6. Cultural participation and consumption
Last update: July, 2016
In 2012, the Ministry of Culture in association with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports started a pilot programme "Backpack (full) of Culture / Ruksak (pun) kulture", with the aim of bringing artists and cultural events directly to kindergartens, primary and high schools. The pilot programme was successful, and in October 2013 the Ministry of Culture issued a public call for the expression of interest for artists, artistic organisations and cultural NGOs to participate in this programme. The Ministry of Culture provided financing for the selected programmes, while the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports was responsible for providing the network of schools that hosted the selected programmes. However, the current technical minister of culture did not show support for this programme. It was deleted from the Strategic Plan of the Ministry without evaluation and/or any explanation.
An increasing number of cultural institutions have special departments for marketing and public relations and there are more media campaigns promoting cultural events and activities. While it is difficult to assess the effects of these efforts, there are visible examples of some institutions which are able to attract more visitors through seemingly successful campaigns. Some of the most successful examples are the Museum of Arts and Crafts in Zagreb and Gallery Klović.
Special categories of the population (school children, disabled persons and senior citizens) pay only 50% of the full ticket price for some events. Rebates for university students are also available from selected theatres, museums, etc. There are also reduced cards or tickets available such as the "Zagreb ticket" or "Dubrovnik card" which can be used to buy cheaper tickets for various cultural events, but which are primarily oriented towards tourists. Other cities in Croatia are introducing different incentives in order to increase participation.
Number of cinematéques is minimal – kino "Tuškanac" in Zagreb and Kinoteka "Zlatna vrata" in Split offer film programmes with special focus on audiovisual heritage; Art kino Croatia with similar programme opened in Rijeka in 2009. The first cinema specialised for documentary films in the region of South-eastern Europe opened in Zagreb in June 2009 - Dokukino however, currently it is based only as a programme in various different venues. The organiser, NGO Restarted and Cultural Information Centre – KIC collaborate with various festivals in Croatia and in the region.
Generally speaking, participation is not something that is being systematically promoted by the Ministry of Culture or local communities. In most cases cultural organisations themselves promote their programmes and invest in reaching an ever wider audience. There are very few surveys and statistical information or analysis that could result in designing polices to link participation in cultural life to the broader issues of civil participation.
Last update: July, 2016
According to the data of the Central Bureau of Statistics, personal expenditure on "Recreation and Culture" in 2014 represented 6% of total household expenditure. This shows an increase after a few years of decline – in 2011 it represented 5.3%, in 2010 it represented 5.6%, and it shows somewhat a return to the level of expenditure in 2009 when it amounted to 5.99%. No new data is available.
Participation trends stabilised in the mid-1990s, but participation is still considerably lower than it was in the 1980s. The reasons can be attributed to: a lower standard of living, changed habits in cultural consumption (greater consumption through media, in particular the Internet, within home), and the disappearance of the outlets through which tickets were sold en masse, an infrastructure typical of the 1980s. Major theatres, concert halls or festivals offer on-line booking services. The web portal (http://www.ulaznice.hr) offers on-line ticket sales and reservations for fifteen cultural institutions (mostly in Zagreb). Companies specialised in on-line ticket sales have emerged, e.g. Eventim franchise for Croatia.
Table 5: Attendance data for specific cultural fields (in thousands), 1983-2015
|Year||Professional theatres||Cinemas||Museums and museum collection||Professional children's theatres*||Professional orchestras, ensembles and choirs*|
|1983||1 101||21 324||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|1997||705||3 233||1 129||N/A||N/A|
|2000||658||2 743||1 073||N/A||N/A|
|2002||879||2 766||1 074||426||279|
|2003||1 024||2 343||1 268||429||286|
|2004||1 043||2 976||N/A||436||374|
|2006||941||2 669||1 674||370||378|
|2008||1 067||3 283||N/A||404||318|
|2009||1 033||3 524||2 191||379||323|
|2010||1 184||3 355||N/A||387||320|
|2011||1 261||3 558||N/A||399||290|
|2012||1 211||4 064||2 284||399||294|
|2013||1 161||4 156||N/A||569||255|
|2014||1 374||4 079||N/A||386||298|
|2015||1 245||4 347||N/A||477||245|
Republic of Croatia – Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical
Yearbook 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and from First Releases on
‘Cinematography’, ‘Artistic production and live performances’ and
‘Museums, galleries and collections’, for the years 2013, 2014 and
Note: Table is compiled from four different Tables (Culture and Arts, Museums and Museum Collections, Professional Children's Theatres, and Professional Orchestras, Ensembles and Choirs.) given in the section "Culture, Arts and Sport" in all yearbooks.
* The data provided concerns seasons not years, thus data for 2002 reflects the season 2001/2002.
Over the years there is a continuous increase in the number of professional theatres; according to data provided by the Central Bureau of Statistics (Statistical Yearbook 2009 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013), the number of professional theatres rose from 15 in 1983 to 23 in 2009, 53 in 2011, 60 in 2012, while in the season 2014/2015 it rose to 98. In the same period, the number of cinema screens dropped dramatically from 314 to 118 in 2010, while the number rose again to 156 in 2011 and in 2012 to 162. In 2015 the number of cinema screens rose to 164. On the other hand, while the number of cinemas, as well as the number of seats was in decline in the period 2003-2011, the number of screenings showed an increase – from 40 429 to 129 145 screenings, and this increase continued in the following years. The positive trend is visible in the last three years when the number of cinemas, seats, screenings and attendance showed an increase, as is visible from Figure 1.
Figure 1: Number of cinemas and attendance in thousands in Croatia, 2008-2014
The number of professional children's theatres and amateur theatres increased from 14 in the 2008/2009 to 18 in season 2009/2010 and remained the same in 2010/2011, while in the season 2011/2012 it dropped to 17. The next two seasons show again an increase in the number of professional children’s theatres. The high increase is also seen for professional orchestras, ensembles and choirs - after stagnation in the previous decade - 24 in the seasons 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively, while in the season 2013/2014, this number rose to 52 professional orchestras, ensembles and choirs.
In 1994, there were 146 museums and museum collections, and in 2006 this figure rose to 164. In 2009 this number further increased to 175 and in 2012 to 181. The number of visitors increased steadily in this period – from 579 919 in 1994, to 1 268 128 in 2003 and 2 191 189 in year 2009 and 2 284 673 in 2012. The Statistical Yearbook for 2015 does not offer new data on museums.
As regards the archives sector, the Statistical Yearbook 2015 shows that in 1993 there were 16 archives with 9 288 holdings and collections and 9 681 users; although in 2005 the number of archives dropped to 14, the archival holdings as well as the number of users increased to 12 660 and 10 991 respectively. In 2011 there were 18 archives with 14 418 archival holdings and 8 379 users and 472 employed, while in 2014 there were 19 with 15 222 archival holdings, 12 090 users and 498 employed.
Last update: July, 2016
In the period 2008-2014, there was a slow but steady increase in radio and television subscribers, as it can be seen from Figure 2.
Figure 2: Radio and television subscribers in Croatia, 2008-2014
There are no special surveys monitoring the participation of national minority groups or immigrant groups in cultural life.
Last update: July, 2016
Amateur arts and folk culture
One of the main characteristics of cultural life in Croatia is a diversified landscape of amateur cultural activities which usually take place in halls and in schools; considered to be the most evenly distributed form of cultural infrastructure in the country. Although the Ministry of Culture considers that local authorities should take responsibility for amateur activities, it nevertheless provides considerable funding. The reasons for the Ministry's support are:
- there are hardly any other cultural activities in small towns / villages;
- the difficult financial situation in many local communities;
- protection of valuable forms of traditional heritage; and
- stimulation of awareness about the importance of culture for the identity and revitalisation of a town or region.
The Croatian Culture Assembly (Hrvatski sabor kulture) has its roots in the hundred year old tradition of amateur cultural and artistic activities and its mission is oriented to the support and development of cultural and artistic activities. It is a member of CISM, AITA, AMATEO, etc.
According to data from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS, 2011) in the 2009/2010 season, there were 965 associations of cultural and artistic amateurism operating in the Republic of Croatia, which shows an increase of 23.1% compared to the 2006/2007 season (the survey is triennial). Thus, no new data is available. The total number of members increased by 10.7% compared to the 2006/2007 season. The share of female members in the associations of cultural and artistic amateurism increased by 8.4%. The share of active members in the total number was 75.4%; assistant members made up 22.4% and professional personnel - 2.2%. Out of the total number of performances, 46.3% of took place in the associations' headquarters, 47.8% on tours in the Republic of Croatia and 5.9% on tours abroad. The data also show that the representation of amateur cultural and artistic performances in radio and TV programmes increased by 60.5%, compared to the 2006/2007 season.
Table 6 shows the number of amateur cultural and artistic associations in 2009/2010, according to type. Data for the season 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 is not available.
Table 6: Amateur cultural and artistic associations, season 2009/2010
|Type of association||Section -group||Active members (total)*||Active members (male)||Active members (female)|
|Folklore groups||836||25 209||7 917||17 292|
|Drama groups||201||3 272||1 349||1 923|
|Painting and drawing groups||67||1 356||527||829|
|Dance groups||139||3 275||451||2 824|
|Orchestras||539||8 298||6 272||2 026|
|Vocal and choir groups||486||10 001||3 190||6 811|
|Majorette groups||63||1 440||11||1 429|
|Ethno groups||83||1 564||663||901|
|Other||153||2 023||1 045||978|
|TOTAL||2 620||57 119||21 674||35 445|
Source: Republic of Croatia – Central Bureau of Statistics, Priopćenje, 28 February 2011, Year XLVIII, Number 8.3.5. (Available at: http://www.dzs.hr).
* Number of active members from this table is larger than the real number of active members as the same person can be a member of several sections-groups.
Cultural and artistic amateurism is very much alive, which is also shown by the data in Figure 4. According to the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, the number of active members of associations of cultural and artistic amateurism increased significantly – from 43 115 in season 2006/2007, to 57 119 members in season 2009/2010 (Statistical Yearbook 2012, p.509). No new data is available.
Figure 4: Active and supporting members of associations of cultural and artistic amateurism, by gender, 2009/2010 season
The Law on the Protection and Preservation of Cultural Assets (Article 9), under immaterial cultural heritage, stipulates the special status of folk activities. The Strategy of Protection, Conservation and Sustainable Economic Utilisation of Cultural Heritage of Republic of Croatia (2011-2015) envisages actions in this field. The Strategy also provides the analysis of the Ministry's support to NGOs in culture in 2007 which outlines that the support to folk and activities in traditional culture amounted to 5% of the total support to NGOs.
Two examples of long tradition of activities in folk and traditional culture have to be mentioned: 1) National Folk Dance Ensemble of Croatia "Lado" (http://www.lado.hr/en/) was founded in 1949 in Zagreb as a professional national ensemble, with the aim of researching, artistically interpreting and presenting on stage the rich tradition of Croatian music and dance; and, 2) International Folklore Festival that in 2016 celebrates 50 years of continuous activities.
Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Culture (http://www.ief.hr/) is a scientific institution that among its other activities regularly publishes research on folklore and traditional culture in Croatia.
Cultural houses and community cultural clubs
Cultural centres are mostly established by local authorities or run by NGOs on the local (city or municipal) level. There is a growing number of such centres (especially in small cities) involved in different aspects of cultural lives from traditional amateur arts activities to new media (see also chapter 2.4). A Network of the open community learning centres (Zajednica pučkih otvorenih učilišta / Association of Community Centres) consists of community cultural and educational centres offering educational programmes for children, youth or adults and cultural programmes. All of these centres are mostly funded by local authorities but there is no data available on the state level that would give some indication of their penetration, impact and overall budgets. In small towns these centres are very important as sometimes they are the only points of cultural activities.
In total, according to the Statistical Yearbook 2009, in 2005/2006 there were 153 institutions that belonged either to public open universities, homes of culture, cultural centres or to other types of organisations, and they are spread evenly around the country. In the season 2008/2009, this number increased to 217, as data from the Statistical Yearbook 2012 shows (CBS, 2012: 505), which is a substantial increase. No new data is available as the research on these types of organizations is periodical.