3. Cultural and creative sectors
Last update: February, 2022
The preservation of cultural heritage is a central task of cultural policy at all levels. Especially within the framework of monument preservation and in museums, the tangible evidence of cultural traditions is promoted and illustrated.
Cultural infrastructure: monuments, museums, world heritage list
According to the report on building culture, monument protection and monument preservation (2017), there are approximately 1 million individual buildings gardens, land, movable monuments and monument areas in Germany, 63 per cent of which are architectural monuments another 37 per cent are ground monuments. The proportion of listed buildings in the building stock is 2.9 per cent.
According to the most recent survey by the Institute of Museum Studies of 2021 https://journals.ub.uni- heidelberg.de/index.php/ifmzm/issue/view/5496/1014), 66 834 museums existed in 2019 under various forms of sponsorship: 51 per cent of museums are publicly sponsored (3.438 museums: state sponsors: 443; local authorities: 2 606; other forms of public law: 444), 45.3 per cent in private sponsorship (associations 2 043; companies / cooperatives: 327; foundations under private law: 251; private individuals: 473) and 3.8 per cent in mixed forms private and public (258).
Subdivided according to collection areas, the local and regional history museums, folklore and local history museums form the largest of the nine groups with 43.5 percent. The second largest group, with 15.1 percent, were the special cultural history museums. 12.6 percent of the museums had a natural science and technology focus, and the share of art museums was 10.7 percent. Of these 6,834 museums, 4,543 museums reported their visitor numbers, which amounted to 111.6 million visits (2018: 6,771 museums, reporting 4,831 museums with 114.1 million visits). In terms of collecting areas, it was the historical and archaeological museums (19.5 %), the art museums (17.9 %) and the natural science / technical museums (14.5 %), which had the highest number of visits.
Germany currently has 51 World Heritage Sites (48 cultural and three natural) on the UNESCO World Heritage List (https://www.unesco.de/kultur-und-natur/welterbe/welterbe- deutschland/welterbestaetten- deutschland), which includes more than 1,500 World Heritage Sites worldwide. Since 2015, twelve more cultural and natural sites from Germany have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, including, among others: Hamburg's Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel with Chilehaus (2015), the architectural work of Le Corbusier (2016), caves and Ice Age art of the Swabian Alb (2017), Augsburg's water management system (2019) and Matildenhöhe Darmstadt (2021).
In 2013, Germany joined the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The three UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists comprise a total of 584 entries from 131 countries, including five from Germany: Bauhüttenwesen, Blaudruck, Genossenschaftsidee and -practice, falconry as well as organ building and organ music.
Cultural policy: promotion and discussions
Remembrance culture plays an important role in cultural policy. The current coalition agreement (2021) also contains a commitment to the culture of remembrance and understands it as a "commitment to democracy and a path to a common future" (Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/bundesregierung/bundeskanzleramt/staatsministerin- fuer- kultur-und-medien/kultur-im-koalitionsvertrag-1989728) The restitution of Nazi looted art is to exclude the possibility of claims becoming time-barred. The restitution of objects from colonial contexts will also be supported, and a concept for a place of learning and remembrance of colonialism will be developed. The communication of history of and in the immigration society will be advanced.
Monument protection and preservation are primarily the responsibility of the Länder and municipalities, but the preservation of important national cultural monuments is also a focus of the Federal Government's cultural policy. The Federal Government funds numerous nationally significant cultural institutions, partly on its own and partly together with the Länder. These include the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, the German Literature Archive in Marbach and the German Cinematheque in Berlin. Museums dedicated to the history of the Germans and memorial sites are also among them. An important pillar of the federal government's monument conservation is the "Nationally Valuable Cultural Monuments" programme, which promotes the preservation of , archaeological monuments and historical parks and gardens. From 1950 to 2020, over 700 cultural monuments were preserved and restored with around 387 million euros from this programme. Since 2007, the BKM has launched nine special heritage conservation programmes with a total of around 330 million euros until 2021, in addition to the other heritage conservation programmes.
The importance of monument preservation lies in the preservation of the architectural heritage, but also in its economic dimensioin for the building industry, especially for specialised small and medium-sized enterprises. It enjoys great cultural-political esteem, which is supported by public campaigns. These include, for example, the "Open Monument Day", which has been coordinated nationwide by the German Foundation for Monument Protection since 1993, and which is held annually in September under a specific motto (e.g. 2019: Modern Upheavals in Art and Architecture; in 2020: Opportunity Monument: Remember. Preserve. Rethinking and 2021: Being and Appearance - in History, Architecture and Monument Preservation).
For some years now, there has been a public debate on the protection and status of intangible and tangible cultural heritage in cultural policy. It is repeatedly ignited by striking examples and major cultural projects in the federal capital, such as the reconstruction of the City Palace or the restoration of the Museum Island in Berlin, which are of particular political and cultural-historical significance.
In view of dwindling financial resources and the difficulty of finding an appropriate and economically viable use for restored buildings, the protection of historical monuments and the funding policy for the restoration and maintenance of built testimonies to the cultural heritage are coming under increasing pressure. The reason for this is not only the scarcity of public funds, but also the thematic expansion of the concept of monument protection through the broadened cultural concept of the 1970s and 1980s to include evidence of everyday and industrial culture, which is viewed more critically today. As a result of this and the reunification of the two German states, the number of objects worthy of preservation and in need of restoration has grown so much that new criteria for selection are needed.
With regard to the built testimonies of industrial culture, there are more frequent debates about whether it makes sense and is affordable to put them to cultural use, because the public sector seems to be less and less able to pay the follow-up costs. In addition, there are more fundamental cultural policy considerations, because in relation to the financial expenditures for the cultural and artistic works and testimonies of the past, the promotion of contemporary and living art and culture is becoming significantly more marginalised.
Special concepts and events
In July 2007, the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media presented a memorial concept entitled "Taking Responsibility, Strengthening Reappraisal, Deepening Remembrance". In June 2008, after a broad public debate, the Federal Cabinet decided to update the memorial concept of 1999. In the future, on the one hand, memorials of national importance that commemorate the National Socialist reign of terror and its victims, and on the other hand, the reappraisal of the dictatorship in the Soviet occupation zone and in the former GDR and the commemoration of their victims are to be promoted more strongly. In 2015, a symposium was held to critically assess the work done at the memorial sites to date. Also in 2015, the Expert Commission, which advises the Federal Government on the allocation of project funds in the memorial sector, expressly spoke out in favour of the approach of a stronger educational orientation of the Federal German memorial work and funding.
In May 2008, the Memorial to Homosexuals Persecuted under National Socialism, which is located near the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, was handed over to the public in Berlin. With this memorial, the Federal Republic of Germany wants to commemorate the persecuted and murdered homosexual victims and the injustice done to them, and is also intended to be a permanent symbol against intolerance, hostility and discrimination against homosexuals.
In 2010, after 20 years of planning and construction, the Topography of Terror Documentation Centre (https://www.topographie.de/topographie-des-terrors/) was opened on the site of a former central institution of Nazi persecution. With over 1 million visitors a year, it is one of the most visited places of remembrance in Berlin. The first memorial in Germany for deserters was opened in Cologne (September 2009) and the Memoriam Nuremberg Trials (https://museen.nuernberg.de/memorium-nuernberger- prozesse) opened a Exhibition with comprehensive information on Courtroom 600 at the venue of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice in November 2010. In October 2012, the central memorial for the Sinti and Roma murdered under the National Socialists, designed by Dani Karavan, was inaugurated in the presence of the Federal President and the Federal Chancellor. In April 2015, on the 70th anniversary of Munich's liberation, the NS Documentation Centre Munich - Place of Learning and Remembrance on the History of National Socialism (https://www.ns-dokuzentrum-muenchen.de/home/) was opened. In addition, in 2016 the BKM announced a research programme to address the Nazi past of the Minister and central German authorities. Funding of 4 million euros was made available for the period from 2017 to 2020.
In 2011, a new documentation centre about the division of Germany was inaugurated at one of the most frequented border crossings between East and West Berlin (the so-called Palace of Tears).
In 2018, the Minister of State for Culture opened the European Heritage Year in Germany. In Germany, more than 400 projects with 1,500 events and more than 100,000 visitors took part. In 2018, the BKM's budget supported 38 projects and initiatives across Germany related to the European Heritage Year with a total of 7.2 million euros. Germany was one of the initiators of the European Heritage Year. The programme for the theme year was coordinated by the German National Committee for Monument Protection and accompanied by further activities of the federal states, municipalities and other actors.
In 2019, Germany celebrated numerous anniversaries, such as 100 years of the Bauhaus, 100 years of women's suffrage, 50 years of the moon landing, 30 years of the Peaceful Revolution and the fall of the Berlin Wall, and 250 years of Humboldt. Due to these anniversaries and other historical dates, such as the 70th anniversary of the Second World War, activities and programmes in particular were influenced by the theme of heritage and remembrance.
Last update: February, 2022
According to the Conventions of UNESCO’s Declaration on Archives, the central tasks of archives are on the one hand to conserve cultural heritage and to open and convey it to the public and on the other hand, to act as a pillar of constitutional democracy by documenting administrative action and by providing archived information to citizens, for administration purposes and for research. Germany`s archive landscape is very varied. The Federal Archive (Bundesarchiv) is a self-reliant higher federal authority, which has the statutory obligation (Federal Archive Act – original version from January 1988, revised version in march 2017) to save the archive material as well as to utilise it scientifically. The retention period is generally 30 years (§ 11 para. 1.) If the archival material concerns natural persons, the term of protection ends at the earliest ten years after death, possibly also 100 years after birth or 60 years after the documents were created (§ 11 para. 2).
The archives divide themselves in: 1. Federal Archives; 2. Local Archives; 3. Ecclesiastical Archives; 4. Archives of families, noble families and houses; 5. Archives of business; 6. Archives of parliaments, political parties and associations; 7. Media Archives and 8. University Archives, archives of scientific institutions and other stakeholders.
Reliable data only are available for the first group: Federal Archives including the Federal Archive (Bundesarchiv), the Political Archive of the Federal Foreign Office, the National Archive of Prussian Cultural Heritage (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz) (indirectly) and the Archive of the federal commissioner for Stasi-documents of former GDR (Archiv des Bundesbeauftragtenfür die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienes der ehemaligen DDR). In 2016, a total of 339 thousand metres of written material was stored in the nine locations of the Federal Archives, as well as 12.6 million pictures, almost 2 million maps, plans and technical drawings and over 150 thousand film titles. A total of 5,900 visitors were counted on 37,000 user days in 2016. The state archives of the federal states archive material amounting to 1.4 million linear metres at 58 locations.
A total of 5,900 visitors were counted on 37,000 user days in 2016. The state archives of the federal states archive material amounting to 1.4 million metres held in 58 locations.
Libraries guarantee the fulfilment of the constitutionally guaranteed basic right of all citizens "to inform themselves unhindered from generally accessible sources" (Basic Law, Article 5, Para. 1.) The most frequent subdivision of libraries is made into public libraries and academic libraries. Both are open to the public, whereby the academic libraries focus on the needs of academics and students.
The German library statistics showed 6 779 public libraries in 2021 (compared to 7 240 public libraries in 2018). Of the 6 779 public libraries, 28.5 per cent are under full-time management and 71.5 per cent are under part-time or voluntary management (compared to 2018: 27.0 per cent under full-time management and 73.0 per cent under voluntary management). In terms of sponsorship, 49.6 per cent are sponsored by the public sector(all local authorities) (compared to 2018: 48.1 %) , 41.7 per cent by the Catholic Church (2018: 40.9 %), 8.2 per cent by the Protestant Church (2018: 8.9 %) and 0.9 per cent in other sponsorship (2018: 0.7 %). Public libraries had a media stock of107 million in 2021 (2018: 113 million), of which 85 million were in public libraries with full-time management (2018: 89 million) and 24 million in voluntary management (2018: 24 million). 80 million items were held by publicly owned libraries (2018: 94 million). Public libraries recorded a total of 57.4 million visits in 2018 (2021: 120 million visits) and 249 million borrowings (2018: 340). It should be noted that in 2021 the libraries were temporarily closed for corona reasons.
In 2021, there were 241 academic libraries (2018: 238), including six national or central libraries. Specialist libraries (2018: 5), 24 regional libraries (2018: 25), 80 university libraries (2018: 79) and
131 university and university of applied sciences libraries (2018: 129). There were 47 million physical borrowings (2018: 74 million). The temporary closure of these libraries due to corona should also be taken into account in these figures.
For the library laws see chapter 4.2.5, for the Federal Archives and Stasi Archives Act see chapter 4.2.2.
 Statistisches Bundesamt (2017): Spartenbericht Museen, Bibliotheken und Archive, Wiesbaden: Self-published.
 See ibid.
Last update: February, 2022
Germany has a large and diverse theatre landscape - in all three sectors. It includes state and municipal theatres, commercially run musical and entertainment theatres as well as a high density of independent theatres, dance companies and performance groups. There are also historical reasons for the high density of theatre in Germany: before the founding of the nation state in 1871, there existed a multitude of city states, small states and principalities whose residential towns each maintained their own court and state theatres. In the 19th century, theatre also became the central form of self-expression for the emancipating middle classes, and numerous municipal theatres were established as a result. As early as the 1920s, new, open forms of theatre emerged (certainly in a departure from bourgeois theatre aesthetics), and in the 1960s, these developments were taken up in the western federal states and numerous independent theatres were established.
Central actors at the association level are the German Stage Association (Deutscher Bühnenverein), the Federal Association of the Performing Arts (Bundesverband Freie Darstellende Künste) and the Federation of German Amateur Theatres. The German Stage Association pursues the goal of "maintaining, promoting and cultivating the diversity of the theatre and orchestra landscape and its cultural offerings". It is an association of interests and employers of (publicly funded) theatres and orchestras. The Federal Association of the Performing Arts is the umbrella organisation of the 16 state associations and three associated associations and represents the interests of its more than 2 300 members at the federal level. Whether theatre and dance houses, collectives or individual actors: In total, the BFDK represents around 25 000 theatre and dance professionals in Germany. Founded in 1892, the Bund Deutscher Amateurtheater represents German amateur theatre. It is an umbrella organisation with 18 member associations and around 2 500 affiliated theatres.
The German Stage Association regularly publishes theatre statistics and work statistics. The theatre statistics provide an overview of the most important data of the publicly funded and private theatres, orchestras and festival companies in Germany. Each individual company is presented with information on events and visitors, staff, income and expenditure as well as prices. The work statistics contain information on the plays of a season, including the number of performances, the frequency of productions and the number of visitors.
The most recent theatre statistics of the German Stage Association published in 2022 contain the data for the 2019/2020 season, taking into account that the theatres and orchestras were massively affected by the COVID 19 pandemic in this season: by the closure of theatres in the 1st lockdown from March. "The publication of the 2019/2020 theatre statistics is done in the knowledge that the figures are first and foremost a contemporary historical document, but they are not comparable with past or future seasons. They have no significance as far as the development of the theatres and orchestras is concerned," says the Executive Director of the German Stage Association Claudia Schmitz. A total of 141 state theatres, municipal theatres and state theatres as well as 121 orchestras (including theatre orchestras), 195 private theatres and 73 festivals shared their income and expenditure, staff details, attendance figures and events in 2019/2020. There were a total of 46 629 performances. Including the publicly funded theatres, the festivals, the listed private theatres, the independent symphony orchestras and the radio orchestras, around 13.8 million visitors were recorded in 2019/2020.
Due to the special Corona situation, the figures from the previous statistics are also still shown here, which depict the 2018/2019 season and which are also shown in the current statistics: A total of 142 state theatres, municipal theatres and state theatres as well as 128 orchestras (including theatre orchestras), 199 private theatres and 84 festivals shared their income and expenditure, staff details, attendance figures and events in 2018/2019. In total, there were 65,995 performances. Including the publicly funded theatres, the festivals, the listed private theatres, the independent symphony orchestras and the radio orchestras, around 20.3 million 20.3 million attendances were recorded in 2018/2019.
The Bundesverband Freier Darstellender Künste (Federal Association of the Liberal Performing Arts) also regularly publishes the results of its member survey or "Statistical Status Determination of the Liberal Performing Arts". The most recent statistical assessment was published in February 2022. It presents the data from the 2019/2020 survey, this includes data from 14 of the 16 state associations. It also includes a comparison of the situation of the liberal performing arts before the COVID-19 pandemic began and the situation since. The predominant forms of work are groups (43%) and individuals (41%), the predominant legal form is (solo) self-employed (45%). If the actors of the independent performing arts had employees, 59 per cent were employed on a fee basis in 2020, 11 per cent had a fixed-term permanent position and 19 per cent had a permanent position. 37 per cent of the actors had their own rehearsal rooms. In terms of genres, drama dominates with 31 per cent of productions, followed by puppet, figure and project theatre with 16 per cent and children's and youth theatre with 13 per cent. 63 per cent of the productions are new productions.
While the current statistics focused on percentages, the publication of the last member survey, which was published in 2016, offers a lot more information: According to this, the independent performing arts create an average of 3.7 new productions per year and perform them a total of 54.7 times over the course of time. The independent scene is strongly oriented towards networking; cooperations, guest performances and co-productions are among its typical forms of work. With 15 200 events for children and young people, 52% of the theatre on offer for this target group is provided by the independent performing arts (for comparison: 13 760 by the public theatres.
The funding structures and also the employment structures for the theatres differ very clearly in relation to the sectors: While the publicly funded state and municipal theatres generally receive institutional funding from the respective states or municipalities, the funding of the independent performing arts is predominantly project funding '(for more see: https://darstellende- kuenste.de/images/downloads/bfdk/freieDK_dokumente_NR1-foerderstruktur_201610.pdf).
In 2020, 30 200 people were insured in the performing arts sector of the Künstlersozialkasse.
Last update: February, 2022
The visual arts in Germany are characterised by a great variety of artistic forms of expression, such as painting, sculpture, photography, installation, performance, film and interventionist art practice.
There are numerous rooms in all three cultural sectors – state, market, society – for the presentation and communication of the visual arts. These include more than 600 art museums, as well as numerous public and private exhibition houses (without their own collections), but also the more than 300 art associations in Germany, which are supported by the commitment of art enthusiasts on site – both in larger and smaller communities and in rural areas. The private galleries – 340 members have joined together in the Federal Association of German Galleries and Art Dealers (Bundesverband Deutscher Galerien und Kunsthändler) – also show works by the artists they represent in their exhibitions and at art fairs. The most traditional annual art fair, which has been held since 1967, is Art Cologne. Also worth mentioning is the Berlin Arts Week, which has been held annually since 2012. For Berlin Art Week, the major museums of contemporary art, Berlin exhibition houses and art associations, two art fairs, private collections of contemporary art and project spaces have joined forces to present a joint exhibition program.
Public space and digital space also play an increasing role for the visual arts: for example, there are now online galleries as salesrooms for art.
More than 10 000 visual artists are organised in the Federal Association of Visual Artists (Bundesverband der Bildenden Künstler). Since 1972 it has represented the professional interests of freelance visual artists in Germany towards politics and administration. In 2020, 65 800 artists were insured in the field of fine arts in the Artists' Social Security Fund.
Only a small percentage of visual artists are able to make a living exclusively from the sale of their works. Very often they combine various activities and sources of income, such as fees from artistic teaching activities. This mixed income structure requires artists to have a high degree of self-exploitation qualities and flexibility.
Germany has a network of about 400 youth art schools. At 25 art academies in Germany there are specific courses of study in the visual arts, at which between 150 and 4 000 students take advantage of these courses.
 Art Cologne is the oldest art fair in the world, today it gathers around 180 galleries with works by over 2 000 artists every year.
Last update: February, 2022
The culture industries are a separate and autonomous pillar of cultural life in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Generally, the cultural field is divided into three sectors: a) private cultural enterprises, b) state or municipal publicly financed institutions and c) not-for-profit, intermediary organisations, foundations, associations etc. According to the Conference of Minister of Economic Affairs and Energy in 2009 the cultural and creative industry consists of 11 submarkets: music industry, book market, art market, film industry, broadcasting industry, performing arts market, architecture market, design industry, press market, advertising market and software and games industry (and others).
Once a year, the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (since 2009) publishes the status and perspectives of the cultural and creative industries in Germany in the monitoring report "Cultural and Creative Industries".
According to the current monitoring report "Cultural and Creative Industries 2020", approx. 259 600 companies were active in 2019 (compared to 2018: + approx. 3 000). These companies generated a turnover of 174.1 billion euros compared to 2018: +3.0 billion). The submarkets, design, software/games and architecture had the highest number of companies (23%, 16% and 15%), while the submarkets with the highest turnover were software/games, press and advertising (29%, 17% and 17%). Gross value added in the culture and creative industries was EUR 106.4 billion in 2019. It thus contributes 3.1 percent to the total economic output.
In Germany, 1.84 million people were employed in the culture and creative industries (comparison 2018: 1.7 million). They are made up of core employees, whose share is 67 percent, and marginally employed persons, whose share is 33 percent. Both groups are subdivided into the employed and the self-employed. The 1.24 million core employees are made up of 0.98 million employees subject to social insurance contributions and 0.256 million self-employed and freelancers with an annual turnover of more than 17 500 euros. The marginally employed consist of 0.3 million mini-self-employed (under 17 500 euros annual turnover) and marginally employed. In 2019, the culture and creative industries contributed 106.4 billion euros (2018: 100.5 billion euros) and thus 3.1 per cent to the total gross value added.
According to the latest monitoring report, the total turnover of the culture and creative industries has increased by around 40 billion euros over the last ten years, from 134.3 billion euros (2009) to a total of 174.1 billion euros (2019). This corresponds to an average annual growth rate of 2.6 percent. This positive trend will not continue due to Corona; for 2020, significant sales losses of between 13 and 24 percent are expected, depending on the scenario. The individual submarkets are affected to varying degrees.
On 20.1.2022, a so-called "Betroffenheitspapier": "Betroffenheit der Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft von der Corona-Pandemie. Economic impacts 2020, 2021 &2022 based on a scenario analysis" was presented. According to this, the turnover losses for the cultural and creative industries for 2020 were -15.3 billion euros. The submarkets particularly affected include the performing arts market (-81 %), the music industry (-44 %), the film industry (-41 %) and the art market (-39 %):In the meantime, reports on cultural industries are available in all federal states and are updated at different intervals. The most recent versions are listed here:
- Baden-Württemberg 2021 (6th Report of the State Government on the Cultural and Creative Industries)
- Bavaria 2020 (Second Bavarian Culture and Creative Industries Report)
- Berlin/Brandenburg2015(2 .Kultur -und Kreativwirtschaftsindex)
- Bremen 2010
- Hamburg 2019 (Data report on the culture and creative industries in the Hamburg metropolitan region)
- Hessen 2021 (6th Culture and Creative Industries Report)
- Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2016 (Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
- Lower Saxony 2019 (Monitoring Cultural and Creative Industries in Lower Saxony 2014-2018)
- North Rhine-Westphalia 2019 (Creativ. Report)
- Rhineland-Palatinate 2021 (Rhineland-Palatinate location study)
- Saarland 2011 (Creative Industries Report Saarland)
- Saxony 2019 (2nd Culture and Creative Industries Report: for Saxony)
- Saxony-Anhalt 2020 (Market Report: Cultural and Creative Industries in Saxony-Anhalt)
- Schleswig-Holstein 2017 (Daten zur Kultur- und Kreativwwwirtschaft Schleswig-Holstein) and
- Thüringen 2011(Kreativwirtschaft in Thüringen).
Numerous municipalities have also published cultural industry reports - e.g. Dortmund, Düsseldorf, Aachen, Dresden, Cologne and Karlsruhe.
Increasingly, strategic partnerships between the public and private sectors are also being formed in the Federal Republic of Germany for cultural projects and institutions (public-private partnerships). For the future, it is to be expected that these strategic partnerships will expand even further. Overall, the cultural industries have been a growth factor in recent years. Due to the Corona crisis, this trend will not continue. In addition, for about 20 years there have been increasing efforts on the part of cultural policy to promote the private cultural industry not only through tax breaks and comparable benefits, but also directly, for example by supporting a music export office (since 2003).
In 2007, there were intense discussions about the relevance of the cultural and creative industries for the economic development and employment situation in Germany. The Federal Government, in particular the Ministry of Economics and the Commissioner for Culture and the Media, introduced the programme "Initiative Culture and Creative Industries" as a method to improve the framework conditions for their growth and to support financially and infrastructurally the "Music Initiative", a core area of the creative industries. This topic represented an important place in the German EU Presidency in the first half of 2007.
The report of the Enquete Commission of the German Bundestag 2007 also devoted a separate chapter to the cultural and creative industries. The "Jahrbuch für Kulturpolitik 2008" of the Institute for Cultural Policy of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft was also dedicated to this topic.
Training and further education programmes for the cultural industries are offered both at universities and colleges, where a number of degree programmes in the field of cultural management have been created in recent years. In the federal states, there are various programmes for counselling and further education for start-ups, some of which also focus on the arts and cultural sector. One of the pioneers was the programme "Creae.NRW", which was launched by the NRW Ministry of Economic Affairs in 2007.
In 2010, the "Cultural and Creative Industries Initiative" took another important step by establishing a competence centre for cultural and creative industries in Eschborn with eight regional offices. After the completion of the first project period 2010-2015, the competence centre was restructured for the second project period 2016 to 2019 (a central office + a new sponsor: the u-institut) and the task portfolio was modified (incl. strengthening the visibility of the cultural and creative industries). In the third project period since 2020, the sponsorship is in the hands of the u-institute and Prognos.
The task of the Competence Centre is to contribute to anchoring the importance of the cultural and creative industries as an independent sector and information engine more visibly in the economy, society and culture "56. The implementation takes place through "intra- and intersectoral networking, cross- border cooperation and extraordinary event formats. It is a nationwide contact point for the cultural and creative industries, a think tank and network actor" (https://www.kultur-kreativ- wirtschaft.de/KUK/Navigation/DE/Kompetenzzentrum/kompetenzzentrum.html) .
In summer 2021, the Coalition Culture and Creative Industries Germany (k3d) was founded (https://k3- d.org/) as an open alliance of leading private-sector interest groups. It unites representatives of the audiovisual, book, design, gallery, press, fashion, music and cultural event industries and sees itself as a mouthpiece for social and economic change and develops statements and demands on cultural, media and socio-political issues. Its central demands include the creation of an exposed responsibility for the cultural and creative industries at the federal level and ensuring coordination at the Länder and EU levels.
Last update: March, 2020
According to the current monitoring report "Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft 2020", there were 17 450 companies in the book market sector in 2019 (for comparison, 2009: 16 232, 2018: 17 411). Turnover in 2019 amounted to 14.3 billion euros (2009: 14.8 billion euros, 2018: 13.5 billion euros). This means that the book market accounted for 7.2% of the turnover in the culture and creative industries. In 2019, 113500 people were employed in the book market, including 69 000 core employees (2009: 79 000, 2018: 69 000), 51 000 of whom were subject to social security contributions (2009: 63 000, 2018: 52 000). The gross value added of the book market amounted to 5.55 billion euros in 2019 (2009: Eur 4.7 billion, 2018: 5.3 billion). Within the book market, the largest turnover was generated by publishers with 8.6 billion euros (2018: 8.3 billion euros). The report already includes a forecast for the development of the book market in 2020. According to a medium scenario a decline of -19 per cent is predicted.
According to the latest monitoring report "Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft 2020" there were 31 082 companies in the press market sector in 2019 (for comparison 2009: 34 317, 2018: 31 197). The turnover amounted to 30.0 billion euros in 2019 (2009:31.4 billion euros, 2018: 29 billion euros), which is equivalent to slightly 15.3 percent of the total cultural and creative industries. The press market had a total of 245000 employees in 2019, including 143 000 core employees (2009: 168 312, 2018: 143 000), of which 110 000 were employees subject to social security contributions (2009: 134,000, 2018: 112,000). The gross value added of the press market in 2019 amounted to12.8 billion euros (2009: 10.4 billion euros, 2018: 12.5 billion euros). The retail trade with magazines and newspapers accounted for the highest share of companies with 8 000 companies (2009: 9 500). Within the press market, the largest turnover was generated by newspaper publishers with 10.5 billion euros and 8.6 billion euros by magazines. A loss in turnover of between 9 and 14 per cent is expected for 2020.
Last update: March, 2020
The Film Promotion Act created a legal basis for federal film promotion for the first time in 1967. This law, which came into force in 1968, already contained essential elements of the law in force today, for example the establishment of the Film Promotion Agency, reference film promotion, short film promotion, support for film theatre operators and the levying of a film tax. The producers of funded films were obliged to transfer the television exploitation rights to the Filmförderungsanstalt. The latest amendment was passed in May 2021 and came into force on 1 January 2022.This amendment is intended to make the Film Promotion Act more adaptable - also against the background of the Corona pandemic. In addition, the amendment included obligations on climate protection and gender equality. In future, for example, a CO2 balance sheet must be drawn up for film productions. Gender equality is to be taken more into account when appointing members to the boards of the Federal Film Board. Likewise, the interests of people with disabilities should be strengthened with regard to appropriate and fair working conditions. Due to the pandemic, the new version will only be valid for 2 years (instead of the usual 5 years).
The German Federal Film Board (FFA) is a federal agency under public law. It is Germany's national film funding body and supports all aspects of German film. In addition to its role as a funding body, the organisation is a central service provider for the German film industry. It promotes cinema films in all phases of their creation and exploitation: from script development and production to distribution, sales and video. Further funds are used for the promotion of cinemas, the preservation of cinematic heritage, for the perception and dissemination of German film abroad and for the mediation of film education. In addition, the FFA is mandated to support cooperation between the film industry and television broadcasters in order to strengthen German cinema. Furthermore, the FFA regularly records, analyses and publishes the most important market data of the film, cinema and video industry in Germany. According to the FFA annual report, the FFA's budget in 2020 was 109.9 million euros (compared to 83.9 million euros in 2019 and 74.2 million euros in 2018). The largest share of this is the film levy, which amounted to 55.5 million in 2020 (compared to 57.6 million in 2019). Those liable to pay the levy are exploiters of cinematographic works, including cinemas, companies in the video industry including providers of video-on-demand services, television broadcasters and marketers of pay-TV programmes.
In addition, the FFA administratively oversees the film promotion of film projects funded by the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (BKM). This includes the "German Film Promotion Fund" (DFFF), the "German Motion Picture Fund" (GMPF) as well as the processing of project funding for feature-length and short films as well as the film and cinema-specific programmes within the framework of "NEUSTART KULTUR".
The funding instruments also include, for example, numerous prizes (e.g. German Film Prize, German Screenplay Prize, German Short Film Prize). In addition, film festivals and symposia (e.g. The Berlin International Film Festival), international film productions (through bilateral film agreements), as well as institutions dedicated to the restoration and preservation of the cultural heritage of film (e.g. Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek in Berlin and the Deutsches Filminstitut in Frankfurt am Main) are also supported by the BKM.
The aim of cinema funding by the FFA is to strengthen and maintain the nationwide and diverse cinema structure and its quality both in cities and in rural regions. There is funding according to the project principle and funding according to the reference principle. Funding is granted, among other things, for modernisation, the creation of barrier-free access, for measures to strengthen competitiveness and for media education support.
In 2020, film funding (excluding Corona funding) totalled 460.6 million euros (see publication: Das Kinojahr 2020, published in February 2021). These funds are made up of 72.36 million euros from the FFA, 221.27 million euros from the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media and additional funding from the federal states. According to the report, 38.1 million cinema tickets were sold in 2020 - down 67.9 per cent from 118.6 million tickets sold the previous year.
In 2019, the BKM has launched an emergency aid programme of 5 million euros for the promotion of cinemas in rural areas, with which cinemas in towns with up to 25,000 inhabitants will be supported in their investments. In 2020 and 2021, a series of programmes were launched to support cinemas during the Corona pandemic - in particular Zukunftsprorgramm Kino I and Zukunftsprogramm Kino II.
Deutsche Welle is the foreign broadcasting service of the Federal Republic of Germany and a member of the ARD. It broadcasts in 32 languages. Today, Deutsche Welle works trimedially: television (DW-TV), radio and internet. According to § 4 of the Deutsche Welle Act, DW's task is to make Germany understandable as a cultural nation that has grown up in Europe and as a free democratic constitutional state - and to promote understanding and exchange between cultures and peoples.
This makes it one of the sponsors of the foreign cultural policy of the Federal Republic of Germany. DW's funding is largely financed with tax money from the federal budget. Deutsche Welle receives its subsidy via the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media 2020: 417.1 million euros for comparison in 2019: 365 million euros). Around 3,000 employees from 60 nations work at the headquarters in Bonn and the Berlin site. The multimedia content in 32 languages will reach more than 289 million people worldwide every week in 2021. DW's online offerings account for 122 million and overtake TV formats for the first time. The latter are at 117 million, radio usage remains stable at 50 million contacts per week. (https://www.dw.com/de/profil/s- 30626) The Deutsche Welle Academy is Deutsche Welle's centre for international media development, journalistic training and knowledge transfer. In 2018, Deutsche Welle celebrated its 65th anniversary. This year, DW also published a sustainability report for the first time. In September 2021, a climate protection strategy was published for the first time. Since 2015, DW has presented the annual Freedom of Speech Award, which recognises individuals or initiatives that have made a special contribution to promoting freedom.
According to the latest monitoring report "Cultural and Creative Industries 2020", there were 17 091 companies in the broadcasting sector in 2019 (for comparison, 2009: 17,853, 2018: 17 808). The Turnover amounted to 10.9 billion euros in 2019 (2009: 7.4 billion, 2018: 10.4 billion). In the area of Broadcasting industry workers totalled 66 000 in 2019, including 23 000 Core workforce employed (2009: 39 000, 2018: 43 000), of which 25 000 are subject to social security contributions. employees (2009: 21 000, 2018: 25000). The gross value added in the broadcasting industry in 2019 amounted to 8.1 billion euros (2009: 6.3 billion euros, 2018: 7.7 billion euros). Within the broadcasting industry, the largest turnover (79 per cent) was achieved by private TV broadcasters.
Last update: February, 2022
According to the latest monitoring report "Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft 2020", there were 14 670 companies in the music industry sector in 2019 (for comparison, 2009: 13 862, 2018: 14 382). Turnover amounted to 9.0 billion euros in 2019 (2009: 6.3 billion, 2018: 8.7 billion), representing a 4.6 per cent share of the total culture and creative industries.
The music industry had 90 879 total employees in 2019, including 55 000 core employees (2009: 47 000, 2018: 53 000), of which 40 000 were employees subject to social security contributions (2009: 33 000, 2018: 39 000). Gross value added in the music industry amounted to 6.2 billion euros in 2018 (2009: 4.5 billion euros, 2018: 5.8 billion euros). Within the music industry, the largest turnover was generated with 2.3 billion euros was achieved by theatre and concert organisers. Due to the extensive ban on large events, the music industry is expected to lose up to 59 percent of its turnover, especially in 2020.
320 music publishers have joined forces in the German Music Publishers Association. The German Orchestra Association is the association representing the interests of professional musicians. It is committed to the further development of professional orchestras, choirs, theatres and independent ensembles and, as a trade union, advocates for better working conditions for musicians.
Last update: February, 2022
The software/games industry is the largest sub-market of the German culture and creative industries. According to the latest monitoring report "Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft 2020", there were 41 963 companies in the software and games industry in 2019 (for comparison: 2009: 27 018, 2018: 40 363). Turnover amounted to €50.1 billion in 2019 (2009: €24.3 billion, 2018: €45.0 billion), which corresponded to 25.5% of the total turnover of the culture and creative industries in Germany. In the software and games industry, 546 000 people were employed in 2019, including 472 000 core employees (2009: 244000, 2018: 244 000), of which 430 000 employees subject to social security (2009: 217000, 2018: 399 000). The Gross value added in the software and games industry amounted to €36.7 billion in 2019 (2009: €15.2 billion, 2018: €32.7 billion). Within the software and games industry, the largest turnover was generated with 9.4 billion euros by Other Software Development. A turnover loss of 6 to 10 per cent is expected for 2020.
The federal government also promotes game development. In 2019, the pilot phase for federal computer game funding was implemented for smaller projects (up to 200 000 euros). In August 2020, the funding guideline for production funding with larger funding amounts was published. According to European Union specifications, a computer game must pass a cultural test regarding game content and cultural background as a funding requirement. Since 2019, 340 projects have been funded. The funding programme has been consolidated with the so-called large-volume computer games funding and an underlying EU notification. The federal budget provides up to 50 million euros annually for the measure. The "Strategy for Germany as a Games Location" published at the end of June 2021 sets out the goals and guidelines of a holistic games policy. Funding is provided by the Federal Ministry of Digital Affairs and Transport. (https://www.bmvi.de/DE/Themen/Digitales/Computerspielefoerderung/computerspielefoerderung.html )
According to the current monitoring report "Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft 2020", there were 60 481 companies in the Design sector in 2019 (for comparison, 2009: 48 332, 2018: 60 822). Turnover amounted 20.9 billion euros in 2019 and 20.5 billion in 2018 (2009: 17.6 billion euros). In 2019, 275 000 people were employed in the design industry, including 154 000 core employees (2009: 125 000, 2018: 153 000), of which 93 000 were employees subject to social security contributions (2009: 77 000, 2018: 92 000). Gross value added in the design economy amounted to 102.9 billion euros in 2019 (2009: 9.0 billion euros, 2018: 10.5 billion euros). Within the design economy, the largest turnover of 12.9 billion euros was generated by advertising design. Sales losses of between 22 and 38 per cent are expected for the design sector.According to the latest monitoring report "Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft 2020", there were 39 395 companies in the architectural market sector in 2019 (for comparison, 2009: 39 956, 2018: 39 285). Turnover amounted to €12.4 billion in2019 (2009: €8.0 billion, 2018: €11.9 billion), representing 6.3 per cent of the total culture and creative industries. In 2019, 176,000 people were employed in the architecture market, including 137 000 core employees (2009: 100 000, 2018: 133 000), 99 000 of whom were subject to social security contributions (2009: 77 000, 2018: 93 000). Gross value added in the architecture market amounted to 7.9 billion euros in 2019 (2009: 4.7 billion euros, 2018: 7.4 billion euros). Within the design economy, the largest turnover of 8.3 billion euros was generated by architectural firms for building construction. A loss in turnover of 8 to 14 per cent is expected for 2020.
Last update: February, 2022
Although the term "cultural tourism" was first used in the 1980s - also as a result of European Union funding programmes - there is no generally valid definition, and in the course of the last few years it has been extended to include everyday objects and behaviour. "In general, the term "cultural tourism" can be differentiated between supply-oriented (the core of the definitions is the offer of attractions), demand- oriented (the starting point is the behaviour of tourists) and value-oriented definitions (cultural tourism as an offer of attractions accompanied by monument preservation and didactic objectives). Detached from this, four basic characteristics of cultural tourism can be identified: the tourist's interest in culture, the visit to cultural institutions, the attendance of cultural events and the sound provision of information. The cultural tourism offer ranges from historical buildings (churches, museums, castles) and contemporary architecture (railway stations, new museum buildings) to historical sites and urban ensembles (battlefields, old town centres), cultural events and cultural events (festivals, folk festivals, carnival customs) and cultural landscape attractions (wine landscapes) to typical regional gastronomic offerings (food, wine)".
Cultural tourism in Germany consisted mainly of city tourism. In order to promote cultural tourism in rural areas, the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy launched the project: "The destination as a stage: how does cultural tourism make rural regions successful?" from 2015 to 2018. With this project, rural regions were specifically supported in marketing their cultural offerings. Five model regions were selected for the implementation of the project. One component of the project was the online dialogue platform www.culturcamp.de.
The field of action cultural tourism has gained relevance for cultural management in recent years. In 2018, the "Cultural Tourism Study 2018" was presented by the Institute for Cultural Management at the Ludwigsburg University of Education, with the results of an empirical study of the practice of cultural and tourism actors (cultural institutions, cultural administrations and tourism organisations.
In November 2019, the report of the working group of experts from the EU Member States of the Open Method of Coordination for Sustainable Cultural Tourism was published. During the WG's deliberations, the term "sustainable cultural tourism" was defined for the first time: "Sustainable cultural tourism is the integrated management of cultural heritage and tourism activities in cooperation with the communities concerned so that, in the interest of the preservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and the sustainable development of tourism, all stakeholders derive social, environmental and economic benefits." One component of the report are 55 recommendations.