. Summer 2 was an initiative intended to offer an alternative summer of entertainment and leisure to be held within the city centre, with a variety of spectacular events, exhibitions, shows and theatre performances.
In the late 1990s, the Ministry of Education and Culture became the Ministry of Education and Cultural Institutes, thus stressing a political will to make the cultural sector autonomous and to free it from the staffing obligations of the public sector provided for by law. In 1996 San Marino organised the International Meeting "Cinema and History" and launched the "International Photomeeting". Among the major events organised during these years are the exhibitions: "Giorgio De Chirico", "Salvador Dalì" and "The Goths in San Marino". This last initiative was organised by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of Culture. It brought together, for the first time, all pieces of the Treasure of Domagnano scattered in various museums and collections worldwide and stressed the importance of international cooperation in the preservation and circulation of cultural goods.
In general, the cultural policy of the 1990s centred on far-reaching and high-value initiatives, which were to leave a mark and to promote San Marino abroad. The new millennium started with celebrations dedicated to the 2000 Jubilee. Two major exhibitions were organised in cooperation with the Russian State Museum in Saint Petersburg: "From icons to avant-garde. Mysterious treasures of Russian art" and "Christ in the Russian Art. Five centuries of religiousness and faith". These were two absolutely unique and original exhibitions for Western visitors, since it was the first time that Russian art crossed the boundaries of ancient Saint Petersburg. In 2003, the exhibition "Libertatis Fundator: Saint Marino: iconography, art and history", was organised and was dedicated to the Republic's Patron Saint, under the aegis of UNESCO and the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Walter Schwimmer.
In 2009, a new cultural initiative entitled "L'Alba sul Monte" (Sunrise on Mount Titano) was launched. The objective of this initiative is to engender synergy among central government institutions, the Republic's municipalities (called Castles), Township Councils (see chapter 1.2.4 for details on these local bodies) and cultural expressions and associations in San Marino, while identifying their most interesting and typical aspects in order to propose ad hoc initiatives.
The two-year period 2010-2011 marks another important step forward for San Marino culture: the exhibition entitled "Monet, Cézanne, Renoir and other stories of painting in France", one of the most prestigious exhibitions ever held in the Republic, attracted thousands of art lovers from San Marino, neighbouring Italy and around the world. This exhibition was shown for five months, from October 2010 to March 2011, and was defined by the government and by the organising banking Foundation (San Marino Foundation - Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino - SUMS) as an important springboard to make San Marino a cultural centre, an arts capital able to attract arts lovers from all over the world. In light of this positive experience, the government intends to explore some opportunities of twinning with Italian and European arts capitals with a view to developing synergies outside the San Marino borders, so that the Republic can become part of a prestigious cultural circuit. In the meantime, confirming the commitment and enthusiasm for important exhibitions, San Marino has become part of the Italian circuit of great art exhibitions, which in 2012 has involved the main cities in Italy. From January to June, San Marino is hosting another high-level cultural event involving art from the USA entitled "From Hopper to Warhol, 20th century American painting in San Marino". Also in this case, the event has been organised in collaboration with the concurrent exhibitions displayed in Castel Sismondo, Rimini, and dedicated to the national painting of the EU countries. Once again, these events have involved the San Marino Foundation - Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino – SUMS, (see also chapter 1.3.3), the Ministries of Tourism and Culture and some private sponsors. The now consolidated collaboration between the State and the economic world continues to facilitate culturally important events, with considerable positive benefits for tourism and trade.
In 2011, the exhibition "L'Uomo, il Volto, il Mistero. Capolavori dai Musei Vaticani", with some works of art from the Vatican Museums, was displayed at the State Museum to pay homage to the visit paid by Pope Benedict XVI to the Republic of San Marino on 19 June 2011. This exhibition started an important collaboration with the Vatican Museums. Also, the 17th century painting exhibition "Opus Sacrum, Opus Profanum" was included among the initiatives organised on the occasion of the visit of Pope Benedict XVI to the Republic. This exhibition included some important paintings from the private collection of Pier Luigi Pizzi, which was shown to the public for the first time in its complete form.
During 2011, several initiatives were organised in the context of the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the Italian Unification by the Embassy of Italy, in collaboration with the government of San Marino, but also by some cultural associations, such as the Dante Alighieri Association (for further information on this Association, see chapter 1.4.1). By celebrating this anniversary with a series of cultural initiatives, San Marino intended to reaffirm the sentiments of friendship by which the two countries have always been connected.
In December 2012, the first "San Marino Film Festival" turned the small Republic into an international showcase, by welcoming film directors, actors, first transmission of art-house films and short films, with the aim of "promoting the new cinema generations". More than 70 films were projected throughout six days (feature films and short films, both in and out of competition) to pay homage to the poet and scriptwriter Tonino Guerra, from the Romagna Region. This Film Festival extensively explored today's international cinema, leaving much scope not only for young directors, but also to newsreel films and socially relevant films. The San Marino Festival suggested a new development approach for the country, that is to say cultural tourism, and showed the great potential of an international event where the public, in perfect harmony with the private, may work to seize social, economic and employment opportunities (see also chapter 7.3).
During the same year, also the first edition of the "San Marino Animæ Festival" was organised. This international festival dedicated to Japanese animation officially gathered for the first time the most important representatives of Japanese animation films in an event organised outside Japan. This unique film festival was a meeting point between Eastern and Western cultures and was the first attempt to present Japanese animation to a European audience. This project promotes the idea of an "international culture" based on a mix of cultures of different countries and on the concepts of peace, brotherhood and liberty. These are the values that bring together San Marino, the most ancient Republic in the world, and Japan, the most ancient imperial dynasty. This Festival was one of the most important events in terms of social and cultural relations between San Marino and Japan.
Finally, the production of stamps and commemorative medals has constantly been a priority for San Marino. Always in great demand, these objects are issued on the occasion of major events to celebrate famous people and promote peace, culture and justice all over the world. Philately and numismatics are still an important tradition in San Marino, as well as being of considerable revenue for the State budget; moreover, they represent a fundamental means of communication and promotion. They are recognised and appreciated throughout the world and have received prestigious awards in the field of advertising and graphic design. The last award received was the D&Ad Pencil Award in 2015, which marks the start of a new artistic cycle, also with regard to the themes chosen.
Main features of the current cultural policy model
During the 1980s and 1990s, responsibility for culture was implemented via public institutions and cultural centres. Today, the current cultural policy model is increasingly based on joint co-operation of public and private sector actors. The main focus of this cooperation is on the organisation of high level artistic and cultural projects and events which can be exported abroad.
The private sector, in particular banking foundations, has increasingly engaged in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture and with other public bodies responsible for culture. Attention has been focused on hosting prestigious cultural events which are independent from the seasonal tourist programmes along the Adriatic Coast. The involvement of the private sector is not only financial. It also contributes to the work of public cultural bodies. For example, in recent years, the theatre season has been organised by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities in collaboration with other private partners. ARTMIX 2004, 2005 and 2006 has benefited from significant economic and organisational contributions by a bank foundation, and the same applies to SMIAF, the Festival of Youth Knowledge, which, since its creation in 2007, has been supported by a banking Foundation (see also chapter 1.3.3).
In general, the cultural events proposed in the new millennium are the result of the successful plans aimed at relaunching tourism in the Republic through a synergy between public and private sectors. This represents the modus operandi of a Republic looking for a new identity and most of all for a renewed model that matches high quality cultural offers and benefits in terms of economic impact and image. These events are the result of a strong synergy between the State and private bodies and contribute to the affirmation of the country's capability to make proposals within a large territorial context where San Marino plays an important role.
The "centralised" management of cultural initiatives through the relevant public institutions (from the Minister of Culture to the cultural sectors of Public Administration offices) continues to coexist with the livelihood, freedom of initiative and autonomy of the numerous cultural and volunteer associations present on the territory, a coexistence characterised by positive effects. Some combined and complementary initiatives are organised with these associations. Collaboration and synergy are indeed the strong points of some important San Marino cultural projects, including SMIAF Project (see chapter 1.4.3), which is based on the principle of the PPP system, that is collaboration among Public Institutions, Private Bodies and Citizens' Participation to achieve common objectives (see also the "Festival of Knowledge – SmArt", chapter 2.1)
For more details on cultural policies, see chapter 2.1.
Cultural policy objectives
The programme of the current government - formed in December 2012 - expressively states that the external relations activities of San Marino should highlight the identity of the Republic as a State and its vocation to peace, dialogue among cultures, peaceful co-existence among peoples, respect for and protection of human rights and international co-operation. In particular, as far as the cultural policy of the State is concerned, it specifies that "investments in the cultural field must be based on an approach of continuity and overall development, with the objective of improving the quality of the culture of San Marino and its citizens". In order to do this, "consistently with the values upheld by the Republic, it is necessary to promote initiatives concerning peace, liberty, democracy, solidarity, civilisations, peoples […], together with research, international meetings, tourism". In the latter sector, the best possible enhancement of cultural tourism is vital for San Marino's economy in order to further strengthen the already existing synergy with culture as a growth and development engine for the entire country. General interest priorities at the core of cultural policies refer to the recent inclusion of San Marino in the UNESCO World Heritage List, for which the government "requires all public bodies, within their fields of competence, to contribute to the implementation of a plan of interventions aimed at increasingly enhancing, promoting, protecting, maintaining, managing and administering the interested property".
The general approach of the current government programme is in line with the preceding one, in that it recognises, among the strategic sectors for San Marino development, also the cultural one. This confirms the common feeling that the economic recovery of the country implies difficult and not always obvious choices in a situation of budget crisis. In particular, "cultural policy will have to be strongly geared towards the promotion and enhancement of San Marino cultural institutions and, […] fully aware of its resources and dimension, be involved in the most important international circuits". Moreover, besides the planned enhancement of public Institutions, more and more importance is attached to private initiatives, by identifying specific interventions and development activities to this end, the diversification of cultural offer, as well as interesting initiatives, such as some forms of tax incentives for those investing in cultural projects.
See also chapter 2.1.
Last update: June, 2015
Last update: June, 2015
Following the general elections on 11 November 2012, nine new Ministers were appointed, with a reorganisation of the Departments responsible to each Ministry and the consequent redistribution of tasks and responsibilities. The most evident changes, compared to the preceding legislatures, concern the responsibilities for peace, previously assigned to the Ministry of Justice, this responsibility has not been reconfirmed; for equal opportunities to the Ministry of Education and Culture and for youth policies to the Ministry of Tourism and Sport.
After the formation of the new government (in San Marino, the executive body is named "Congress of State", and is composed of a maximum of 10 Ministries, the so-called "Secretariats of State"), four Permanent Parliamentary Commissions were established, to which the various bills and issues are assigned according to their field of competence: Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Constitutional and Institutional Affairs, Public Administration, Internal Affairs, Civil Protection, Relations with Local Authorities, Justice, Education, Culture, Cultural Goods, University and Scientific Research; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Hygiene, Health, National Insurance, Social Security, Social Policies, Sport, Territories, Environment and Agriculture; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Finance, Budget, Planning, Handicraft, Industry, Commerce, Tourism, Services, Transport, Telecommunications, Labour and Cooperation; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Foreign Affairs, Emigration and Immigration, Information, Security and Public Order.
Following a government crisis in July 2012, the XXVII legislature came to an end. General elections in November 2012 determined the new structure of the Ministries and their responsibilities. The Congress of State (the San Marino executive body) was appointed by the Great and General Council (Parliament) in its sitting of 5 December 2012, thus giving birth to the XXVIII San Marino legislature.
The Ministry of Education, Culture and University, Scientific Research, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities is the central governmental body responsible for promoting cultural policy. It is responsible for legislation and structural issues associated with the organisation of the cultural field.
The Ministry is responsible for coordinating all cultural institutes (museums, galleries, cinemas and theatres, libraries, the Music Institute and the University), as well as the social / cultural centres (Social Centres, Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives, Naturalist Centre). The Ministry is composed of the Minister, his Private Secretary, a Secretariat Official and the Director of the Department, all politically appointed. Under Law 5/1981 and subsequent amendments - regulating secondments and permits for political functions - the Minister can rely on a staff of officials and experts coming from other offices, who benefit from a temporary political secondment for the whole legislation. Periodically, the Director - who represents the link between the Executive power and the Public Administration - convenes the Department Council, an administrative meeting of all directors of the cultural sector, whose opinions are compulsory but not binding.
In San Marino, the legislative body is named the "Great and General Council" and is composed of 60 Parliamentarians, the so-called "Consiglieri"). The Parliament appoints the members of the following institutional bodies:
- Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Constitutional and Institutional Affairs, Public Administration, Internal Affairs, Civil Protection, Relations with Local Authorities, Justice, Education, Culture, Cultural Goods, University and Scientific Research; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Foreign Affairs, Emigration and Immigration, Information, Security and Public Order; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Hygiene, Health, National Insurance, Social Security, Social Policies, Sport, Territory, Environment and Agriculture. They are responsible for examining, discussing and drafting all legal provisions to be approved by the Parliament. Under Law 42/1995 (amended by Law 2/2006, Article 2), the Permanent Parliamentary Commissions are composed of 15 Councillors, appointed proportionally among the Council Groups and the lists represented in the Council. The permanent Commissions, during their first sitting, elect their Presidents and Vice-Presidents;
- the Commission for the Preservation of Monuments, Antiques and Art Works (CCM), composed of 7 commissioners (who are not Parliamentarians), in which also those responsible for the State Museum, Library and Archive and a representative of the Association of Engineers and Architects take part as advisors;
- Commission for Equal Opportunities, composed of: 8 members ensuring the presence of the lists represented in the Council and reflecting the proportion of the Groups, a member designated by the Trade Unions and one by the Council of Cultural Associations, Centres and Cooperatives. The members cannot sit in the Great and General Council;
- San Marino National Commission for UNESCO, headed by a President and a Secretary General, both appointed by the Council, the members of which are, however, designated by the Congress of State: representatives of the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a member of the teaching staff of compulsory schools, a representative of the teaching staff of the high school, San Marino University, as well as personalities from the world of culture appointed by Their Excellencies the Captains Regent on designation of the National Commission; and
- Supervising Commission, composed of 7 members appointed by the Great and General Council, in proportion of the Council representations, among the people who, however, do not sit in the Council. It appoints its own President.
The entry into force of Qualified Law no. 3 of 7 November 2011 - "Departments of the Public Administration" and of Law no. 188 of 5 December 2011 - "Reform of the structure and organisational model of the Public Administration" has introduced some important interventions of a structural nature and is aimed at reshaping offices and directorates. These interventions have laid the foundations for any future activities in terms of streamlining, as well as aimed at favouring users and managing resources. In particular, the Directorate of Cultural Affairs and Information, which was part of the Department of Foreign Affairs, has been eliminated. Its previous functions - organisation and management of international cultural initiatives, all activities concerning cultural relations and scientific cooperation at an international level and bilateral agreements - have been transferred to the Director of the Department of Foreign Affairs, previously called the Coordinator of the Department. Following the introduction of the new legislation, the Permanent Study Centre on Emigration and the Museum of the Emigrant - defined as the "Research Centre on Emigration" according to Law no. 188/2011 - is no longer dependant on the Department of Foreign Affairs, but it is established at the University of San Marino, within the Department of Historical Studies. In any case, the Directorate of Political and Diplomatic Affairs of the Department of Foreign Affairs is requested to collaborate with the University and with the other offices of the overall public sector with regard to in-depth studies and dissemination of information on migration phenomena involving the San Marino population Collaboration is also carried out by participating in collegial bodies established with the above aim and by promoting the involvement of the Consulta and San Marino Communities abroad. According to the law, this Directorate is also entrusted with the functions previously performed by the Office for Relations with San Marino Communities Abroad, that is to say the coordination of all activities protecting the interests of San Marino Communities abroad and of the Consulta of San Marino citizens abroad.
See also chapter 5.
Last update: June, 2015
The nine political / administrative municipalities of San Marino (called Castles), which are each presided over by a Mayor and a Council, are responsible to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Public Functions, Justice and Relations with Local Authorities. These local government bodies are key liaisons between citizens and the State. Among their functions are the circulation of information on decisions made by institutional bodies of interest for the Castle, the financing and coordination of cultural and social initiatives (in collaboration with other public and private bodies or institutes) and carrying out studies and research activities to increase the knowledge of the history, customs and traditions of the Castle. In agreement with the Commission for the Preservation of Monuments, Antiques and Art Works and with the competent offices, the Castles promote the restoration and preservation of artistic, architectural and archaeological works of the Castle itself.
Last update: June, 2015
In September 2013, the draft law on Township Councils (Law no. 127/2013) was approved. This Law, reforming the 1994 Law, has met most of the requests made over time by the decentralised government bodies. The much-awaited measure, which was welcomed by the Board of the Heads of the Township Councils, responds to the democratic purposes of these local government bodies, while strengthening their institutional, administrative and social role. It also promotes and encourages popular participation and civil responsibility. Major legislative amendments have introduced legal personality, which allows each Township Council to represent its Castle with increased authority. They have also established relations between the Township Councils and the Public Administration and between the Township Councils and the government through the organisation of six-monthly conferences and participation in budgetary policies. Moreover, such amendments have provided for compulsory opinions of the Township Councils relating to matters concerning the Castles and have introduced time-limits for the Public Administration to respond to the requests of the Township Councils. The Law makes also reference to the European Charter on Local Autonomy of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, an instrument of the Council of Europe supporting the role of decentralised government bodies in the setting up of a more democratic structure at a local level. The Charter was signed by San Marino in May 2013 (and ratified in October of the same year), as the last institutional step towards strengthening the role of the Castles.
In the meantime, the reform of the public administration (see Law n. 188/2011) has eliminated the Office responsible for Township Councils. This has entailed the suppression of an administrative structure performing the tasks of coordinating and verifying administrative burdens of the single Township Councils, as well as establishing a connection between them and the competent Ministry.
With a view to favouring a more active involvement of local bodies in central institutional activities and enhancing the projects of the single Castles, while further promoting direct participation also by citizens residing in these Castles, in 2010 the Captains Regent launched the initiative entitled "Castelli a Palazzo" (Castles at the Government Building). This initiative entails a series of meetings organised at the Government Building, seat of the San Marino Parliament and Government, among the Captains Regent, the Township Councils with their citizens, and the Minister of Relations with the Township Councils. During these meetings, aimed at strongly promoting national unity, the Township Council presents a project of interest to the relevant Castle in the cultural and / or social field. Citizens may express their ideas and opinions on this project in the presence of the Minister responsible for the relevant sector. In 2011, the Captains Regent arranged for visits by the Heads of State to the Township Councils with a view to meeting the public. Residents have been offered the possibility to submit formal requests concerning collective interests. The Captains Regent has addressed the selected requests (a maximum of 4 requests per Castle) during public audiences at the Government Building.
At present, the Republic of San Marino has no ethnic, linguistic or religious groups and / or minorities (see chapter 2.6).
Information is currently not available.
Last update: June, 2015
The Congress of State holds executive power which it exercises through its Ministers (no-more than 10). The Congress of State assigns to each Minister specific competences and administrative sectors, for which they are politically and directly responsible. Under Constitutional Law on the Congress of State No. 183/2005 and Qualified Law on the Congress of State No. 184/2005, each Minister is required to cooperate with his colleagues whenever his area of competence overlaps with that of other Ministers and in any case whenever so requested by a colleague or the Congress of State. This means that Ministries can cooperate to achieve common objectives, though this is not always the practice.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, University, Scientific Research, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities cooperates mainly with the Ministry of Labour, Cooperation and Information, with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Public Functions, Justice and Relations with Local Authorities, with the Ministry of Tourism and with the Ministry of Foreign and Political Affairs. Such cooperation, however, is not systematic and mostly involves joint funding of specific events. Recent examples of cooperation between public institutions and private bodies are the staging of Giuseppe Verdi's Aida; "Allegro Vivo", an international piano competition; and an international singing competition dedicated to Renata Tebaldi.
Whenever necessary, the Congress of State can appoint inter-ministerial technical working groups, made up of representatives from the various Ministries. These working groups have no autonomy or decision-making powers and their task is limited to the study of specific issues, on which they have to report to the government.
In November 2006, San Marino took over the Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. In line with the country's century-old tradition of peace, the main themes and priorities of San Marino's six-month Chairmanship concerned violence against women and children, education on human rights and democratic citizenship, protection and promotion of cultural diversity, as well as support and promotion of intercultural and interreligious dialogue, with full respect for diversity and by favouring understanding and mutual knowledge among cultures, both within Europe and in the relations with non-European countries. In order to achieve this last objective, a group of officials of the Ministry and of the Department of Foreign Affairs, in close cooperation with the Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, organised a forum with the participation of the major religious representatives, held in San Marino in April 2007.
Another event, held in the Republic, in March 2007, was a conference involving the European jurists who were studying the proposals to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the European Court of Human Rights. The Colloquy, which saw the participation of Representatives of States, NGOs, Academic Institutions and Juridical Experts - reiterated the need for Protocol 14 to the Convention on Human Rights to come into force soon, since the Russian Federation had not ratified it yet. In 2009, the Russian Federation signed Protocol 14, thus allowing this international instrument to enter into force. However, when the conference was organised, it was quite impossible to envisage a comprehensive change in the system of protection of human rights without the implementation of Protocol 14. The objective of the reform process is to provide the Court with the instruments to process all applications in reasonable times. The Colloquy resulted in useful suggestions for the preparatory works of the 117th Session of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (held on 10-11 May 2007).
At the level of inter-ministerial collaboration, the drafting of the Framework Law on the Implementation of Youth Policies No. 91/2007 underlines that the issue of youth policies is not just a responsibility of the Ministry of Labour, but it also interacts and integrates with the social policies addressed to other people. Cooperation is therefore carried out actively and in synergy with the government authorities responsible for labour, training, education and culture, leisure, health, etc.
At intergovernmental level, the communication project "Who said we are isolated?" was launched in 2015 involving San Marino, the Canary Islands and Malta. The project is aimed at creating and sharing a digital platform to promote and facilitate the creative interaction of contents. The project is expected to involve, at different stages, students and stakeholders of the three countries, including civil society, schools, companies, associations and offices. The commitment is focused on enhancing strategically the cultural heritage of the three countries, in order to set up start-up companies and joint ventures promoting culture. The initiative, sponsored by UNESCO, also aims to develop project ideas to be submitted to the European Union for co-financing through official channels such as Interreg Med, Europe Creative and Horizon 2020.
Last update: June, 2015
The government has always been responsible for national cultural institutions which include: the State Museums (Guaita Castle, Cesta Castle with its Museum of Ancient Weapons, Pergami Palace, Saint Francis Museum and Art Gallery, Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, Saint's Basilica), the State Library and Archive, the Naturalist Centre and the Office for Social and Cultural Activities. The latter is responsible for theatres / cinemas and the Social Centres in Dogana and Fiorentino. Although the San Marino Music Institute and the University are partly autonomous from the Department of Education and from the Department of Culture and Tourism, they receive an annual State contribution and their activities are subject to the supervision of both Departments.
The State Archive is part of and receives funding from the Department of Culture and Tourism, whereas the Research Centre on Emigration, which is part of the San Marino University, has functional relations with the Department of Education and the Department of Culture and Tourism.
In San Marino, non governmental institutions do not have public responsibilities for taking initiatives. However, they may operate with the sponsorship, contribution and involvement of public institutions (Ministries, Departments or Offices…); in this case, when they submit or manage projects destined to society or intended to be developed outside the country, they have more responsibilities, which they share, however, with their public partners.
In 2010, the new exhibition hall in the SUMS Building, restructured according to international safety and technological standards imposed on museums for the borrowing of works, was inaugurated thanks to the joint financial contribution of the Ministries of Culture, Tourism and Territory. This new exhibition hall provides San Marino with a technically modern centre for high-level exhibitions and recently held the international exhibition of Impressionists (see chapter 1.1). With regard to other exhibition areas, the government hopes to soon recover the Ancient Monastery of Saint Claire (now the seat of the University), as well as the Pianello Cisterns (under Liberty Square, where the Government Building stands as the seat of the most important institutions of the Republic) (see chapter 7.3 concerning the proposed creation of an Arts Foundation). Annex "Z" to Budget Law no. 200/2011 - the "strategic development plan of the economic system"- provides for a series of interventions and restructuring works aimed at rearranging exhibitions areas. In March 2012, the government illustrated to the Heads of Parliamentary Groups present in Parliament the plan of investments to be made in public works, which includes the recovery of the "Logge dei Balestrieri", located in the historic centre, where an exhibition hall of about 450 square metres could be realised to host important events and exhibitions. Public works included in the Strategic Plan approved in December 2011 will be financed not only with public resources, but also by exploiting new synergies between public and private entities and by increasing recourse to instruments provided for by San Marino legislation, such as project financing, assignment of public works and sponsorship contracts.
In 2010, a painters' collective exhibition inaugurated the seat of the "Castellaccio", which was restructured following the implementation of the Project "Castelli a Palazzo" (see chapter 1.2.2). This is an original exhibition place: a cave inside the "Castellaccio", that is one of the three ancient fortresses of the Fiorentino Castle. On the initiative of the Township Council, the cave, once used to preserve food and as a shelter for horses, was made accessible and some paintings by resident artists were exhibited here.
In December 2011, "Spazio Onofri" was realised in the historic centre. This is an exhibition area completely dedicated to art in its manifold expressions.
Last update: June, 2015
Table 2: Cultural institutions financed by public authorities, by domain
|Domain||Cultural institutions (subdomains)||Number (Year)||Trend (++ to --)|
|Cultural heritage||Cultural heritage sites (recognised)||On 7 July 2008, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee recognised the universal value of the Historic Centres of San Marino (the Capital) and Borgo Maggiore (one of the nine Castles) and Mount Titano, a property of a total of 42 hectares. For UNESCO, San Marino represents a living historic city, the symbol of an important stage in the development of democratic models in Europe and worldwide.||/|
|Museums (organisations)||5 (2010)||/|
|Archives (of public authorities)||1 (2010)||/|
|Visual arts||public art galleries / exhibition halls||2 (2010)||+|
|Art academies (or universities)||1 (2010)||/|
|Performing arts||Symphonic orchestras||1 (2010)||/|
|Music schools||1 (2010)||/|
Music / theatre academies |
|Dramatic theatre||2 (2010)||/|
|Music theatres, opera houses||2 (2010)||/|
|Dance and ballet companies||0 (2010)||/|
|Books and Libraries||Libraries||6 (2010)||/|
|Audiovisual||Broadcasting organisations||1 (2010)||/|
|Interdisciplinary||Socio-cultural centres / cultural houses||3 (2010)||/|
|Other (please explain)||/||/||/|
Last update: June, 2015
The State Museum of San Marino was established in the second half of the 19th century, thanks to a series of donations from all over the world. In this context, the Museum did not emerge as a result of a clear culture strategy, but rather an assembled collected of works donated irrespective of their origin, history and quality. With the public administration reform in 1983, the State Museum became autonomous. Since then, and until 2001, almost all works were stored in places not accessible to the public and to researchers. On 18 March 2001, the Museum was reopened to the public in the ancient Palazzo Pergami-Belluzzi.
A similar story precedes the establishment of the State Library which owes its birth and future development to many donations. Established in 1839, it was opened to the public in 1858 in Palazzo Valloni, where it is still located. Initially book lending and consultation was prohibited. It was not until many years later when the Library was open to the public at least once a week. The first inventory and catalogue, though incomplete, were made in 1890. From the beginning, a lack of economic and human resources made it very difficult for the Library to meet the needs of a population extremely interested in education, who asked for precise opening hours and days and for an enlargement of the archive. In 1983, the State Library witnessed a physical and legal revolution, in that it became fully independent from the State Museum and its administration, with which it had shared the seat in Palazzo Valloni until that time. The reader became the ultimate target of this new public institution and contacts were established with schools, the territory and the population. The Documentation Centre was created in the framework of this restructuring, to trace, collect and select all information coming from various sources, so as to guarantee a clear picture of San Marino's social and economic evolution. The State Library is still governed by a regulation of 1909, subsequently amended in 1914 and 1920. Therefore, the adoption of a new law is a top priority in order to supersede the anachronistic and inapplicable provisions now in force.
The contributions and interventions of the recently established banking foundations play a fundamental role, especially those of two major San Marino banks. The first is the Cassa di Risparmio, opened in 1882, which regularly invests in social and cultural activities and has allocated significant funds for the purchase of art works. In 2001, it provided funding to the State Museum, on the occasion of its re-opening to the public. The second is the Cassa Rurale di Depositi e Prestiti di Faetano, established in 1920 and now named Banca di San Marino. Other banking institutions such as the Banca Agricola Commerciale and the Central Bank, have provide support to social, cultural and artistic projects such as the publication of books and other material on the history of San Marino, the promotion of local or foreign artistic and historical heritage events and the sponsorship of exhibition catalogues.
The involvement of banking institutions was linked primarily to occasional events and not as part of any specific strategic plan. Following the creation of banking foundations, their contribution to and management of such cultural initiatives became part of a long-term planning policy. These foundations, regulated by Law n. 130 of 1995, are non-profit private corporations with full legal capacity and statutory and managerial autonomy. These foundations provide funding to projects either directly or in cooperation with other bodies or foundations.
The contribution of the San Marino Foundation - Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino - SUMS (est. 2002) and of the Ente della Cassa di Faetano Foundation can take two forms: direct financial support to various projects upon request and sponsorship of institutional or international events. At present, these two Foundations are cooperating with the Music Association "Allegro Vivo" in the organisation of the International Piano Competition - Repubblica di San Marino, which is also receiving support from the San Marino Music Institute, the San Marino National Commission for UNESCO and the Ministries of Culture, Tourism and Foreign Affairs. Moreover, both Foundations, in agreement with the Renata Tebaldi Foundation and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Tourism and Culture, and with the support of numerous San Marino entrepreneurs, have promoted the newly established international singing competition dedicated to Renata Tebaldi, under the aegis of Entities such as the Scala in Milan and the San Carlo in Naples. Therefore, in the musical field, these kinds of high-level events have helped in promoting the image of San Marino as a centre of promotion and production of classical events. Despite some structural deficiencies, which prevent the organisation of big events, this sector is extremely lively in San Marino, thus influencing the reshaping and growth of San Marino, as well as its alignment with the cultural standards of the most advanced musical civilisations.
In 2004, 2005 and 2006 the San Marino Foundation supported, in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture and the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, "ARTMIX - San Marino Young Artists", consisting of a series of events in the field of visual arts, music, theatre and cinema. This project paid special attention to training, to identifying new production methods and to the participation of the public. The same goes for SMIAF, the Festival of Youth Knowledge; since it was established in 2007, this festival has been supported by the same Foundation and, over the years, it has become more and more a meeting point for the creation of new knowledge, by giving birth not only to mere performances, but to a real interactive and intercultural environment.
The Ente della Cassa di Faetano Foundation is mainly committed to supporting local projects in the fields of culture, arts, education, sports, economic development, health and scientific research and protection of the weakest groups of society. Its activities are based on a multi-year programme, which clearly defines the sectors and the relevant projects which will eventually receive support. For its first three years of activity, this Foundation decided to concentrate on arts, culture and sports. In 2001, on the occasion of 1700th anniversary of the foundation of the Republic, the Banca di San Marino, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Cultural Institutes, made an important contribution to art by ordering a big painting from a San Marino artist, having as theme the major episodes in the history of the Republic. The Foundation announced a competition in 2002 on "Globalisation", open to the artists living in San Marino and in the nearby area. Out of 200 works submitted and exhibited at the State Museum, 12 were selected for the Bank's 2003 calendar. The Foundation, together with the Ministry of the Interior, created another project to disseminate documents preserved in the State Archive through three publications and the Internet.
The Banca Centrale Foundation was established in March 2005 by the Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino. It is also a non-profit organisation and its primary objective is training in the fields of economy, law and international relations. Among the Foundation's activities are: the promotion of studies, seminars, meetings, cultural and research activities in these specific sectors and the dissemination of initiatives to improve and expand knowledge on the conditions necessary for the Republic's economic, social and cultural progress. As provided for by its Statute, the Foundation accepts proposals made by labour and training institutions regarding the implementation of possible projects.
In 2005, in the context of the initiatives celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Social Security Institute, San Marino Foundation and the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation co-sponsored a competition for the realisation of a work of art to be placed in the vicinity of the State Hospital. In consideration of the high quality of the 26 projects submitted, the examining commission suggested the organisation of an exhibition open to all citizens and expressed the hope that at least some of these projects be realised and placed in adequate public spaces. Also in 2005, a new school was inaugurated in Faetano (one of the nine administrative divisions of the Republic), thanks to the cooperation between the State and the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation. The importance of this cooperation is due to the fact that, for the first time, the private and the public sectors collaborated in the implementation of a public project. Another project realised by the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation in 2009 is the restructuring of Villa Manzoni, which is part of the country's cultural growth process through the enhancement of its cultural and environmental heritage. All San Marino citizens consider Villa Manzoni a historical, cultural and affective heritage, which Ente Cassa brought to new life in 2013, after four years of careful restoration, thus returning the residential building to the San Marino community and transforming it into an important centre for San Marino social and cultural life: a lively artistic area, open to everybody, hosting arts, history, music, literature and any other artistic expression. The complex of Villa Manzoni has also been enriched with some works by Arnaldo Pomodoro, the very first in the country, acquired by the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation.
In 2006, the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation established the "San Marino Award", a cash award in favour of San Marino citizens who, because of the importance of their initiatives, have become renowned in the civil, humanities, science, arts, technology, labour or sports field and who pay honour to the Republic around the world. The final prize is a bronze sculpture by Arnaldo Pomodoro and a sum of money, the half of which goes to a San Marino solidarity association chosen by the winner. The San Marino Award is not only a celebratory event, on the contrary, its aim is to effectively contribute to the country's growth through philanthropic intervention and the recognition of the contribution offered by these citizens - residents or non-residents - to its civil, social, cultural and economic growth.
On the occasion of its first edition, the award was given to a scientist and a missionary father - who celebrate the Republic's ideals of peace, progress and liberty through their everyday work. The winner of the second Award was a San Marino citizen, whose lively activity in the humanitarian field was recognised and appreciated.
The State Archive, also thanks to the sponsorship of the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation, is carrying out a project to place on-line important San Marino documents: a work of great historical, social and institutional importance, which makes the most rare and precious documents available to all (see also chapter 2.4).
In 2007 the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation contributed economically to the organisation of a competition for the project of a sculpture on the value of dialogue among cultures and peoples, which represented one of the priorities of the programme of San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, since it is a condition to build peace. For further information on this work of art, see chapter 2.5.1 and chapter 7.2.3.
See also chapter 7.2 for other specifically cultural initiatives, for which the intervention and economic support of banking Foundations has been of fundamental importance.
The Foundation "Valori Tattili", founded in 2008, is the latest one to be established. The main objective of this banking Foundation is to create a privileged channel to support all forms of art, by encouraging cultural, artistic, scientific and social initiatives. This Foundation, responsible to the "Asset Banca" group, promotes art through exhibitions, publications, conferences, international cultural exchanges, by carrying out research activities and studies in the arts field and by collaborating with museums and institutions. Painting, sculpture, video, photography, installations and performances are part of specific exhibitions, which are displayed to enhance the cultural development of the territory. To achieve these objectives, the Foundation uses a multi-functional area, located in the building of the Bank, where initiatives can be organised throughout the year.
In 2013, the Foundation of "Asset Banca" joined the publisher of a historic newspaper of San Marino (see chapter 2.5.3).
Besides the partnership between public Institutions and banking Foundations, in summer 2009, the public and private sectors fruitfully collaborated in the organisation of an exhibition displaying some hundred works by Pop Art artist Andy Warhol, selected from the anthological collection "Collezione Rosini Gutman". This cultural event was promoted by the Association ECSO (Economy, Growth, Development, Opportunity), under the aegis and with the support of seven Ministries and of the San Marino Foundation - Cassa di Risparmio - SUMS.
Due to the international economic and financial crisis, which has also affected the Republic of San Marino, priorities have been revised, including investments in the sector of State cultural institutions, and this has led mainly to public expenditure cuts.
On the occasion of the 130th anniversary of its establishment, Cassa di Risparmio promoted the project entitled "Alceste", to support and favour the use of multimedia devices in all of the Republic's schools. Thanks to a Convention signed in February 2013 with the Ministry of Education and Culture, San Marino schools are now provided with multimedia interactive whiteboards, with a view to the tutorial training of students in support of traditional didactics (for further information on this project see chapter 2.4). In 2012, the 18th edition of the "Otello Casadei Award" was celebrated. This Award is dedicated to the founder of the Popular Library of Serravalle, who was also a talented musician. Since its foundation, the San Marino Foundation has always offered its contribution to the organisation of this initiative, which aims at stimulating young people to take a challenge and to love study activities and culture in general. In 2012, the music association "Camerata del Titano" celebrated its 20th birthday. On an annual basis, it promotes the "Rassegna musicale d'autunno", a series of concerts organised during the Autumn season with the support of the San Marino Foundation. This fruitful synergy is renewed year after year in the name of culture.
To contribute to the life of young people and to the Country's growth, in 2012 the Ente Cassa di Faetano activated the "Fondo per l'eccellenza Sammarinese" (Fund for San Marino excellence). This Fund is not an award but rather an opportunity and an incentive for San Marino young people wishing to attend training courses in some prestigious international academic institutions. This project provides for non-refundable economic support (for the time being, 180 000 EUR throughout three years) provided by the Ente Cassa di Faetano to students who have the capacity to succeed and who submit a high-level academic project in the economic, financial, scientific and humanistic fields, including music and dance sectors. The relevant competition announcement includes post-graduate specialisation courses, masters, training courses and internships lasting not less than three months.
Also, the literary contest "The first feather", organised and promoted by Ente Cassa di Faetano, was aimed at young people. The contest's title clearly refers to the origins of San Marino (feathers are one of the symbols of San Marino and represent the three peaks of Mount Titano) and offers young people a way to express their creativity and talents.
Last update: June, 2015
The Dante Alighieri Association was established in San Marino in 2005 as a publicly mandated cultural agency. Its committee was re-established after 31 years since its dissolution, and a century since its first establishment. This non-profit Association, which has no political purpose, aims at safeguarding and promoting culture through the following activities: study and defence of the Italian language and civilisation; research in the humanistic and scientific disciplines; and comparison between San Marino's own experiences and those of other States and cultural backgrounds. Among the initiatives of the Association, worth mentioning is the project "Dante's Month", which is one of the events organised on an annual basis with the collaboration of San Marino Upper Secondary Schools. This event aims at establishing contact between teachers and students and the audience interested in a more in-depth study of its country's history and culture. Another initiative is the publication of the yearbook entitled "San Marino Identity - Reflections on liberty and democracy from a political, historical and cultural point of view", to which many citizens and friends of San Marino contribute with research activities and works. The Dante Alighieri Committee of the Republic of San Marino is part of a wider network made up of numerous similar foreign committees of about 80 States throughout the five continents, besides Italy.
Another cultural institute, the Alliance Française, has been operating for several years in San Marino and represents a real "cultural multinational" agency, with the aim of disseminating the French language and culture beyond the national borders, through multinational cultural activities. This private institute promotes activities in support of the French language teaching in schools and organises various cultural events, as well as exhibitions, concerts, meetings on the French language, traditions and culture, in order to promote exchange activities between the French and the Italian cultures. More specifically, the objectives of the Alliance Française are cultural promotion, education and training through various initiatives, such as debates, meetings, information and training, with a view to promoting integration on the territory of Italy (San Marino is one 54 sections existing on the Italian territory). Every year, on 20 March, on the occasion of the "International Day of Francophonie", the Alliance Française organises a cultural afternoon event in the French language.
This Association periodically organises special days for French teachers in San Marino and Rimini, in collaboration with the various Alliances of the surrounding areas. In this regard, the Association closely collaborates with the Ministry of Education, Culture and University: the proposals of the Ministry are transmitted to the teachers, who are encouraged to participate in the various initiatives, although without any obligation. Indeed, the Alliance Française has no government or public mandate, except for some specific cases defined from time to time (for example, some French language and culture courses have been organised for the officials of the Department of Foreign Affairs).
The State budget includes some specific items supporting cultural activities, both domestic and international, organised by the Department of Foreign Affairs, as well as activities organised by the Ministry of Education, Culture and University through the Cultural Institutions responsible to it: State Museums, Office for Social and Cultural Activities and State Library. Moreover, in particular cases, economic support is also offered by private entities, in particular by banking foundations. For further clarifications, see chapter 1.2.6 and chapter 1.1.
Last update: June, 2015
With regard to San Marino participation in the Council of Europe's multilateral cooperation programmes, the Ministry of Education and Culture has established a commission of experts made up of university professors, teachers and others, with the aim of planning initiatives for the six-month Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (November 2006 - May 2007). Moreover, the members of this commission are called upon to actively participate in the initiatives promoted by the Council of Europe and to represent the Republic within the international fora. In this context, a national coordinator has been appointed, with the task of taking part in the meetings on education relating to democratic citizenship and human rights and on the forms of responsible and active citizenship favouring the democratic participation of schools. Schools of every order and grade have developed a particularly rich programme on this theme.
Moreover, the training and refresher courses on education relating to human rights directed to teachers, started in September 2006, will continue to be offered. The Summer School, established in 2007, is organised by the Department of Training of San Marino University, in co-operation with the Department of Education Sciences of Bologna University, which has the aim of developing an educational reflection on the use of civil theatre as a cultural and teaching resource in different training contexts, in order to promote full and aware democratic citizenship. The Summer School offers meetings and workshops with the best artists involved in civil theatre, theatre laboratories, seminars with university professors and a theatre exhibition open to the public: the "Festival of Democratic Citizenship", which included four performances dealing with the issue of social inclusion / exclusion from different points of view. Moreover, a San Marino University professor has been entrusted by the Ministry of Education and Culture with the task of participating in the "Pestalozzi" training programme of the Council of Europe for education professionals, focused on intercultural education.
The Cooperation and Customs Union Agreement signed with the European Union allows wide margins with regard to cultural exchange programmes, such as Erasmus, although these are not regulated in a specific paragraph. Indeed, several San Marino young people have decided to study and specialise abroad. Like the citizens of other European States, San Marino young people can participate in foreign projects. The only difference concerns the possibility of receive financing, which cannot be granted to non-EU citizens. Therefore, San Marino State provides assistance by paying the relevant financial contributions. Moreover, in accordance with Law n. 5 of 21 January 2004, the Office for the Right to Study allocates grants for highly specialised courses both in Italy and abroad. This Law represents a useful instrument for those particularly gifted and talented young people wishing to specialise in their chosen field. San Marino Secondary School provides for the training abroad of students, in particular throughout the 5 years of the Linguistic Lyceum and during the fourth year of the Classical, Scientific and Economic Lyceum.
For the first time, in 2007 San Marino participated in the photography competition EPIM (Expérience Photographique Internationale des Monuments) organised by the Government of Catalonia and sponsored by the Council of Europe. The aim of the initiative is to stress the importance of the historical, cultural and monumental heritage of European States and the world, through a particular "photographic objective": that of the new generations. Photos taken by two girls attending the junior high school and high school have been chosen to represent San Marino in this important pedagogical project.
With regard to activities promoted by UNESCO, in 2006 San Marino has actively participated in the project "Human rights and education in the fight against poverty. Support to autonomy acquisition by girls and women from Niger". For this humanitarian initiative, in which other 4 small States participated, San Marino signed the letter of intention and offered an economic contribution. The amount allocated will be used to complete, in one of the poorest areas of the world, a comprehensive education project including: the building of primary schools in villages, with the necessary equipment and training courses for teachers; the implementation of agricultural activities; awareness raising campaigns on human rights and gender equality; adequate training concerning health and the fight against AIDS. The envisaged interventions will be monitored by UNESCO, in collaboration with the financing countries.
Congress of State Decision of 16 May 2006 agreed on San Marino's signing of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions and mandates the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the relevant fulfilments. At the time being, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Political Affairs and Economic Planning and the Ministry of Education and Culture, University and Social Affairs are working on the ratification of this Convention. The ratification of the United Nations Convention is part of a wider project which includes San Marino government policies supporting intercultural dialogue and pursued in the international fora where the country is represented. In particular, protection and promotion of diversity was among the priorities of San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe; even if the six-month Chairmanship is over, these issues and ideals are still very important, representing the basis of San Marino's social and political agenda.
In December 2008, on the occasion of the world celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, San Marino issued a specific set of commemorative stamps and financed a project for students in several countries in cooperation with the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Moreover, the most important document concerning the fundamental freedoms of all persons was celebrated also through a full programme of events, mainly thanks to the Institutions, the Lilliput Club and the National Commission for UNESCO. Besides public conferences and theatre performances, some initiatives for students were organised, including the distribution of a booklet with the text of the Charter of Rights and a competition developed involving essay writing, graphics, photography and drawing on the theme "We have learned to fly like birds, to swim like fish, but we have not learned the art to live like brothers." Considering the educational importance of these initiatives and the shared need to inform young people about, raise their awareness of and educate them on peaceful coexistence, these events were organised under the aegis of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which, over the last years, has carried out intense activity in favour of human rights and intercultural dialogue, both at a European level and in the wider international context of the United Nations.
At a multilateral level, in July 2011 San Marino adhered to the Lisbon Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region and ratified it in October 2011. This represents for San Marino a first fundamental step towards its entry into the planned European Higher Education Area (see also chapter 5.3), the objective of which is to promote the mobility of students and teachers and increase employability and competitiveness at an international level by eliminating some differences existing in the rights of San Marino students, who will then have more possibilities in terms of exchange programmes with European schools and recognition of school years spent abroad. The Training Department of San Marino University will be entrusted with the task of dealing with matters relative to the recognition of qualifications and of promoting exchange of information on our school system with other European centres. In this way, San Marino has started a process of international accreditation in order to have its qualifications recognised all over Europe and not only in neighbouring Italy. This is an important decision for the country, which is undergoing a delicate process of economic, cultural and social transformation and which is asking politicians to further promote the University, its consolidation and internationalisation, without forgetting areas still unexplored.
Last update: June, 2015
In 2005, the NUA Association (New contemporary art and research), composed of visual artists, musicians, theatre directors, political scientists, economists and cultural operators, launched and curated a project entitled "Going beyond the countries' art – small States on uncertain stereotypes". In this context, a first meeting gathering artists and institutions of contemporary art from small States of Europe was held in San Marino in November 2005. An observatory / network of artists and institutions from Andorra, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco and San Marino is being developed to encourage future cooperation. This network stems from the need to go beyond the countries' art in order to promote transnational exchanges of experiences, methodologies and instruments and to support art production and its development throughout Europe. The project has been realised in the context of ARTMIX 2005 download, a multidisciplinary exhibition curated by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, in collaboration with the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, and sponsored by the San Marino Foundation.
In 2009, the association NUA presented the project entitled "Little Constellation", an international network offering a vision of contemporary art in geo-cultural micro areas and in the small States of Europe. This initiative, supported by the San Marino Foundation and by the San Marino Institutions responsible for Foreign Affairs, Culture and Tourism, with the collaboration of the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, the University of San Marino, the IUAV of Venice and the San Marino National Commission for UNESCO, is intended as an international platform to favour co-productions and collaborations among artists, associations, museums, arts centres, public and private institutes and international foundations. The objective is to disseminate information and organise exhibitions, as well as to promote meetings and residence opportunities for artists. The first and most important event of this survey on contemporary art was the exhibition "Little Constellation", organised in March and April 2010 in Milan, at the Fabbrica del Vapore, followed by that in Malta, at the Malta Contemporary Art Foundation, which displayed works specifically created for this occasion and the most recent production of more than 20 artists from various countries. "Little Constellation" - the first publication dealing with contemporary art in the Small States of Europe - was presented in San Marino at the State Library, but also at the MIART in Milan, at the Tate Modern in London, at the CIA.IS - Centre for Icelandic Art, as well as at the main international fairs of contemporary art, including in Berlin, London, New York, Basel and Brussels. This publication has attracted much interest and appreciation at an international level and now it is sold in the major bookshops of contemporary art museums.
Today, "Little Constellation" is also an archive. In early 2011, the Little Constellation Library Archive was inaugurated at the seat of the NUA Association. This is the first specialised research and archive centre, which can be consulted free of charge (the digital catalogue will soon be available on the Internet web site) and which gathers about 400 books, including some rare catalogues and publications on contemporary art, collected over seven years of activity all over Europe, especially in the Small States of Europe. "Little Constellation" has given back to San Marino a social area dedicated to culture and research. This has been possible thanks to the attention and support of public and private bodies, which have invested in an innovative artistic project, so that it could develop into a common heritage. "Little Constellation" has also contributed to the promotion of the Republic of San Marino and its institutions as a centre able to create an important network of relations among artists, contemporary art curators and international cultural institutions. In the first half of 2012, the City of Genoa has been chosen to display the exhibition "The Land seen from the Sea" of the network "Little Constellation", with works by 34 artists from the 13 countries involved and side-events such as workshops, debates and meetings. The exhibition in Genoa has been conceived as the end result of the workshops hosted by various European institutions since 2004 and, at the same time, as a starting point for new investigations in the field of contemporary art research. Therefore, this exhibition is not an end in itself, but it is part of a joint working process, which will lead to the future international steps of the project. In December 2012, the network "Little Constellation" went to Gibraltar, by invitation of the Ministry of Culture, to realise an educational and relational project in the local cultural context. The programme included workshops open to the public, students, researchers and artists, with the aim of favouring a debate and investigation on contemporary arts in this extremely peculiar country. In this context, the book entitled "The Land seen from the Sea" was presented. This book includes the results of research activities, laboratories and exhibitions promoted by the network between 2011 and 2012, including the exhibition organised at the Contemporary Art Museum of Villa Croce in Genoa. In 2013 the National Gallery of Iceland hosted the exhibition of Little Constellation "Subjective Maps / Disappearances", opening the Reykjavik Arts Festival. It was a contemporary art exhibition presenting 35 unique artists' books, created for the occasion by 37 artists from geo-political micro-areas and the small States of Europe. Furthermore, in the same year, San Marino hosted the contemporary art exhibition "/ti'tano /little constellation", showcasing the works by 30 international young artists under the age of 35. The exhibition gave a detailed snapshot of the artistic scene of geo-cultural systems similar to San Marino. The programme included a number of events taking place in the Titano Theatre and being part of the research project of the San Marino network as an "instrument to let unexpected voices be heard in the international critical and artistic debate". The exhibition was accompanied by a publication.
In 2015 Gibraltar is hosting the "Little Constellation" and the project "Listening to the Sirens" was inaugurated: an international space dedicated to contemporary art, with a two-year exhibition programme including works of art by artists from the Small States participating in the network. It is also the first bilateral project established between San Marino and Gibraltar. The government hopes that this cultural event will broaden the relations between the two countries, both politically and economically.
Among the main activities of the SMIAF Project, aimed at promoting culture, tourism, innovation, training and professional skills for the citizens of San Marino, in particular for its young people, are the San Marino International Arts Festival (see chapter 1.3.3 and chapter 7.2.3), the "Festival of Knowledge – SmArt" (see chapter 2.1),the management of the information desk InformaGiovani Network San Marino and the participation in European networks of cultural organisations, such as Open Street Forum, F.N.A.S. Italia and networks of European projects for ongoing training in line with the "Europe 2020" objectives of the European Commission, with particular reference to the action "New Skills for New Jobs".