5. Arts and cultural education
Last update: July, 2016
Special arts education is carried out in primary and secondary schools of applied arts and design, music and dance schools. When attending primary music and or ballet school the pupils are obliged to concurrently attend regular primary school. At the university level arts education is carried in music, drama and fine arts academies.
On 16 of September 2011 an agreement on the establishment of two undergraduate university programmes in the field of dance art was signed between the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, University of Zagreb and Academy of Drama Arts. These are the first programmes in dance arts at university level – with the signing of the financing agreement in summer 2013, the undergraduate programmes in Contemporary Ballet and Ballet Pedagogy started in October 2013.
According to the Statistical Yearbook 2013, in 2013/2014 there were 124 ballet and music primary schools with a total of 17 363 pupils and 2 228 teachers. In the same school year there were 48 secondary arts schools with a total number of 5 448 pupils and 1 769 teachers. The number of primary and secondary school graduates in art schools remains steady in the last five years (this includes students in private schools as well).
In 2013/2014 there were 6 art academies in Croatia – at the University of Zagreb - Academy of Drama Arts, Academy of Fine Arts, Academy of Music; at the University of Osijek - Arts Academy, and Academy of Drama Arts; Arts Academy in Split, and Academy of Applied Arts in Rijeka. The total number of students enrolled in academies in 2013/2014 was 2 043, with 802 academic staff, which is a stagnation in the number of staff and an increase in the number of students in comparison to the previous year.
Last update: July, 2016
According to the National plan for primary schools, arts education is part of obligatory curricula during all eight years of primary school – 35 hour per year (special double hour sessions); music education is obligatory during all eight years of primary school – also 35 hours per year (for more information see: https://mzo.hr/ (in Croatian).
General, linguistic and classical secondary schools (gimnazija) have one hour per week of music education, and one hour of arts education throughout four years of education, while natural science-mathematics secondary schools have one hour per week during first two years of education. Special natural science schools have two hours music education per week during fourth year and two hours of artistic education per week during third year of study. For more information see: https://mzo.hr/ (in Croatian).
Special arts education carried out in schools of applied arts and design, music and dance schools have particular curricula according to their specialisation (for more information see: https://mzo.hr/ (in Croatian).
In 2013 the new programme "Backpack (full) of Culture / Ruksak (pun) kulture" was established with the aim of bringing artists and cultural events directly to kindergartens, primary and high schools as a part of additional activities. The suggested programmes should be in line with the national curricula for the suggested subjects (see chapter 6.1), whose aim is to complement the missing artistic and cultural content in the existing curricula. However, the programme has been discontinued by the current technical government and it is to be seen whether it will be continued in the future.
In 2015, the Government adopted an overall Strategy of Education, Science and Technology (https://vlada.gov.hr/strategija-obrazovanja-znanosti-i-tehnologije-nove-boje-znanja/151). One of the important elements of this Strategy is the overall reform of the curriculum, which will also include arts education. The current government decided to replace responsible working groups with new people, which resulted in mass protests. During the most recent political campaign, all political parties expressed their commitment to the continuation of the reform, including the leading party of the technical government HDZ whose minister contributed to the crisis. It remains to be seen what the position of the new coalition government will be on this matter.
Last update: July, 2016
The Bologna process brought a number of changes to the higher education system in Croatia that had a great impact on arts education. A number of new art schools and art academies have been established; however, no research data on impact of the changes is available.
Figure 3 shows the percentage of students who graduate from art academies in comparison to other institutions of higher education in the academic year 2013/2014.
Figure 3: Students who graduated from institutions of higher education in Croatia, by type of institution, academic year 2013/2014
In comparison to the academic year 2012/2013, there was a drop in the percentage of students enrolled in institutions of higher education – in 2012/2013 the percentage was 1,8%, while in the 2013/2014 this percentage was 1,3%.
Last update: July, 2016
Cities and municipalities finance programmes in local community cultural centres and public educational centres which are in many smaller cities the only venues for art and culture. The network of these community cultural centres is fully decentralised and the level of their involvement in cultural life as well as their ability to organize and/or host cultural and artistic programmes varies greatly from one city to the other. The biggest network of community cultural centres exists in the City of Zagreb.
The Ministry of Culture and the cities financially support theatres for children, youth and puppet theatres, registered either as public institutions or private companies. Most of these theatres also have studios for young actors. (see chapter 6.2).
A number of NGOs develop cultural education programmes for children and pupils that are developed as a part of their regular programmes.
Important role in promoting participation in music life for younger population is played by the ‘Jeunesses Musicales Croatia’(HGM), a member of the ‘Jeunesses Musicales International’. Their ‘cultural card’ permits young people (age 14 to 30) to have discounts in theatres, museums, concerts etc. ‘Music in the Neighbourhoods’ is another programme HGM runs in cooperation with the City of Zagreb with the aim to acquaint primary school children with classical music.
A special two-week intensive summer programme in media culture "Dr.Ante Peterlić" has been organised by the Croatian Film Club's Association since 1999. It is oriented primarily to teachers at primary and secondary level, teachers in amateur audio-visual associations, but also to university lecturers and artists as well. The programme has been recognised by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports as a programme of professional training in media culture for teachers and professors.
Please find the available information on this subject in 5.3.