2. Current cultural affairs
Last update: June, 2015
Policy priorities in the cultural sector have been mainly linked to the government's aim to foster economic development in San Marino. They are:
- interventions in the sector of public works and infrastructures with regard to: creation of a new museum centre in the City of San Marino based on a project designed by Architect Tadao Ando, connecting the State Museum, the Pianello cisterns, the Liburnis' Garden and the Crossbowers' Galleries; conversion of the "Turismo" cinema (near the historic centre) into a multi-functional area; town-planning enhancement of the areas "Cava Antica" and "Cava degli Umbri" (within the walls of the ancient town); functional recovery of the premises of Palazzo Kursaal; rationalisation and putting together of university branches;
- encouragement of the joint management of the whole museum system, so that it can become internationally attractive (Modern Art National Gallery, recovery of the Museum dedicated to Garibaldi and of the Philatelic and Numismatic Museum);
- reorganisation of the social centres, also through integration with other cultural Institutes;
- development of the theatre sector;
- establishment of private enterprises in the sector of day and night entertainment, including cinemas;
- adoption of regulations and agreements governing private-public partnerships in order to help promote volunteer and independent initiatives;
- with regard to the territorial tourist offer, event promotion policies should be a priority; to this end, it is necessary to involve public and private resources in the organisation of consolidated events, also of an international nature, especially by exploiting arts as an attractive and qualifying element;
- promotion of highly prestigious events and involvement of San Marino in the international cultural and artistic debates;
- introduction of more comprehensive legislation for the management and protection of collective artistic heritage, that is goods having a historical, cultural, artistic and architectural value, thus providing for their recording, description, cataloguing and relevant protection modalities;
- enhancement of the archaeological heritage, by favouring specific studies on San Marino sites and preparing ad hoc visits;
- recovery and organisation of archives of public and private interest with the use of adequate structures;
- strengthening of the collaboration with the Adriatic Riviera and the Montefeltro with a view to developing a comprehensive project to enhance the landscape, culture, arts and fascinating features of the most ancient Republic in the world;
- strengthening of the link between tourist and cultural activities, including those that can be promoted through the University;
- review of the regulations of the Supervisory Commission to extend its control;
- enhancement and strengthening of the San Marino Radio and Television Broadcasting Company also through an assessment of the best possible strategic partnership options, in the light of the on-going technological developments and of internationally available opportunities for new forms of broadcasting and multimedia collaboration;
- amendment of the publishing legislation to promote the sector, guarantee professionalism of operators and protect citizens;
- development of the library service through the opportunities offered by the Library Network of Emilia Romagna and San Marino, by strengthening services on the territory and adapting the structures;
- management of the property "Historic Centre of San Marino and Mount Titano" – included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO on 7 July 2008 (see chapter 3.1 and chapter 2.9 for details) – through the transposition of the requirements guaranteeing that the Republic continues to be part of the List and the definition of a specific regulation for "peculiar goods" at the basis of the UNESCO recognition;
- creation of a new development model combining culture, cultural heritage and creativity together with tourism and new entrepreneurship (see the Cultural District project hereunder); and
- support to national cultural events enhancing the attractiveness of the country, co-financed by the State and provided with special services (art. 66 of 2015 Budget Law).
The Ministry of Culture has worked on the reorganisation of cultural institutes, with the aim to unite in a single body all administrative, organisational and structural functions common to all cultural institutes. By doing so, the sector was reorganised and simplified, also with a view to achieving savings and implementing Law no. 188/2011 (Reform of the Structure and the Organisational Model of the Public Administration), without actual mergers. Indeed, such mergers could jeopardise the role of the State Museum, Archive and Library, which require highly specialised management skills.
Like many other States, over the last years San Marino has suffered from the effects of the global crisis, which of course has had increasing repercussions on the State budget, thus requiring cuts in public expenditure. These cuts have impacted on cultural investments. For this reason, the expenditure for external advice has been partly cut, with particular reference to the cinema review "Occhi sul Cinema, incontri col cinema d'autore" concerning art cinema (see chapter 6.1) and the Theatre Season.
As regards this sector, reduced budgets required choices that, however, have proven not to be negative. The State, indeed, can no longer afford to organise theatre programmes with numerous performances or to support additional theatre performances attracting only niche audiences. However, in San Marino theatre audiences are increasing (+ 33.7% recorded in 2012), notwithstanding the reduced number of performances during the season. In spite of the economic crisis, students' interest is growing exponentially and online purchases of tickets have increased. Also, ticket sales are changing: audiences prefer to buy individual tickets for shows of interest instead of season tickets.
The international economic scenario is all but encouraging. During 2011 and 2012, the government, and more generally the political class, has expressed the intention to change this scenario through arts and culture, which should be based on new development models. The idea is to continue to organise artistic and cultural initiatives, aimed at successfully promoting development and favouring an alternative economic development, despite the strong awareness that financial resources are becoming more and more limited. In this sense, it would be desirable to create a San Marino artistic and cultural centre and an exhibition area larger than that of the SUMS Building (for further details, see chapter 1.3.3).
The Budget Law approved in December 2013 and the subsequent so-called "Development Decree" contain the project of a "cultural district", defined by the Government as a "substrate for the growth of businesses that are the backbone of the knowledge economy" in order to reinvigorate San Marino's economy and create a new image of the country. The Government is working on this opportunity – considered by some as the only possible choice – which counts on culture to relaunch the San Marino economy: a district providing for incentives, financing and tax reliefs for cultural associations and artists, as well as a regulatory framework creating a friendly environment for the development of businesses, not only cultural ones, and the continuation of their activities. The synergy between the public and the private sector is fundamental: on the one hand, the State ensures pluralism of all artistic expressions, on the other, culture can finance itself to avoid being affected by cuts due to the crisis. The project of the cultural district encompasses a vast territory, covering the entire Montefeltro region.
A lot has been done to establish this district in order to create job opportunities in the cultural sector such as: the functional reorganization of Cultural Institutes (State Museums, Library, Archives and former Office of Social and Cultural Activities (UASC), converted into the Performing Arts Institute, a single Operational Unit responsible for the management of human and material resources); University reform (which has generated growing cultural opportunities, new chances for local graduates and support to the development projects); introduction of important innovations in the education system (training on the issues of dyslexia, special educational needs and multilingualism); incentives for the establishment of social enterprises (cooperatives and associations set up to flank school and families in cultural and educational processes); assignment of public spaces for the promotion of cultural heritage to social enterprises (through tenders for creative projects that can stimulate the development of cultural and creative entrepreneurship). The district is under construction; State interventions are focussed on providing spaces, staff, streamlined legislation and new legislation on start-up companies, without public funds.
As a first concrete step of the cultural district project, San Marino hosted the "Festival of Knowledge – SmArt" in August 2013. The Festival gathered young artists and different cultural associations in a single great performance in the historic centre, thus linking culture with development, labour and business and indicating it as one of the key drivers for the future of San Marino. It consisted of a series of events to promote the human resources of the territory and to boost, through cultural exchange, economic capabilities based on innovation and creativity. This is a fundamental requirement for the development of entrepreneurship, youth employment and professional skills and offers job opportunities to young people who , supported by professionals, have explored and tried new professions and skills. Also in this case, cooperation among the public, private sectors and citizens is fundamental (see the PPP system, chapter 1.1) .
Culture as a sector of the economy and basis for future development was also the theme of the conference on the knowledge economy held on 8 April 2013 and attended by several representatives of San Marino and the Italian public and cultural life. During the event, jointly promoted by San Marino and the Emilia-Romagna region, the project of the cultural district was presented for the first time and San Marino was described as the ideal place to establish highly innovative businesses in the field of creativity. According to experts, San Marino, despite its small dimensions, has the potential to make such choices, since creative industry does not require large areas, but favourable conditions for its development (laws, physical infrastructure, technologies, a dynamic cultural environment, etc.). Being a sovereign State San Marino has its specific characteristics, including its own policies, and is an attractive place for economic and artistic activities, able to develop and attract creative businesses.
This information will be published as soon as possible.
This information will be published as soon as possible.
Last update: June, 2015
The State Archive has been working since early 2004 to convert documents into digital format. This will enable users to acquire a better knowledge of the documentary sources in the Archive and prevent their deterioration, while promoting their use and dissemination in electronic form. An archive series - the historical population register, old judgements, Status animarum (parish family books), the Captains Regent's correspondence from the 14th to the 16th century and the Registers of the Great and General Council from 1500 to 1899 -, have been included in the web site. Some of these documents represent working tools that are particularly interesting for San Marino citizens, while others are aimed at scholars outside the Republic. In April 2005, a popular petition was filed to conduct a study on the strengthening, adjustment and modernisation of the State Archive so as to protect and safeguard the heritage preserved therein. In July 2005, the San Marino Parliament accepted the petition and urged the government to proceed with the study. As a consequence, in autumn 2005, the Ministry of Internal Affairs rented premises to adequately house and preserve all documents and correspondence from the Public Administration offices, as State property. In 2012, San Marino Parliament approved the law on "Protection and preservation of the Republic's documentary and archival heritage" (for further information, see chapter 3.1).
The State Library maintains the database "Sebina" containing 17 500 bibliographic references available in its collection. Input to the database has slowed down in recent years due to a re-evaluation of the system, updating appropriate software and the development of a special interface to enable the database to be put online.
Since 2003, the Permanent Study Centre on Emigration has promoted a plan to devise an information system for research and the management of collected data and documents. It is a "Memory Archive", conceived in a way so as to overcome the physical and logistical constraints of traditional museums, and make it available all over the world through the web. San Marino communities abroad have access to this archive. Its availability on the web enables non resident citizens to carry out personal research and / or studies. Most importantly, it allows those wishing to cooperate to send documentary material or data on emigration collected on-site, in order to complete and enrich the database of the Permanent Centre.
The Law on Electronic Documents and Digital Signatures, passed in 2005, is a single text which is part of a broader project on IT security, distribution of Internet services on the public data network, introduction of document e-archiving services and interactive provision of services to citizens. This important law stipulates some principles at the basis of a new technological and cultural transformation project. Indeed, the Public Administration reform, through an innovation and modern approach to the use of documents, will be, most of all, a cultural challenge, which will radically change communication systems among citizens, enterprises and the central administration. The result will be a higher level of quality, efficiency and effectiveness and a complete transformation of the approach to and use of documents.
The Ente Cassa di Fetano Foundation and the State Archive have been cooperating to build an online digital archive enabling an increasing number of people to access the rich San Marino archival resource. Four surveys have already been completed covering the period 1865-1947. The archive of vital records was further completed with the collection of the "Books of Souls" which were kept by parish priests in the second half of the 18th century. Hopefully all this documentation will be integrated by other historical records kept in parish archives.
In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Culture started a research project to survey San Marino cultural goods. This work, which is being continuously updated, aims at collating the public and private heritage by classifying it into artistic groups (antiques, pictures, painting collections, etc.). The Ministry intends to digitalise the material collected over the years so that it can be accessed through the website of the Ministry.
On the occasion of the 130th anniversary of its establishment, Cassa di Risparmio promoted the project entitled "Alceste", to support and favour the use of multimedia devices in the Republic's schools. Thanks to a Convention signed in February 2013 with the Ministry of Education and Culture, all schools in San Marino are now provided with multimedia interactive whiteboards, in order to effectively promote innovation in education and to strengthen and motivate students' learning. With regard to information technologies, San Marino schools are already in line with the best European standards. This modernisation process has been further accelerated by the introduction of the above-mentioned whiteboards, which represent a historical innovation and a precious tool for training.
2 March 2014 marked the end of an era for San Marino cinematography, being the day of the switch from film to digital, and therefore of the transition to D-Cinema. This resulted in the simultaneous termination of projections in 3 of the 4 cinemas on the territory. Only the Cinema Concordia in Borgo Maggiore, more modern than the others and centrally located, has been equipped with digital technology for the screening of films. The spending review has certainly favoured the transition to digital, with related costs much lower and quality far superior. The choice was also made, however, to streamline the use of cinemas. The beginning of the digital age was then accompanied by some changes relating to ticket prices, which have remained unchanged, and the introduction of special promotions including a reduction by 20% of the cost of tickets on Fridays. In addition, on weekends, additional screening hours have been added.
At the end of 2014 a pilot project on the State Museum was launched, combining new technologies and San Marino cultural traditions, a mixture of "innovation and culture". The multimedia "app 4guest museum", available in different languages and free of charge, provides for each work and object a file containing multimedia contents in order to make visits more interesting. The project is expected to be extended to other museums, in order to enrich on-site visits, to stimulate curiosity and serve the interests of a wide range of visitors.
In the same period another project was launched concerning the second tower, called "Cesta": a 3D virtual journey outside and inside the fortress, discovering the collection of ancient and modern weapons exhibited. This three-dimensional project is currently available on Facebook, in order to make visits more interesting for the tourists and to stimulate the curiosity of potential visitors. The idea is to extend the project to the three towers and to the scenic routes connecting them and to advertise it on various promotional web channels, social networks and multimedia totems.
In April 2015 the first part of the inventory of the artistic and historical goods contained in the monumental building of Basilica del Santo (Saint Marin's Basilica), dated between the 15th and the 21st centuries, was completed (for more information, see chapter 3.1). 1 700 goods, including vestments, liturgical texts and objects, paintings, sculptures, furniture, and documents, have been cleaned and an analysis carried out of their characteristics and state of conservation; the objects were then labeled and entered in a digital database. The archives now contain all necessary information, including location and high-resolution images, allowing for in-depth analysis without handling or damaging the goods.
Last update: June, 2015
For intercultural dialogue, see chapter 1.2.6, where reference is made to the six-month programme of the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
Following its active participation in the field of intercultural dialogue and cooperation, San Marino became a member of the Executive Committee of the North-South Centre (European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity) of the Council of Europe for the period 2008-2010. The objective of this body is to encourage cooperation and solidarity among the countries and to improve education and information concerning interdependence among the world's inhabitants. The commitment undertaken in the intercultural field during the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe has continued even after the end of this mandate. Indeed, San Marino has been entrusted with the task of coordinating the annual meetings on the religious dimension of intercultural dialogue between religious communities and civil society established by the Council of Europe.
In the context of youth policies, in 2000, the Ministry of Education and Culture awarded (by implementing Law 5/2004 on the Right to Study) some travel grants to students enrolled in secondary schools and universities to enable them to participate in training courses in foreign languages and culture abroad. The objectives of these grants are: to promote personal development during summer holiday periods; to develop abilities and skills which cannot be fully exploited during the normal training period; and to strengthen knowledge through direct experience with the cultural and social life of other countries.
At an international level, in May 2000, San Marino signed the European Convention on the Promotion of a Trans-national Long-term Voluntary Service for Young People, thus recognising the educational aim of voluntary service at NGOs abroad, including some intercultural learning elements. From a domestic point of view, special provisions regulate the activities performed by volunteers: Law n. 97 of 1989 regulates cooperation between volunteers and public entities (see also chapter 6.4), while Law n. 142 of 1985 refers to volunteers working in cooperation projects based on bilateral or multilateral agreements with developing countries. Both laws set forth general rules of a humanitarian and social character (for further details, see chapter 4.1.5).
The government programme for the XXVII legislature (2008-2012), in the section dedicated to foreign policy and international relations, justifies the assignment of responsibilities for peace to the Minister of Justice, Relations with Local Authorities and Information, by entrusting him / her with the task of promoting, also in collaboration with volunteer associations and through international cooperation, any useful initiative by volunteers and associations.
In October 2009, a group of San Marino citizens submitted a popular petition (Istanza d'Arengo) for the establishment of a Peace Civil Corps. According to the promoters, this initiative would be in line with the traditions of liberty, peace and neutrality of San Marino. The Istanza d'Arengo was approved by the Great and General Council (the San Marino Parliament) in March 2010 and subsequently the competent Minister reported back to the Permanent Parliamentary Commission (see chapter 1.2.2) the intention to accept the spirit of this initiative. In this regard, the petitioners are preparing a draft law to be submitted to the institutional bodies.
At an operational level, some San Marino sections of international volunteer associations have been established on the territory, such as Fair Trade groups, Mani Tese, Unsolomondo and others, which organise some initiatives in collaboration with Italian NGOs, by co-financing wide-ranging projects. One of the most recent cases is the Preda Italia Association, which promotes and supports, both in Italy and San Marino, an important comprehensive humanitarian and social project. The San Marino group contributed to raising awareness on this project by promoting meetings and debates and involving public institutions and, in turn, it received State sponsorship and support. The reform of non-profit and volunteer organisations has been debated for a long time within the Parliament. This issue is included in the government programme of the winning coalition and was mentioned again by the opposition parties during the first parliamentary session of the XXVIII legislature (for further information, see also chapter 6.4).
In order to celebrate the 2013 United Nations Day, the Government promoted an international conference on the role of the Republic of San Marino in the promotion of intercultural dialogue, in the light of its century-old democratic tradition and protection of human rights. The conference, called for by the Ministries of Information and Culture, which organised it together with the United Nations Regional Information Centre (UNRIC) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), focused on San Marino's contribution to the resolution of international challenges and the religious dimension of intercultural dialogue, strongly backed by San Marino during its six-month Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. The conference was also centred on the promotion of social justice and development through intercultural dialogue, as well as on San Marino migration experience as an opportunity for interaction between men and women and dialogue among civilisations. The event recalled the visit paid few months earlier by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and underlined the importance of cooperation among UN system partners, local public authorities and civil society.
Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes
Intercultural dialogue is a recurrent theme in several fields. At a political level, promoting intercultural and interreligious dialogue was among the priorities of the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe during the semester November 2006-May 2007. In particular, as stated by the former Minister of Foreign Affairs in his speech on the occasion of the transfer of Chairmanship ceremony, "The Republic of San Marino intends to support the Council of Europe's aim to establish peace based on justice and international co-operation, which are vital to the survival of human society and a civilisation devoted to the moral and spiritual values behind the European ideals of individual freedom, political freedom and respect for democracy. Promoting intercultural and inter-religious dialogue is the most tangible means of furthering the task of upholding these values". In particular, the San Marino Chairmanship intended to "encourage the transmission of the idea of peace conquered by Europe over sixty years ago, to promote peaceful coexistence and, based on San Marino's tradition of hospitality – best illustrated when it welcomed 100 000 refugees to its small land in World War II – make an important contribution to a peaceful and prosperous future". In view of the evident connection between migration patterns and plural societies, the San Marino Chairmanship also endeavoured to support initiatives and activities aimed at analysing the theme of intercultural dialogue and proposing appropriate solutions. In this regard, San Marino organised, in October 2006, an international Conference on the relationship between emigration and development, with the participation of the Council of Europe Secretariat.
In line with its international mission of promoting intercultural and interreligious dialogue and after its Presidency of the Council of Europe, San Marino organised in 2014 the exhibition "Abraham's children: Jewish, Christian and Islamic contemporary sacred art". Six artists were invited to expose their works representing the spiritual inspiration of their arts and the desire of their religions to coexist peacefully. The works were exhibited in San Marino and in Assisi (Italy), showing the values and intentions shared by these two places. The event had two main goals, a cultural and a political one: increasing the inter-regional dialogue in order to achieve a better balance.
Following the path traced by the Warsaw Summit, which acknowledged the great importance of intercultural dialogue in the broad sense of the term, in 2006 San Marino signed the Faro Convention on the value of cultural heritage for society. More specifically, the Republic supports the affirmation of "plural European citizenship", in close liaison with the conservation and enhancement of Europe's cultural heritage, based on intercultural and inter-religious dialogue. Indeed, the emergence of "plural European citizenship" can contribute to mutual knowledge and understanding among different cultures, both inside Europe and in its relations with extra-European realities. The Republic of San Marino, with its history of freedom, self-government and democracy, is particularly sensitive to this issue. Education in "plural European citizenship" must therefore turn differences to account as instruments of positive and peaceful human development, as opposed to prejudice and intolerance, barring the way to sterile sameness and the ironing out of differences. In pursuit of these aims, the San Marino Chairmanship organised in Strasbourg, in March 2007, a study conference on the cultural and identity-related aspects of the Italian language in the small States and small territorial entities.
At a political level, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs underlined in his speech that the role of education is essential in instilling the values of tolerance, human rights and respect for others into the hearts and minds of Europe's youth, in the knowledge that only mutual recognition, respect and understanding, transcending all "differences", can lastingly guarantee justice and peace. In this spirit, San Marino is aware that it is necessary to educate the young not to be indifferent towards differences and, for this reason, ad hoc youth policies have been recently added to the government attributions.
Domestically, with regard to schools, the plan for the XXVII legislature - proposed again in the government programme of the present legislature - underlines that social and economic development, as well as intercultural dialogue and globalisation, require a continuum of training, research and cultural promotion activities in order to guarantee qualitative knowledge and skills. Therefore, the State is committed to continue ensuring that the primary aim of training should be the acquisition of common knowledge and skills, while guaranteeing equal education opportunities for all. Moreover, an ad hoc paragraph refers to the connection between schools and the labour and business world. In this regard, the main objective of the government is to promote and facilitate the exchange of students and teachers at a European level, in order to increase cultural, job and guidance opportunities. With regard to intercultural issues, in 2009 a group of San Marino citizens submitted a popular petition (Istanza d'Arengo) concerning the Republic's participation in the training programmes of Intercultura, an Italian non-profit public benefit organisation among the major organisations dealing with international exchange programmes for students, teachers, parents and citizens in general. The objective of the petitioners was to favour meetings and dialogue among people of different cultural traditions, with a view to helping them to understand each other and collaborate in a constructive way. Following the approval of the Istanza d'Arengo by the Great and General Council (Parliament), the competent Government Representative adopted, within six months of said approval, the consequent measures and reported back to the Permanent Parliamentary Commission (see chapter 1.2.2) on the willingness of the Ministry and of the San Marino school system to start and support a process of integration of the various intercultural groups, that is to say the promotion and recognition of study experiences made by High School students abroad and the inclusion of foreign students into higher classes. This has laid the foundations for an increasing openness of San Marino schools to the outside world.
For more information on minorities living in San Marino and their integration in the Republic's social and cultural context, see chapter 2.6.
San Marino attaches considerable importance to the promotion of dialogue among cultures and religions, as a fundamental instrument to build peace. In April 2008, a Council of Europe meeting on the religious dimension of intercultural dialogue was held in Strasbourg. The initiative implemented the provisions of the final declaration of the European Conference on the Religious Dimension of Intercultural Dialogue, which took place in San Marino in April 2007. The meeting was attended by representatives of Christian, Jewish, Muslim religious communities, representatives of European and international NGOs, European mass media and experts, as well as representatives of the European Commission, the OSCE and of the Alliance of Civilisations. On the same occasion, a special stamp was presented by the Republic of San Marino to celebrate the year 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue. A commemorative coin was also minted and put into circulation.
The government of the XXVI legislature also proposed San Marino as an international place for dialogue and relations among peoples and cultures.
The support by the former government and the institutions of the positive actions of cultural diversity is clearly expressed in the actions carried out, as well as in the declarations. It is in this spirit that the Minister of Education invited teachers and operators of San Marino schools to pay particular attention to the education to human rights in the school programmes. The present Minister of Education and Culture is moving in the same direction.
The debate on peaceful coexistence and diversity of ethnic groups and religions also involved schools. Based on the example of English Summer School, in 2014 San Marino High School organised an extra-curricular workshop on peace education that dealt with geopolitical, historical, social, political and economic themes. In a climate of cooperation and socialization, teachers and students talked about international conflicts and non-violent solutions from the macro-social point of view, testing solutions also applicable to the micro-social context.
The support offered by the government to public initiatives of single groups or associations, aimed at presenting aspects (related to culture, art and food) of the different cultural expressions, has now become part of the ordinary social and cultural activity of the country and it concretely shows how the Authorities acknowledge the positive actions of cultural diversity.
In February 2007, the San Marino government adopted the "Revised European Charter on the Participation of Young People in Local and Regional Life". The text contains different parts directly referring to "cultural diversity" and "intercultural dialogue", which deserve maximum attention and respect.
In July 2007, the Framework Law for the Implementation of Youth Policies met the need to plan suitable initiatives aimed at favouring the full and free development of the personality of young people at cultural, social and economic level, by recognising the different forms of expression and stressing the importance of associations and non-profit organisations. The Law provides for the creation of opportunities for younger generations in different contexts: in civil society, by promoting active citizenship, respect for diversity, intercultural and inter-religious dialogue, etc.; in the fields of education and training; in terms of access to the labour market, and; in the field of international mobility.
Moreover, there are many fields in which the different Ministries, together with the Foundations of Banking Institutions, commit to supporting cultural diversity, also with extremely visible actions. In this regard, some recent initiatives can be recalled, such as the promotion of a public competition for San Marino artists or for artists residing on the territory to create a sculpture dedicated to the value of dialogue among different cultures and peoples, as a sine qua non condition to build peace. The sculpture has been located in the centre of the roundabout of Borgo Maggiore, a town at the foot of Mount Titano. It will assume a very strong symbolical and ideal meaning, since it will be placed in a strategic transit point for anyone going to the city centre of San Marino (every year, about three million tourists visit the Republic). For further information on the competition and the sculpture, see chapter 1.3.3 and chapter 7.2.3.
Another initiative, promoted by the preceding Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the participation of other Ministries and public sectors, has been the creation, in the city centre of San Marino, of a place that can freely be used by visitors and citizens for meditation and prayer. This place has no religious symbols and is open to any person, regardless of his / her faith.
The opportunity to join specific international campaigns, like the one entitled "All Different - All Equal" promoted by the Council of Europe in 2006, has enabled the government authorities to coordinate their efforts and contribution in the adoption of specific decisions and programmes.
In San Marino there are no specific institutions responsible for developing programmes to promote intercultural and inter-religious dialogue. The most involved institutions are, de facto, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, of Culture and Education and of Tourism, which however have to collaborate with each other and adopt common decisions in the Congress of State, to which they regularly submit proposals and initiatives to be approved, for the necessary collaborations at an institutional level, for the authorisation of costs etc…
The Youth Forum was established in February 2008 following implementation of the Framework Law of July 2007. The Forum is a government-controlled body involving young people having different views and belonging to any movement or group, which aims at improving and developing conditions for San Marino young people by protecting their rights and defending the common interest in public policies. The Forum intends to favour education for active citizenship and promote public spirit and participation in social life.
With regard to art, San Marino is a founding member of the Biennale of Young Artists from Europe and the Mediterranean (see chapter 7.2.1). Starting from 1992, numerous San Marino young artists have had important opportunities in terms of exchange of views and growth thanks to the Biennale, which focuses on the development of peaceful relations among different cultural groups and promotes intercultural dialogue through art.
Intercultural dialogue was also the focus of an arts exhibition with two significant functions: to investigate art making in San Marino and to connect with international artistic circuits. In 2010, thanks to the exhibition "Guest", international artists could indeed display their works alongside San Marino artists. "Guest" has inaugurated a new way of establishing a dialogue between local artistic excellence and external professionals by offering them an opportunity in terms of exchange of views, growth and enrichment.
In 2015 San Marino participated in the 56th edition of the Venice Biennale with the "San Marino-China Friendship Project", a sort of artistic-cultural twinning between one of the smallest and one of the biggest republics in the world, highlighting the need for dialogue between peoples through art. Eleven San Marino and Chinese artists shared their personal considerations on modern conflicts, mostly related to religious and political-economic issues (see also chapter 7.2.1).
Last update: June, 2015
A new democratic and pluralistic education system is described in Decree n. 57 of March 2006, "Adoption of Curricula for a New Learning Model in San Marino Schools", aimed at achieving a balance between a local and global dimension and enabling schools to provide access to knowledge on an equal footing. At the same time, differences must be promoted within schools, as well as a dialogue among different cultures. Hence, the traditional and original objective of schools to create citizens capable of acknowledging their well-defined "national" identity is now increasingly intermingling with the objective to present new forms of citizenship, in a context where globalisation progresses to the point that it involves economic, political, cultural and religious fields.
The awareness of personal identity - which San Marino schools are considering - enables people to look at others without prejudice, in a spirit of knowledge, understanding and solidarity. Indeed, identity elements also constitute a prerequisite to positively face the problems of interaction among cultures. Intercultural education is therefore understood not as the fading away of personal origins and heritage of symbols, but rather as an encouragement to accede to and understand the symbols of others. In practice, all levels of San Marino schools, in line with the above-mentioned methodologies, address the issues of education on citizenship and intercultural dialogue, by preferring the in-depth study of situations "closer" to students: for example, they carefully study the countries of origin of the small number of foreign children present in the classrooms, in order to facilitate mutual knowledge and their integration in the local context.
Another innovative aspect of San Marino schools is the introduction of multilingualism. With Delegated Decree no.7 of 26 January 2015, the San Marino Parliament approved the launch of an experimental three-year multilingualism project at all school levels, from nursery to secondary school. The goal of the project is to set at every school level a multilingual learning environment in order to use Italian and English, and other languages established in the curricular training or spoken by foreign people attending the schools, as vehicular languages. By strengthening all cognitive processes, schools aim at promoting integration and coexistence in an increasingly multicultural society.
The Training Department of San Marino University offers training courses and study sessions concerning multicultural education, respect for diversities and the value of tolerance, aimed at various professionals, including teachers. The school year 2006-07 was inaugurated with an opening address on human rights and, in parallel, the Minister of Education, Culture and University circulated a letter containing recommendations on the approach to the issue of human rights.
Education on tolerance and respect for differences is not an isolated subject, but rather represents one of the fundamental values, which must be part of all subject matters. Every single school, both primary and secondary, carries out interdisciplinary education projects aimed at promoting these values. In practice, the presence in Kindergartens of some children from other nations represents an occasion to propose intercultural education activities. Some didactic projects concern life and traditions of other countries, dances of other peoples, colours of other worlds, with the educational objective to promote and encourage positive behaviour and curiosity about different cultures. The intercultural educational objectives of Junior Schools concern awareness raising on the existence of different ways of expressing and communicating, the creation of a positive relational climate, the willingness to dialogue with "different" people, education on the values of civil coexistence, freedom, collaboration and respect for the others and becoming aware of one's own personal and cultural identity. In recent years, some intercultural projects have been developed in various subject matters, such as humanities (reading of novels concerning integration, meetings with foreigners, films on integration), English language (presentation of a multicultural calendar, in-depth study of the main articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child), French language (reading and analysis of interviews with young immigrants, reading of books on racism) and music (listening and performance of pieces belonging to the tradition of various countries).
In 2007, in the framework of the educational project "Education for Democratic Citizenship" planned for schools on the occasion of the six-month Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Documentation Centre of Kindergartens in collaboration with the Office for Social and Cultural Activities (UASC) and the Company of Associated Artists "Teatro Ragazzi", proposed the show "Popone e l'elefante". This theatre performance, inspired by Theodor Seuss Geisel's fairy tale, intended to communicate to children, in a joyful way, the issue of interculturalism, protection of minorities and their rights. In 2008, the theatre performance "The butterfly Esmeralda" was staged for children from primary schools. It dealt with the issues of intercultural dialogue and diversity, describing them in a funny and simple way. In the following years, other events on multiculturalism were organised as meeting and learning opportunities. In particular, some performances specifically targeted to children were jointly staged by UASC, kindergartens, elementary schools and theatre companies with a view to providing children, teachers and artists with an occasion to share emotions and fantasy. The objective was to stimulate, through theatre action, the imagination of children as an important training element for their cultural growth and to help them develop the habit of going to the theatre.
A new laboratory of linguistic and multicultural activities was organised for schools in the summer of 2008. The project involved visits by San Marino young citizens living in communities abroad. It provided educational support by developing entertaining and recreational initiatives enabling children to become familiar with different cultures and languages. Children were involved in games, music and singing activities, learning something about the culture of the United States of America, France and Argentina. The initiative was proposed by the Consulta of San Marino Citizens Abroad and was sponsored by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of Education and Culture.
In January 2006, with Decree no. 20 of 27 January, the Heads of State and government established the Annual International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust. Every year, on 27 January, a number of school and cultural initiatives are organised to honour the memory of the victims of the Holocaust focused in particular on respect for religious, cultural and ethnic diversity. In 2008, a memorial stone was unveiled in the ancient Jewish ghetto in San Marino historic centre. Subsequently, in 2009, the San Marino National Commission for UNESCO organised, in collaboration with other bodies of the neighbouring Region Emilia Romagna and under the scientific direction of the Mémorial de la Shoah in Paris, a refresher seminar on the history of racism. It was an ad hoc training project aimed at history teachers with a view to encouraging them to reflect on how modern racism and anti-Semitism have contributed to laying the cultural foundations for the 20th century's genocides. This seminar was followed by another meeting to examine in greater detail the historical and cultural causes for the spreading of racist thought in the 20th century. In the following years, other conferences and exhibitions were organised to celebrate the Memory Day, always in collaboration with the Mémorial de la Shoah, the most ancient European institution concerning documentation and research about the Shoah. The San Marino National Commission for UNESCO promoted some initiatives to respond to the calls contained in a UNESCO Resolution and in other documents of the United Nations and the Council of Europe, which invite States to actively engage in the preservation of the memory and knowledge of the Shoah. Over the years, the number of initiatives connected with this Memory Day has considerably increased, with events that start some days before and continue after 27 January. These are commemorative events, which also intend to express a condemnation, as testified to by the witnesses and stories related to any form of violation of fundamental human rights. Among the 2012 events, worth mentioning are: the presentation of the volume entitled "Il viale delle rose: storie di ebrei rifugiati nella Repubblica di San Marino durante la Seconda guerra mondiale" by Giuseppe Marzi, which tells the stories of some Jews who took refuge in the Republic of San Marino during the Second World War, in the presence of Luciano Caro, Chief Rabbi of Ferrara, and Franco Bonilaur, Director of the Jewish Museum in Bologna; the screening of the finalists' work and of the winner of the first edition of the video art competition entitled "Senz'appello", promoted by the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, the theme of which was an artistic reflection on the persistence of totalitarianism, ideologies and political systems aimed at the relativisation of individuals and the denial of their fundamental rights. The works selected during this first international video art competition were also projected (without audio) during the concert of the "San Marino Ensemble". These initiatives, mainly aimed at citizens, were flanked by some more specific ones directed to schools in the form of meetings-debates, witnesses, screening of documentaries and films, exhibitions and training courses for the students and teachers of the Upper Secondary School.
On Sunday, 27 January 2013, International Holocaust Remembrance Day, SM TV San Marino was the only broadcaster putting a small yellow six-point star near its logo, throughout all programmes, in memory of the victims of the Holocaust and to respond to the appeal launched by national and international institutions to preserve and pass on their memory. On this occasion, the state broadcasting company, with public service functions, broadcasted a series productions and art-house films, reportages in the news bulletins, specific programmes and documentaries. Besides public television, San Marino cultural institutes promoted some initiatives celebrating this Day with music performances, films and documentaries, debates on the issue of liberty, dialogues on memory, interviews of people deported to concentration camps, exhibitions of books and images, and guided visits to the country's train tunnels, historic places par excellence of San Marino memory.
In January 2014, just a few days before the usual celebrations for the Remembrance Day, San Marino and Yad Vashem (Israel's official memorial of the Jewish victims of the Holocaust, which collects documents on the Holocaust from around the world), signed an agreement for the comparative study of documents. This agreement was considered to be of historical importance by the parties, being a sort of scientific "certification" of the written and oral statements collected by various researchers over the years. The documents confirm that the country made great efforts in offering hospitality and protection to many Jewish citizens before, during and after the Second World War. This was a highly risky initiative for that period, considering the difficult political climate inside and outside the borders of the Republic, but also of high humanitarian value that could result in San Marino being recognised by the State of Israel as "Land of the Righteous." After signing the agreement in May 2014, copies of San Marino historical documents have been transferred to Israel and, after been analysed and compared, they will provide more information and shed light on Jewish history in San Marino in the last century.
Some Township Councils (administrative municipalities, see chapter 1.2.4) celebrated this Day with events characterised by reflection and aimed at strengthening the values of equality and liberty, and with the hope to leave a legacy to new generations.
With regard to interculturalism, in 2009 a group of San Marino citizens submitted a popular petition (Istanza d'Arengo) for the accession of the Republic to the training programmes of Intercultura (see chapter 2.5.1).
In 2011, thanks to the financing of UNESCO, which has recognised its highly cultural and social value, and with the joint collaboration of public and private Associations and Institutions, the project "Education and handicraft production: promoting and facilitating the dissemination of education and enhancing local handicraft production in the Democratic Republic of Congo" was developed. This initiative took the form of an artistic experience open to interculturalism, which established contact among different cultures and traditions in a process of mutual enrichment. On this occasion, a group of university students created some prototypes of didactical toys for the schools of the mission of Father Marcellino in Congo. These toys will then be finalised and realised with materials to be sourced locally and made by local artisans.
For further details on this issue, see chapter 1.4.2.
Last update: June, 2015
The establishment of a public radio and television broadcasting company was a major historical and diplomatic event. In 1990, San Marino ratified a cooperation agreement with Italy, thus regaining its independence and the right to make its voice heard also through these means; a prerogative which it had renounced in 1953.
San Marino RTV, the public company responsible for the Republic's radio and television services, was established in 1991. San Marino RTV is the exclusive provider of the public radio and television broadcasting service. Among its transmissions, information programmes play a leading role, although there is enough space for others in the fields of economics, society, culture, politics, etc., San Marino RTV contributed to the country's civic education through social campaigns on the environment, alcoholism, handicap, third age, etc and broadcasts alternative programmes. In 2002, changes in managerial positions were accompanied by a new editorial line, in compliance with Law n. 41 of 1989, Establishing the San Marino Broadcasting Company, and with the mandate of the Board of Directors. The pivotal concept of this new cultural policy was the "sammarinesità", taking into consideration the different local contexts, including those most decentralised and least considered.
There are also programmes concerning art and culture, offering a different perspective according to the target audience. Addressed to the younger generations, the "TG Ragazzi" proposes references to music, youth culture and education; the "TG Comunità" has been created for San Marino citizens abroad and it is broadcasted every month. The aim is to provide San Marino citizens living in the country with an overview of the activities that their fellow citizens abroad carry out and, at the same time, offer to the associations and communities a new communication channel, besides the institutional ones, to establish a dialogue among them and with the Republic. To this end, San Marino RTV has sent a web-cam to all 25 communities to provide live broadcasts with the headquarters and the members of the associations worldwide. Every edition is also available on the web-site of San Marino RTV for on-line consultation. "Viale Kennedy 13" is another TV magazine format: theatre, art, music, culture, history, tangible and intangible knowledge of the Republic and the territory.
Finally, "Rubricario" deals with volunteer activities, associations and solidarity; its protagonists are San Marino local movements and associations, connected to the Montefeltro area, in the light of the Diocesan Pastoral: catechism and parish communities of the territory. Particular attention is paid to the religious calendar of the Christian Laity: events, institutional and religious anniversaries of the San Marino-Montefeltro Diocese.
In March 2008, an Agreement on Radio and Television Cooperation was signed between the Republic of San Marino and the Italian Republic. The Agreement, already ratified by San Marino, represents a step forward in the cooperation between the two countries in this strategic sector. Besides ending the monopoly regime, it provides for the extension of the catchment area for San Marino RTV, the opportunity to use the satellite and to establish synergies between the San Marino broadcasting station and the Italian RAI in the fields of staff training, technological devices and programming.
From 2008, and throughout the following four years, the journalist Carmen Lasorella held the position of Director of San Marino RTV. Since the beginning of her mandate, she has been committed to improving information, by working with the support of the government to strengthen the structure, extend the catchment area and broadcast satellite transmissions. This benefited from international information: the introduction of a broad-base news bulletin with the involvement of experts was an important step forward due to the broadcasting of satellite transmissions. Indeed, another agreement signed between RAI and San Marino RTV in October 2009 concerns the technical quality of services, computerised television and radio production, as well as new technological platforms, mainly aimed at interactivity, in order to improve television services offered to citizens. In June 2009, on the occasion of the live broadcast of the administrative election results, the new web site of San Marino RTV was put on-line. It is a real Internet portal enabling extension of the catchment area compared to analogue systems and favouring information through the most modern technology. The portal, developed in such a way as to be accessible to non-sighted and partially-sighted people, displays all editions of the news, offers high video quality and the possibility of interaction with users, as well as more flexibility.
In October 2012, Carlo Romeo, RAI manager, replaced Carmen Lasorella as Director General of San Marino RTV. Political and social forces are requesting some changes in the management, to be introduced through an editorial planning more in line with reality and a project to re-launch the broadcasting company. In this way, it will be possible to enhance the aspects connected with its identity and history, in order to reach the potentially unlimited audience of digital terrestrial TV, satellite and web.
San Marino has 3 daily newspapers published on the territory, one of which is also electronic. Moreover, news concerning San Marino can also be found in some newspapers of the surrounding areas. There is also a local weekly paper - "San Marino Fixing" - reporting on economics, finance and politics, which, since 2008, deals with San Marino culture on a monthly basis. In its presentation, this new supplement has been defined as a contribution to the country's social awareness, considering that the moral growth of a population is influenced by the improvement of its cultural life and that economic development and wellbeing are a direct consequence thereof. Among daily newspapers, "La Tribuna Sammarinese" publishes a supplement, a magazine on art, music and culture in the Republic of San Marino. "La Maison", a periodical dealing with housing, includes a specific section on visual arts written by an art critic. The Associations of San Marino citizens abroad deal with cultural issues related to San Marino through their magazines - inter alia "La Voce dei Sammarinesi", "Il Titano", "Lo Scalpello", "Pagine Sammarinesi", "Forum". The latest to be published in the Republic is "Avvenimenti", an information periodical of the San Marino Foundation. Nowadays, the San Marino banking foundations are becoming so important at cultural level to be defined as "examples of active citizenship to the service of civil society". Indeed, today any exhibition, event and cultural project can benefit from the economic support and sponsorship of the Credit Institutions Foundations (see also chapter 1.3.3 for the emerging cooperation with the Foundations).
In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs improved its website by including information on the Republic's international activities and relations, which can be easily accessed also by foreign organisations and San Marino citizens residing abroad.
The publishing sector is regulated by Law no. 211 of 2014 Law on Publishing and the Profession of Media Operators amending and supplementing the preceding Law no. 25 of 1998. Actually, before the adoption of the new law, the persons directly concerned, who were very critical of the law in force at the time, had made their voices heard in various contexts for a better defined and regulated sector.
In May 2007, San Marino decided to celebrate World Press Freedom Day by promoting a public meeting on "Freedom and information: meeting with the protagonists". The event represented an opportunity to discuss the central role played by free information in the protection and enhancement of democracy and the freedom of citizens in any country, as well as the attacks and situations to which journalists are often subjected. The meeting was followed by a debate with the San Marino media on the topic "Information in San Marino: rules, rights, professions". The operators in this field submitted a series of requests. The most urgent ones concerned: the agreements with Italy to develop San Marino professionals; access to sources and the truth on the basis of the right to information and in the public interest; collective bargaining; a Law on the Press to define rights and duties of journalists; training and updating professional skills; the creation of a Code of Conduct for journalists and a Council for Information.
In May 2008, a first reading of a new Law Regulating the Activity of Publishers and Journalists was held at the Parliament. The purpose of this law was to guarantee transparency in property and financing of newspapers, freedom and pluralism of information by publishers and to adopt a code of conduct for journalists. The objective was therefore to improve the quality of this activity. Moreover, the introduction of the register of publishers by the Supervising Commission, the task of which was to regulate this sector and the related professions, aimed at carrying out a thorough analysis of this field so as to identify those entitled to State contributions (see also chapter 3.5.1 for contributions to the publishing sector). The draft law was put on hold until the appointment of a new legislature following elections (November 2008).
There was a lack of guarantees and instruments safeguarding operators and users, a code of professional ethics and an ad hoc professional association, which made the production of information open to any kind of influence. On 1st April 2005, a new Union of San Marino Journalists and Photo-journalists (USGi) was established. As specified in the Statute, the Association, which has about 50 members, intends to: defend press freedom, protect the reputation of journalists, photographers and cameramen, also through a better definition of their terms of contract; establish relations with domestic and foreign organisms, bodies, associations and institutions with a view to favouring and safeguarding its members' activity, also outside the country, and promote greater awareness of the various issues concerning journalists through the organisation of events or the creation of independent press bodies. Moreover, in September 2005, San Marino hosted an international conference entitled "The Information Society: freedom, pluralism, resources".
In October 2011, a group of San Marino citizens submitted a popular petition (Istanza d'Arengo) to the Captains Regent "to regulate, by means of a specific legislation, the professional status of journalists". During its sitting of January 2012, the Parliament approved the petition by majority and committed the government to adopt, within its fields of competence, the relevant measures, which should have been illustrated, within six months following the granting of the petition, to the competent Permanent Parliamentary Commission (II) by the member of the Congress of State (Minister of Information) entrusted with this task (for further information on the Parliamentary Commissions, see chapter 1.2.2).
A new popular petition, submitted by San Marino citizens in October 2012 requesting the adoption of a law regulating the profession of journalist, also by establishing a specific professional register, was approved in January 2013. "Indeed, the need is felt for legislation regulating this sector in order to guarantee the right to information, on the one hand, and the protection of media operators and citizens, on the other”. However, not all operators have the same opinion. Indeed, while the regulation of the delicate issue of information is fundamental and cannot be postponed, such regulation cannot imply the creation of an "information caste" in a democratic, liberal and evolved country. "Good information" and "good journalism" cannot be obtained through strict rules and classification in a professional register […] but through study, training and apprenticeship. […]".
The need to regulate the sector was therefore proven by this Istanza d'Arengo, specifically requesting a code of conduct for the profession, with responsibilities resting on journalists. In order to respond to this and to all the requests from the media and the publishing industry, in March 2014 the Ministry responsible for Information submitted to the Parliament a draft law on publishing and media operators. The law was approved in December 2014 and establishes a Consulta (Council) and an Authority, highlighting the importance of the right and duty to inform and to be informed by professionals who are not subject to self-regulation, but are protected and assessed by institutions indirectly appointed by citizens.
Many amendments were submitted by the Opposition during the legislative process and a large part of them were approved. The report drawn up by the Majority on the draft law specifies the following: "Only where opposing and different views were expressed, it was not possible to reconcile them, although the discussion was marked by dialogue". The rapporteur of the Minority, on the same wavelength, defined as positive the attitude of the Minister responsible for Information, for the balance maintained in the two Commissions, by avoiding forcing the proposals of the Majority, and for accepting some suggestions of the Opposition, which have improved some elements of the draft law. The law was voted and approved in two different sessions of the competent Permanent Council Commission, because it took time for the political forces represented in Parliament to reach a compromise and the exchange of views was heated.
The new law now recognises and regulates the professions in the information sector: it identifies the categories of professionals working in this field, establishes a qualifying training programme for journalists, establishes a code of conduct, redefines the supervisory body entrusted with the supervision of the activity of the professionals, distributes proportionally the benefits to the publishing sector, gives the definition of "publishing firm", "newspaper", "on-line newspaper", "information agency" and of their operating limits, raises the number and the quality of publishing products, newspapers and/or periodical journals, books and literary works, in paper or electronic format to be created, published and divulged. The law also establishes the Consulta per l'Informazione (Council for the Information), whose tasks are laid down in Article 5. The Council for the Information is composed of journalists holding a Press Card, i.e. all categories of journalist (publicists and publishers) working in San Marino.
The draft law on publishing and on the profession of media operators was approved (Law no. 211 of 5 December 2014) but received criticism. San Marino now has a new and partially contested law in the publishing sector, closing the regulatory gap in this field. The Government divulged a press release explaining that the main goal of this Law "is to ensure a good balance between the right and duty to inform and the right to privacy and ethics, in line with transparency but also with the responsibility of the operators". The approved law recognises and regulates the profession of journalist, in order to ensure professionalism and dignity and to encourage critical thinking through the work of professionals providing correct information and consistent with the ethics of the profession. This law establishes that each editorial product must be provided with the names of the members of the editors, the capital used and the method of financing, so that the ownership of every journalistic product is known, for the benefit of the freedom to inform and the right of citizens to be properly informed. Media workers, gathered together in the Consulta, have the freedom and the responsibility to write and to adopt the Code of Conduct, namely the rules that the Authority (body with mixed composition) will enforce.
The Opposition strongly criticised the conflict that this law, which is considered as incomplete, generates between politics and information; journalism and information are even referred to as "counter-power". "The independence of the media - said the Opposition - cannot be ruled by law. A law could eventually create better conditions to ensure that professional journalists can express their intellectual honesty in the best way".
After the approval of this law, media workers still have concerns about it, in particular about the democratic protection of press freedom and the freedom of information and the need to be aware of the beneficiaries of the business activities of the media. Another issue concerns the introduction of an oversight Authority, mainly composed of members politically elected. Even the USGI, San Marino Union of Journalist and Photojournalists, is clearly against the political control that the bodies provided for by law may exercise over the profession and the professionals, considering the fact that members of the Authority are politically elected. In response to the criticisms expressed, the Majority replied that the law establishes a special Council of media workers, allowing them to lay down their rules, their code of conduct and provides for the possibility of appeals; the task to enforce them and to sanction is entrusted to a third party. According to the Majority, this law highlights the importance of the right and duty to inform properly, raising the power of the media workers to a higher level than the regular exercise of a right to practice a profession.
In particular, article 28 of this law is specifically dedicated to the "Prohibition of abuse of dominant positions." Therefore even the publishing sector shall comply with the principles of competition and pluralism, forbidding understandings and agreements between companies operating in the field of mass communications that may restrict or distort these principles. Article 6 entrusts the Authority for Information with the power of control and the task to oversight on the principles and the purposes of the radio and television service, taking over some tasks previously entrusted to the Supervisory Authority under Law N. 41/1989.
With regard to training, except for some one-off courses organised some years ago, neither periodic refresher courses nor grants have been recently established. In order to bridge this gap between the law and practice, among the priorities of the Ministry of Information was the organisation of courses directed to the workers of this sector.
The Ministries of Labour and Information, in co-operation with the Professional Training Centre of San Marino, established, in 2007, a preparatory training course in journalism and public communication, sponsored by the Association of Journalists of Bologna, the San Marino Journalists Union (USGi) and with the agreement of the Supervising Commission. The objective of the course was to provide guidelines in the fields of journalism, the use of multimedia, radio and on-line information through theory and practice. The course offered two scholarships to access qualified training with some of the Italian newspapers. This training represented the first step towards the creation of a school of journalism.
In 2009, the first and only edition of the specialisation course "Profession Reporter" was organised by the State Broadcasting Company and the Vocational Training Centre, with the support of the Universities of Urbino and Tor Vergata in Rome, as well as of the School of Radio and Television Journalism in Perugia. This course, taught by prominent Italian journalists, has contributed to the practice and knowledge of technological instruments, with in-depth studies on communication techniques and the profession of envoy for print media and on-line journalism, mainly concerning digital, satellite and web broadcasting means.
With the aim of providing regular training in this sector, Art. 4 of the new Law on publishing precisely establishes the training process of media operators, in order to promote professional and cultural workshops also dealing with technological innovation. Training projects are developed either by the Council for Information (for more information on this body, see above) or in collaboration with public and private bodies, companies operating in this field, universities and/or schools of journalism. This Law also entrusts the Ministry responsible for Information with the power to establish, in cooperation with the Council for Information and the local publishers, special scholarships for the vocational training of San Marino journalists or professionals living in San Marino.
The World Day of Press Freedom was celebrated in 2008 with a public meeting entitled "Information between localism and globalisation". A journalism prize was offered for the first time – "Small Europe" - aimed at press, radio television and new media journalists of Italian speaking communities in Europe. In 2009, on the occasion of the World Day, a round table promoted by the Ministry of Information gathered the directors of newspapers to discuss the degree of press freedom in San Marino. The outcome of these discussions was that, considering the level of press and information through the Internet and television, information appears well represented to give voice to a plurality of opinions. Today's problem is rather the quality of news and the economic, and therefore political, independence of those working in this sector. In order to achieve high levels of quality, economic and professional resources are necessary, together with better access to sources. Indeed, the birth of investigative journalism is today prevented by a lack of access to sources. Despite San Marino ranking among the first countries in the global white list, compiled by the NGO Freedom House for 2008, on account of its press freedom, information stakeholders have underlined that press freedom can be easily influenced. Several problems have emerged: the lack of a framework for professional journalists and of a labour contract recognising and protecting the everyday activity of journalists and editors, as well as serious gaps in the legislation on press crimes and publishing. One of the problems identified in the fleeting borders between press freedom and censorship is the balance between the right to report and right to privacy, mainly in a small country like San Marino.
In 2010, on the occasion of the celebrations of the World Press Freedom Day, the Minister for Information declared that in San Marino "there is not in practice a completely free and autonomous press, since all have their own opinions, starting from publishers, who, among other things, are not pure. Pluralism, that is to say a plurality of newspapers, is the only strong point". Concerning the situation of San Marino information, the Minister recalls the steps forward made by the country, mainly over the last years, and agrees on the need to further improve the quality of information by promoting more training and specialisation courses and by increasing economic resources.
In May 2013, the conference "Free Press, Free State", aimed at fostering a debate with media operators, closed the first phase of works for the drafting of the Law on publishing, entered into force in December 2014.
The conference held in May 2015, "Broken pencils? Freedom of expression between propaganda and truth", celebrated the world freedom of information and it was the occasion to recall the journalists killed by terrorism. In his opening address, the Minister responsible for information presented the main themes and the reasons for the conference, "which inevitably leads us to reflect on the events that have recently marked our time, influencing peace and cohabitation of peoples with different cultures and religions. After what happened at the headquarters of Charlie Hebdo nothing can be like before [...]. Information, satire, written or figurative forms of dialogue have been hit with unprecedented violence, shaking our consciences and forcing us to deal with the issue of freedom of the press, of thought and information".
In 2013 the Foundation "Valori Tattili" joined the publisher of a historic San Marino newspaper. At a time when publishing is suffering more than other sectors from the effects of the economic crisis, the choice made by the Foundation has reaffirmed the importance of newspapers as vehicles of culture, besides pure information (for further details on the banking Foundation see chapter 1.3.3).
Last update: June, 2015
Italian is the official language of the Republic of San Marino. However, up until a few decades ago, San Marino people used to speak an additional dialect in their daily life, irrespective of their social status. Following the major economic, social and cultural changes of the post war period, the Italian language was used by all groups of society.
Nowadays, Italian and dialect coexist. Younger generations are increasingly using Italian, while a smaller group of elderly people still use dialect as their only language. Local dialect can be considered as the second language of San Marino people, with its autonomous and regular linguistic system from a phonetic, morphosyntactic and lexical point of view. Even if there are no ad hoc laws for its protection, dialect is still a valuable source of historical traditions and true popular expression.
In 1998, the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was translated into 250 national and local languages, including the San Marino dialect. San Marino traditional folk heritage encompasses a lively popular literature and dialect songs. Moreover, numerous amateur theatre companies use dialect in their plays (see chapter 6.4). Radio programmes of the State broadcasting company San Marino RTV include a transmission in dialect which rediscovers ancient popular sayings and poems, entitled "Rime e ricordi d'infanzia" (Rhymes and memories of childhood). To bring young generations closer to the dialect, "TG Ragazzi" has dedicated a special section to popular sayings. The professions of past generations, now disappearing, have characterised the weekly TV show entitled "E'Mount" (transl. "The Mount"), produced in dialect, hosted by Checco Guidi, a San Marino dialect poet.
The University of the Third Age "Il Sorriso" (The Smile) (free association promoting the knowledge and recovery of the San Marino community and historical roots, opened to everyone, but especially attended by the elderly) has enhanced the importance of local traditions on many occasions. The cultural stays addressed to the children of emigrants organise meetings aimed at rediscovering San Marino dialect roots. Finally, the Popular Library of Serravalle promotes cultural events focused on the traditions of San Marino and of the near Romagna region.
In addition to these events, other sporadic initiatives have involved the schools of the territory, which, during main festivities, have staged performances in dialect with the aim of rediscovering old San Marino traditions. However, these are not ongoing events and are not part of any official government debate. Nevertheless, people are aware that the progressive disappearance of the dialect, now only protected by a few people, spoken only by the elderly and nearly not understood by young people, leads to an impoverishment of popular culture, which represents the roots of the San Marino people. Therefore, the threat of the disappearance of the San Marino dialect is always present; this gap is bridged, only partially, by the sensitivity of the banking Foundations, which periodically sponsor publications in dialect.
In 2010, the Ministry of Culture, under the aegis of the San Marino National Commission for UNESCO, organised the first "Poetry Competition", divided up into three sections, among which was one dedicated to San Marino dialect. This confirms the considerable attention paid to the recovery of the country's traditions and roots.
The dialect laboratory "T'arturnarè ma la grepia…", created in 2012 and conducted by dialect poet Checco Guidi, is aimed at elementary school pupils and junior high school students. By explaining popular sayings and proverbs, dialect is passed on to younger generations as heritage of the history and identity of the people of San Marino, its traditions, original and unique experience and wisdom. This initiative also aims at acting as a bridge between generations in modern and globalised families, where dialect tends to disappear.
Also the volume "Cumè chi i dis?", published in 2013, is in dialect. Deeply rooted in the popular tradition, it collects most of San Marino surnames-nicknames that have characterised the history of the Republic, while telling the personal stories of their protagonists.
On 6 April 2014 a group of citizens submitted an Istanza d'Arengo (popular petition) requesting the launch of school activities designed to safeguard and enhance San Marino dialect, as well as the introduction of regulatory measures to support initiatives regarding dialect. The aim was to limit, at least partly, the progressive loss of values linked in particular to the most authentic folk traditions of the historical and civic memory of San Marino people. The petition for the preservation of San Marino identity was rejected by the Parliament in July 2014.
Last update: June, 2015
Between the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2004, San Marino signed and ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and committed to adopt its principles in the national legal system. It passed the Parliamentary Decree n. 108 of 4 July 2005, implementing the Optional Protocol to the UN Convention.
In 2004, with Law no. 26 of 25 February, the Republic established the Commission for Equal Opportunities, which replaced the former Commission in charge of equality for women. The Commission is appointed by the Parliament and is responsible to the Ministry dealing with "Equal Opportunities", which is the Ministry of Health, Social Security and National Insurance. Among the functions of the Commission for Equal Opportunities are the promotion and safeguard of full equality among citizens, in compliance with Article 4 of the Declaration on the Citizens' Rights (see also chapter 4.1.1). By virtue of Constitutional Law 61/2005, Amendment of Article 16 of the Declaration on the Citizens' Rights and Fundamental Principles of San Marino Constitutional Order, the Commission has the faculty of filing appeals on the constitutionality of rules also in the field of legal equality and equal opportunities. Besides modifying the composition of the Commission by reducing its members from 10 to 8, Law no. 97/2008 has established the Authority for Equal Opportunities. The relevant implementing Delegated Decree, adopted by the government on 6 March 2012, fully implements this Law and guarantees its effective application by offering the operational instruments to perform the tasks entrusted to the Authority. The latter, appointed by the Parliament and composed of 3 members, is first of all responsible for supporting the Institutions in the various initiatives envisaged in the Law, besides the collection of data concerning violence against women and gender violence. Therefore, the Commission has been replaced by the Authority with regard to the competences provided for by the latter law provision. The Commission and the Authority work in synergy, each one in respect of those areas for which it has jurisdiction.
The first Training Course destined for professionals providing juridical, psychological and legal assistance to the victims of violence and for teachers and educators was organised in 2012. The meetings, provided for by Art. 4 of Law n. 97/2008 on "prevention and repression of violence against women and gender violence", are promoted and organised by the Training Department of the University, upon request and in collaboration with the Authority for Equal Opportunities and with the contribution of the Single Court, Police Forces and the Neuropsychiatric Service of San Marino.
From an institutional and civil perspective, the year 2004 marked the 40th anniversary of women's right to vote and the 30th anniversary of women's right to be elected. Equal access to education is the sine qua non condition for San Marino women to increasingly participate in all stages of decision-making processes. Equal access to employment and social security have since long been recognised by San Marino legal system.
Over the last decade, the percentage of female workers has reached a considerable level, also thanks to an ad hoc law aimed at supporting working mothers and the access of women to the labour market through tax relief for women employed in the textile and clothing sectors. In this context, it is worth mentioning the approval of a law supporting young and female entrepreneurship. Article 12 of Law n. 131/2005 promoting, supporting and developing employment and training, specifically regulates the employment or re-employment of women as members of the labour force deserving special protection.
A relatively high number of women now hold middle and middle-high ranking positions both in the public and private sectors. In particular, women are mostly represented in the cultural world. Moreover, there are a considerable percentage of women in the field of the culture industries: more than 50% of the journalists of the State broadcasting corporation "San Marino RTV" are women, including the Chief Editor in charge of news services and the person responsible for the editorial office for Internet, Teletext and Eurovision. A woman holds the position of President of the Commission responsible for supervising radio and television information; the same goes for the Commission for the Preservation of Monuments and Antiques and Art Works (C.C.M.).
The process to achieve women's legal equality has, however, been long and difficult - and is not fully achieved. Today, there are a very limited number of women in politics and in the Parliament (only 10 out of 60, approximately corresponding to 16%); 1 woman sits in the 9-member Congress of State (Government). The situation is not different on the local level: there are only 4 women out of the 9 mayors and only 23 women out of 75 town councillors.
Qualified Law No.1/2007 dealing with Provisions to enhance citizens' willingness and for Equal Opportunities in Elections and Electoral Campaigns further supports the access of women to elective offices: indeed, the lists of candidates presented by the political parties cannot include more than 2/3 of candidates of the same gender; furthermore, being a woman represents an advantage if candidates of the same list obtain the same number of votes.
Some nongovernmental organisations have been established to increase female participation in the various sectors of public life, such as: "San Marino Saint Agatha Association: Women, Arts, Professions, Business"; "Futura", an association for education to politics; "3DS", a movement for the affirmation of equality for women; "Confronto", an association supporting civil rights against any sex discrimination, and the group; "Friends of Marisa Bellisario Foundation", operating in the cultural field. Among these, the oldest and largest, with over 700 women enrolled, is the Female Branch of the Mutual Aid Society (SUMS), which, at its seat, has gathered a small thematic library on the condition of women in various parts of the world.
According to a statistical survey published by the Study Office of the CDLS (Democratic Confederation of San Marino Workers) on 8 March 2006, the female labour force is increasing in the Republic: women make up 41% of the total labour force, 30% of the self-employed, 57% of public administration employees and 38% of private sector workers. However, this increase is not always accompanied by adequate social and cultural policies in support of working women and mothers.
However, San Marino support to women goes beyond its national borders. Indeed, on the occasion of the 33rd UNESCO General Conference, held in Paris in October 2005, San Marino and the other small States of Europe supported a project aimed at promoting the education and self-determination of Nigerian young women. In this regard, the Republic is favourably considering the proposal being developed by a working group composed of UNESCO micro-States to promote women's autonomy through education and training.
On 19 May 2006, San Marino signed the European Convention against Human Trafficking and ratified it four years later. The San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe supported the pan-European campaign to combat violence against women, which was launched in Madrid on 27 November 2006. Domestically, San Marino has envisaged a wide ranging series of initiatives and on 29 November 2006 it launched its national campaign.
Among the initiatives of the 2007 San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe and in the framework of the Pan-European Campaign to Prevent and Combat Violence Against Women, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with San Marino Foundation - Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino - SUMS, has called for a public competition for the creation of a figurative artwork on the theme "Art to Combat Violence against Women". The applicants have been called to interpret the value of peaceful coexistence between men and women and rejection of any form of violence, strongly reaffirming that violence against women is a violation of human rights. The award ceremony was held on 8 March 2008 in the framework of the celebrations for International Women's Day.
This information will be published as soon as possible.
Last update: June, 2015
There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups and this issue is not listed as a policy priority in the government's current list of cultural policy priorities, as there are only a few national minority groups.
The number of foreigners in San Marino is not enough to justify a specific legislation for the recognition and protection of minorities. Nevertheless, the few cultural minorities which do live on the territory enjoy full respect in conformity with the principles stipulated by the 1974 "Declaration on the Citizens' Rights" and by the following laws, which supplemented and partially amended this Declaration (see chapter 4.1.1). In December 2014, out of 33 738 inhabitants present on the territory (including residents and permit holders), the number of immigrants was 372. These are mainly Italians, followed by Romanians, Argentineans, Brazilians, Americans and other minority groups not exceeding 40 people. The increasing number of people having a different religion, culture, belief and language has never caused intercultural problems or conflicts. Those minorities which have formed cultural associations enjoy, like all those participating in the Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives, special benefits, also of an economic nature (see chapter 7.2.4). Moreover, the State periodically sponsors the organisation of some events to highlight uses, traditions, cuisine etc., of an ethnic or cultural group located in San Marino. In 2004, events were organised on the music of France and Africa; on Peru and on the 50th anniversary of the Bahà'ì faith. These events, however, are not the result of a government policy for the assimilation or integration of a group. In 2007, with the participation and sponsorship of different Ministries and the Russian Association "The world of culture", a concert of Russian music was organised; the initiative was among the cultural events organised on the occasion of the official visit of the President of the Russian Federation to Italy.
In 2005, a group of volunteer women founded an association called "Le amiche di Ruth" (Ruth's girlfriends) organising various courses (language, computer, cooking, etc.) for foreign women living in San Marino. The aim is not only to facilitate their inclusion in the local society and culture, but also to establish a more conscious relationship with people from different backgrounds and to stimulate cultural exchange for mutual enrichment. A freetraining course on private home assistance is organised by the Vocational Training Centre; this is mainly addressed to foreign women working in San Marino as private carers for the elderly. This course includes Italian classes and the teaching of San Marino culture and traditions to promote their integration in society. In order to facilitate attendance at the course, free public transport is organised for the participants. In some places of worship, private carers can attend religious rites other than those of the Roman Catholic Church. Moreover, some trade unions and NGOs, in collaboration with the State, offer private carers and their employers an information service on employment, pensions and social security contributions, as well as on residence permits. Italian language courses, organised by the Ministry of Education, continue to attract a high number of immigrants. Inside the information magazine of the political party "Sinistra Unita", a column offers support to immigrants looking for work, by publishing their advertisements.
In 1988, San Marino signed the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 1996. In 2005, the Republic signed the Additional Protocol n. 14 to the European Convention of Human Rights.
On 19 May 2006, San Marino signed the Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society and the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Currently, the Ministry of Foreign and Political Affairs and the Ministry of Education, Culture and University are working to ratify the latter, in line with the policies to support intercultural dialogue adopted by the San Marino government and affirmed within the international fora where the Republic is represented. In particular, the protection and promotion of diversities was among the priorities of the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe; even after the six-month Chairmanship is over, these issues and ideals are still very important, representing the basis of San Marino's social and political agenda.
Last update: June, 2015
In San Marino, the issue of "social cohesion" is not included in specific cultural policies. Indeed, on account of the limited number of foreigners residing on the territory, a targeted measure has not been deemed necessary (see also chapter 2.6). However, San Marino society is generally characterised by tolerance and dialogue and this has led to an increase, over the years, in the number of foreigners living and working in San Marino. Despite the fact that, at the time being, the Republic is not affected by discrimination problems based on race, colour, language and origin, there exist some administrative and civil law provisions mainly concerning employment. Similar provisions also regulate firing and equal opportunities.
Some measures have been adopted by the government and the institutions to enable the few foreigners residing in San Marino to express their own cultural identity and contribute to the cultural richness of the society as a whole. For instance, the evening classes for the Italian language, proposed by the Ministry of Public Education, continue to attract many immigrants: the aim is to facilitate their integration into the social context of the country. In addition, for some years, Trade Unions have been providing an information and assistance service both to workers and employers to support their process through the bureaucratic procedures (see chapter 2.6).
Other measures recently adopted by the San Marino Executive power to promote values aimed at strengthening social cohesion are part of the education and training policies involving the Training Department of San Marino University. This Department offers various professional categories, including teachers of any grade, training courses and study sessions concerning multicultural education, respect for diversities and the value of tolerance.
In the school year 2006/2007 new lessons concerning human rights were introduced, a priority theme in the curricula of all San Marino schools. This is the reason why the Department of Training organised some ad hoc courses on human rights and education to democratic citizenship. Moreover, the Department of Training included the subject matters "intercultural pedagogy" and "gender difference" within specialisation courses destined for teachers.
In the field of post university education, San Marino is participating, for the first time, with a national delegation in the first level Masters in "Human Rights and Humanitarian Action" promoted by the University of Siena.
For further details on the activities carried out in schools and in the field of education, see chapter 2.5.2.
In October 2006, San Marino organised the conference "Migration and Development". This initiative was organised by the Museum of the Emigrant - Permanent Study Centre on Emigration (established in 1997 with the task of documenting the experience of San Marino migration and testifying to the sense of belonging of the 12 000 San Marino citizens living abroad, see chapter 3.1), with the sponsorship of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. It proposed specific solutions. The results of the research presented on the occasion of the conference have underlined that emigrants have always represented a resource both for their country of origin and host country. In particular, emigration has led not only to the meeting / clash of different cultures, but above all it had an impact on the transformations, changes, improvements occurred within society, aimed at shaping it differently. The social and economic influence of migration on the country of origin and the educational function of emigrants returning to their homeland as agents of transformation are further aspects which make San Marino a model of positive emigration. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health has established professional training courses in the field of assistance and nursing, addressed to immigrants. Finally, in view of stressing much more the importance of cultures and the different ecclesiastic traditions, the San Marino-Montefeltro Diocese extended the invitation to the Christians of the different religions to take part in the Liturgy celebrated, for the first time, in the Byzantine rite in the Basilica of San Marino on 20 January 2006.
This information will be published as soon as possible.
Last update: June, 2015
In 2005, the four Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Cultural Institutes, Territory and Environment, and Tourism worked together (with the support of an ad hoc working group) to submit the Republic's candidature for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The cultural and natural property proposed for inclusion is Mount Titano and some of its surrounding areas. The aim is to present a new image of the entire country in the field of cultural tourism, in line with its specific features, as well as to preserve its urban development.
In 2006, the relevant dossier was finalised and submitted to the international experts for its consideration. In July 2008 the site "San Marino: Historic Centre and Mount Titano" was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List because of the outstanding value of the historical and institutional heritage of the Republic of San Marino. Indeed, the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value adopted by UNESCO reads: "San Marino is one of the world's oldest republics and the only surviving Italian city-state, representing an important stage in the development of democratic models in Europe and worldwide. The tangible expressions of this long continuity as the capital of the Republic, its unchanged geo-political context and juridical and institutional functions, is found in the strategic position on the top of Mount Titano, the historic urban layout, urban spaces and many public monuments. San Marino has a widely recognised iconic status as a symbol of a free city-state, illustrated in political debate, literature and arts through the centuries […] San Marino and Mount Titano are an exceptional testimony of the establishment of a representative democracy based on civic autonomy and self-governance, with a unique, uninterrupted continuity as the capital of an independent republic since the 13th century. San Marino is an exceptional testimony to a living cultural tradition that has persisted over the last seven hundred years […]".
The property inscribed on the World Heritage List represents, for its outstanding universal value, a point of excellence of the cultural, landscape and natural heritage of the territory of the Republic of San Marino and deserves protection for the benefit of all humanity. With a view to guaranteeing, also in the future, an effective enhancement and protection of the historical, architectural, landscape and cultural heritage, while respecting the values of authenticity and integrity recognised by UNESCO, Law n. 133 (Framework Law on the Protection, Management, Enhancement and Promotion of the Property "Historic Centre of San Marino and Mount Titano") was passed in 2009 (see also chapter 7.2.3 for the initiatives developed following the inclusion of San Marino in the List).
The debate concerning the regulation of non-profit foundations, with a view to transposing Moneyval-mandated European directives into San Marino legislation, is among the issues on which the government has been strongly committed in 2009. By favouring and supporting the voluntary creation of solidarity bodies, San Marino intends to regulate the activity of non-profit associations connected with private individuals or less well identified clubs. These associations deserve, on the one hand, the utmost attention for their positive impact on the social and cultural sector, and, on the other hand, they need targeted and efficient regulation to protect the State and its citizens (see chapter 6.4).
Several legislative proposals have been developed over the years concerning the third sector in the Republic of San Marino, in order to differentiate it from purely economic activities. Indeed, the non-profit sector stimulates people's participation in public life at local level and offers increasing job opportunities; it also significantly contributes to the management of public services and helps granting a high quality welfare state.
The proposals submitted to the Great and General Council regarding voluntary work, non-profit organisations and foundations testify to the interest of San Marino in this issue and offer several inputs to recognise and promote this sector. People working in this field have invited politicians to find proper solutions, even rules, to support the third sector and to strike a fair balance between incentives, benefits and control. Among the proposals, the launch of a working group composed of representatives of the San Marino non-profit sector and of politics, to deal with this issue in order to simplify and harmonise the existing laws.