3. Cultural and creative sectors
Last update: March, 2020
Heritage is a cultural policy priority at all levels of government and includes museums as well as the conservation of historic monuments and sites which bear witness to the country's cultural traditions. The federal states (Länder) and municipalities (Kommunen) are primarily responsible for cultural heritage issues and politics; however, the conservation of important national historic monuments is a main focus of cultural policy of the federal government too. The federal government supports the rescue and restoration of funded historical monuments through programmes such as Cultural Monuments of National Significance (National wertvolle Kulturdenkmäler). From 1950 to 2018, this programme provided 375 million EUR for conservation and restoration of about 680 cultural historic monuments. In 2007, the federal government launched a special investment programme worth 400 million EUR. Since 2007, the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media launched nine special programmes concerning cultural monument protection amounting to around 280 million EUR, besides other programmes concerning the conservation of historic monuments and sites.
Despite the still strained financial situation of many cultural budgets, several museums were built and opened over recent years, partly with public funding, partly with the support from private sponsors. A lot of money is still being spent on the renovation of existing cultural institutions, particularly opera houses and theatres. Particularly in recent years, the real costs of restoration proved to be considerably higher than originally planned, concerning e.g. Staatsoper Berlin (+130 million EUR), Elbphilharmonie Hamburg (+600 million EUR) – meanwhile parliamentary committees of inquiry are occupied with these two construction processes having submitted their reports in 2014 or 2015 – or the opera in Cologne (+240 million EUR). The importance of the conservation of historic monuments and sites lies not only in its preservation as cultural heritage but also in its economic significance for the construction industry, in particular specialised small and medium-size businesses. The protection of historic monuments is promoted through government sponsored public relations campaigns, e. g. the Day of the Monuments (for example in 2013 with the motto "Beyond the good and beautiful – inconvenient historic monuments?" and in 2019 "Modern(e): upheavals in art and architecture”). Germany's immaterial cultural heritage is continuously addressed and examined from a modern perspective in theatrical, musical and literary productions. Municipal and state sponsors of cultural institutions provide facilities for this purpose.
A public debate on the importance of immaterial and material cultural heritage in cultural policy has been going on for several years. It is usually fuelled by large scale projects and events of outstanding political significance in the Federal capital, e. g. the reconstruction of the Stadtschloss(former castle of the Emperor) or the reconstruction of the Museumsinselin Berlin; both projects meanwhile received parliamentary approval and have partly been accomplished. The main issues continuously addressed in public debates are questions on how many and which monuments from the past the state should protect, reconstruct and maintain and by which measures. Cultural monument protection and policies which support the built cultural heritage are under growing pressure in the face of dwindling financial resources and difficulties to find appropriate and economically sound concepts for the use of reconstructed buildings. This also applies to some monuments of industrial culture included on the UNESCOWorld Heritage List, e.g. the Völklinger Hüttein the Saarland or ZecheZollverein in Essen (North Rhine-Westphalia). Financial reasons are only one aspect of the problem; another lies in the widened concept of culture that was developed in the 1970s and 1980s which included objects of everyday life as well as industrial culture – a concept which is no longer generally accepted. The reunification of Germany increased the number of objects worth protecting and reconstructing to an extent that makes the development of new evaluation criteria a necessity.
From 2015 to 2019, 7 more German cultural and natural sites were added to the UNESCO world heritage list, the Hamburger Speicherstadtand Kontorhausviertel with Chilehaus(2015), the architectonic oeuvre of Le Corbusier (2016), Caves and ice age art of the Swabian Alb 2017), Archaeological border complex Haithabu and Danewerk (2018), coal and steel region Erzgebirge / /Krusnohori (2019) and Augsburg Water Management System (2019). Now Germany is represented with 46 world heritage sites (43 cultural heritage sites and 3 natural heritage sites) on the list that records more than 1.000 cultural and natural sites. There are frequent discussions on whether objects of industrial spaces can be used in a meaningful and sustainable way by cultural projects because public funds are more and more insufficient to pay for their high maintenance costs. More fundamental cultural policy considerations regarding financial support to historic works of art and culture leaves little room for the support of contemporary living art, thus upsetting the balance between protection of heritage and support of contemporary creativity.
In July 2007, the Federal Commissioner for Culture and the Media(BKM) presented a Memorial Place Concept with the title Notice Responsibility, Strengthen Refurbishment, Deepen Memories. It relates to memorial places such as the former concentration camps on the one hand and, on the other, memorial places in memory of the GDR oppression. After a broad public debate about this, the Bundestag passed a revised plan in November 2008. According to this (among other things), memorials of national significance, that come to terms with the terror of the National Socialist regime and commemorate its victims, are being supported more strongly. In September 2015 a symposium for critical balancing of previous memorial work took place: 70 years later - Historical understanding and political-ethical orientation in memorial work in the 21st century organised by the Federal Commissioner for Culture and the Media and the Federal Agency of civic education. Also in 2015 the expert-committee, which is advising the federal government regarding the allocation of funds of memorial places, argued for a pedagogical orientation of the German memorial work and furtherance of it. In May 2008 the Berlin Memorial to Homosexuals, which is near the Memorial fof Jews Murdered under National Socialism, was handed over to the public. With this monument, the Federal Republic of Germany wants to honour persecuted and murdered homosexual victims, keep alive the memory of the injustice done to them, and maintain a permanent symbol against intolerance, hostility and discrimination towards gays and lesbians.
Within this framework, a great number of monuments and memorial places were set up. In 2010 for instance, after 20 years of planning and constructing, the documentation centre Topography of Terror (Topographie des Terrors) situated on a site of a former central institution of National Socialist persecution was opened. The first German monument for deserters was inaugurated in Cologne (September 2009). The Memoriam Nürnberger Prozesse opened an exhibition with detailed data on the courtroom 600 at the venue of the Nürnberg Court of Justice in November 2010, one month before the study The office and its past (Das Amt und seine Vergangenheit) was presented by an independent Historical Committee established by the Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs. This study examined the role the Foreign Service played during the period of National Socialism and its deep involvement in the holocaust.
In 2011, a new documentation centre about the division of Germany was inaugurated at one of the most frequented border crossing points between East and West-Berlin (called the Palace of Tears). The memorial for the Sinti and Roma that were murdered under National Socialism was designed by Dani Karavan and inaugurated by the Chancellor and the President in October 2012.
In April 2015, on the 70th anniversary of the Liberation of Munich, the National Socialism Documentation Center Munich – educational and memorial venue regarding the history of National Socialism (NS-Dokumentationszentrum München – Lern- und Erinnerungsort zur Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus) was opened.
In 2013, Germany joined the UNESCO Convention on the conservation of intangible cultural heritage. As a first step of implementation, a nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage was set up in 2013/2014. First entries were made in December 2014. As a result, in March 2015 Germany was able to submit proposals for the UNESCO lists that were previously withdrawn from this register.
In December 2019 Germany registered four entries on the UNESCO-list of intangible cultural heritage of mankind: idea & practice of cooperatives, organ building and music, falconry (in conjunction with 17 other states) and blue-printing (in conjunction with four other states). In March 2019 the multinational nominating of the German theatrical and orchestral landscape was submitted to the UNESCO. A decision referring to this is expected at the end of 2020.
In 2016 the BKM advertised a research programme about debates on the NS-past of ministries and central government agencies. Subsides with the amount of four million EUR are allocated for the period of 2017 – 2020.
The cultural minster of state opened the European year of cultural heritage in Germany in 2018. From the BKM´s budget 38 projects and initiatives all around the European year of cultural heritage were financed with a total amount of 7.2 million EUR. The programme for this thematic year war coordinated by the German National Committee for the Protection of Historical Monuments (Deutsches Nationalkomitee für Denkmalschutz) and accompanied by further activities of federal states, communes and other stakeholders.
Germany celebrated the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 2019. Due to this anniversary and other historical dates like the 70th anniversary of the Second World War, activities and programmes concerning heritage and memory were especially affected.
According to the 2018 evaluation of the Institute for museology (Institut für Museumskunde), 6,771 museums existed in 2017, arranged in different organising institutions: 51% are in public sponsorship (state-owned operators: 441; local administrative bodies: 2,596; other forms of public institutions: 442), 44.8% in private sponsorship (associations: 1,978; societies / collectives 323; trusts of private law: 246; individuals: 486) and 3.8% in hybrid forms of private and public (259).
Divided by field the museums for local and regional history, ethnographic and local museums build the largest of nine groups (43.3%). The part of cultural-historical museums represented 15.4%, the science / technical museums 12.5% and the art museums 10.6%.
Of those 6,771 museums 4,831 reported their attendances, which made a
total amount of 114.4 million visits. In relation to fields of historical and
archaeological museums (18.6%), art museums (18.0%) and science / technical
museums (15.6%) exhibited the highest amount of visits.
 Institut für Museumsforschung (2018): Statistische Gesamterhebung an den Museen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland für das Jahr 2017, Berlin: Self-published.
Last update: March, 2020
According to the Conventions of UNESCO’s Declaration on Archives, the central tasks of archives are on the one hand to conserve cultural heritage and to open and convey it to the public and on the other hand, to act as a pillar of constitutional democracy by documenting administrative action and by providing archived information to citizens, for administration purposes and for research. Germany`s archive landscape is very varied. The Federal Archive (Bundesarchiv) is a self-reliant higher federal authority, which has the statutory obligation (Federal Archive Act – original version from January 1988, revised version in march 2017) to save the archive material as well as to utilise it scientifically. The retention period is generally 30 years (§ 11 para. 1.) If the archival material concerns natural persons, the term of protection ends at the earliest ten years after death, possibly also 100 years after birth or 60 years after the documents were created (§ 11 para. 2).
The archives divide themselves in: 1. Federal Archives; 2. Local Archives; 3. Ecclesiastical Archives; 4. Archives of families, noble families and houses; 5. Archives of business; 6. Archives of parliaments, political parties and associations; 7. Media Archives and 8. University Archives, archives of scientific institutions and other stakeholders.
Reliable data only are available for the first group: Federal Archives including the Federal Archive (Bundesarchiv), the Political Archive of the Federal Foreign Office, the National Archive of Prussian Cultural Heritage (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz) (indirectly) and the Archive of the federal commissioner for Stasi-documents of former GDR (Archiv des Bundesbeauftragtenfür die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienes der ehemaligen DDR). In 2016, a total of 339 thousand metres of written material was stored in the nine locations of the Federal Archives, as well as 12.6 million pictures, almost 2 million maps, plans and technical drawings and over 150 thousand film titles. A total of 5,900 visitors were counted on 37,000 user days in 2016. The state archives of the federal states archive material amounting to 1.4 million linear metres at 58 locations.
A total of 5,900 visitors were counted on 37,000 user days in 2016. The state archives of the federal states archive material amounting to 1.4 million metres held in 58 locations.
Libraries guarantee the fulfilment of the constitutionally guaranteed basic right of all citizens "to inform themselves unhindered from generally accessible sources" (Basic Law, Article 5, Para. 1.) The most frequent subdivision of libraries is made into public libraries and academic libraries. Both are open to the public, whereby the academic libraries focus on the needs of academics and students.
The German library statistics showed 7,240 public libraries in 2018. If the branches are also added, the number increases to 8,652 public libraries. Of the 7,240 public libraries, 27.0% are under full-time management and 73.0% are run on a part-time or honorary basis. In terms of ownership, 48.1% are public funded (all regional authorities), 40.9% by the Catholic Church, 8.9% by the Protestant Church and 0.7% by other ownership. In 2018, public libraries had a media stock of 113 million, 89 million of which were in public libraries under full-time management and 24 million under voluntary management. 94 million media were held by public libraries. Public libraries had a total of 120 million visits and 340 million borrowings in 2018. In 2018 there were 238 academic libraries, including 5 national or central specialist libraries, 25 regional libraries, 79 university libraries and 129 polytechnic libraries. Of these, 74 million physical loans were made.
Comparing the data from 2018 with those from 2013, it is obvious that the number of public libraries has fallen by 8.0% over the past 5 years, the number of visits has fallen by as much as 20% and the number of loans from public libraries has decreased by 10%. The number of academic libraries also decreased during this period: by 4.4%.
 See ibid.
Last update: March, 2020
Germany has a large and diverse theatre landscape - divided into 3 sectors. These include: the state and municipal theatres, commercially run musical and entertainment stages and a high density of independent theatres, dance companies and performance groups. There are historical reasons for the high density of theatres in Germany: before the founding of the nation state in 1871, there were a large number of city-states, small states and principalities, whose residence cities each maintained their own court and state theatres. In the 19th century, theatre became the central form of self-understanding for the emancipating bourgeoisie, and numerous municipal theatres were established. As early as the 1920s, new, open theatre forms emerged (certainly in an avoidance from bourgeois theatre aesthetics), in the 1960s these developments were taken up in the western federal states and numerous independent theatres were established.
The central actors at association level are the German Stage Association (Deutscher Bühnenverein), the Federal Association of Independent Performing Arts (Bundesverband der Freien Darstellende Künste) and the Association of German Amateur Theatres (Bund Deutscher Amateurtheater). The German Stage Association pursues the goal of "maintaining, promoting and cultivating the diversity of the theatre and orchestra landscape and its cultural offerings". It is an interest and employer association of (publicly funded) theatres and orchestras. The Federation Association of Independent Performing Arts is the umbrella organisation of the 16 regional associations and three associated associations and represents the interests of its more than 2,300 members on a national level. Whether theatres and dance houses, collectives or individual actors: In total, the Federal Association of Independent Performing Arts represents around 25,000 theatre and dance professionals in Germany. The Association of German Amateur Theatres, founded in 1892, represents the German amateur theatre. The basis of its cultural and educational activities is formed by some 2,400 amateur theatres, including more than 500 children's and youth groups and 75 senior citizens' ensembles.
The German Stage Association regularly publishes theatre statistics and workshop statistics. The theatre statistics provide an overview of the most important data of publicly funded and private theatres, orchestras and festival companies in Germany. Each individual company is presented with details of events and visitors, personnel, income and expenditure, and prices. The workshop statistics contain information on the plays of a season, including the number of performances, the frequency of productions and the number of visitors.
The most recent theatre statistics of the German Stage Association, published in 2019, contains the data for the 2017/2018 season. All in all 142 state theatres, municipal theatres and regional stages as well as 128 orchestras (including theatre orchestras), 199 private theatres and 85 festivals reported their income and expenditure, personnel data, attendance figures and events in 2017/2018. There were a total of 65,356 performances. Including publicly funded theatres, festivals, private theatres, independent symphony orchestras and radio orchestras, around 34.7 million spectators (previous year approx. 35.5 million) visited the venues in 2017/2018.
The Federal Association of Independent Performing Artsalso regularly presents the results of its member survey, most recently in 2016. Approximately one third of the members are production groups without their own performance venue or individual artists, about one quarter are groups or production groups with their own performance venue. The predominant legal form is self-employment or freelance work. In the independent performing arts, an average of 3.7 new productions are created each year and performed 54.7 times over time. The independent scene is strongly oriented towards networking; cooperations, guest performances and co-productions are among its typical forms of work. With 15,2000 events for children and young people, 52% of the theatre offering for this target group is provided by the liberal performing arts (for comparison: 13,760 by the public theatres).
The structures of funding and also structures of employment for the
theatres differ very considerably in relation to the sectors: While publicly
funded state and municipal theatres generally receive institutional funding
from the respective host countries or municipalities, funding for the liberal
performing arts is predominantly project funding.
 Deutscher Bühnenverein: Theaterstatistik 2017/2018. Die wichtigsten Wirtschaftsdaten der Theater, Orchester und Festspiele, 53. Ausgabe, Köln: Self-published.
 Bundesverband Frei Darstellende Künste / Rosendahl, Matthias / Scholl, Dominik / Heering, Martin (2016): Freie Darstellende Künste in Deutschland: Daten, Analysen und Portraits, Berlin: Self-published.
 For the funding structures including further information on goals, funding levels etc. see: Blumenreich, Ulrike (2016): Aktuelle Förderstrukturen der freien Darstellenden Künste in Deutschland, Ergebnisse der Befragung von Kommunen und Ländern, Berlin: Self-published.
Last update: March, 2020
The visual arts in Germany are characterised by a great variety of artistic forms of expression, such as painting, sculpture, photography, installation, performance, film and interventionist art practice.
There are numerous rooms in all three cultural sectors – state, market, society – for the presentation and communication of the visual arts. These include more than 600 art museums, as well as numerous public and private exhibition houses (without their own collections), but also the more than 300 art associations in Germany, which are supported by the commitment of art enthusiasts on site – both in larger and smaller communities and in rural areas. The private galleries – 340 members have joined together in the Federal Association of German Galleries and Art Dealers (Bundesverband Deutscher Galerien und Kunsthändler) – also show works by the artists they represent in their exhibitions and at art fairs. The most traditional annual art fair, which has been held since 1967, is Art Cologne. Also worth mentioning is the Berlin Arts Week, which has been held annually since 2012. For Berlin Art Week, the major museums of contemporary art, Berlin exhibition houses and art associations, two art fairs, private collections of contemporary art and project spaces have joined forces to present a joint exhibition program.
Public space and digital space also play an increasing role for the visual arts: for example, there are now online galleries as salesrooms for art.
More than 10,000 visual artists are organised in the Federal Association of Visual Artists (Bundesverband der Bildenden Künstler). Since 1972 it has represented the professional interests of freelance visual artists in Germany towards politics and administration. In 2018, 65,600 artists were insured in the field of fine arts in the Artists' Social Security Fund.
Only a small percentage of visual artists are able to make a living exclusively from the sale of their works. Very often they combine various activities and sources of income, such as fees from artistic teaching activities. This mixed income structure requires artists to have a high degree of self-exploitation qualities and flexibility.
Germany has a network of about 400 youth art schools. At 25 art
academies in Germany there are specific courses of study in the visual arts, at
which between 150 and 4,000 students take advantage of these courses.
 Art Cologne is the oldest art fair in the world, today it gathers around 180 galleries with works by over 2,000 artists every year.
Last update: March, 2020
The culture industries are a separate and autonomous pillar of cultural life in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Generally, the cultural field is divided into three sectors: a) private cultural enterprises, b) state or municipal publicly financed institutions and c) not-for-profit, intermediary organisations, foundations, associations etc. According to the Conference of Minister of Economic Affairs and Energy in 2009 the cultural and creative industry consists of 11 submarkets: music industry, book market, art market, film industry, broadcasting industry, performing arts market, architecture market, design industry, press market, advertising market and software and games industry (and others).
Once a year the Centre for European Economic Research (Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung ZEW) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung ISI) examine the status and perspectives of the cultural and creative industries in Germany on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, which is publishes in the annual monitoring report "Cultural and Creative Industries".
According to the current monitoring report Culture and Creative Industries 2019 there were about 256,600 companies active in 2018 (comparison to 2017: no significant change). These companies generated a turnover of EUR 18.3 billion (comparison to 2017: +1.9 %). A total of around 938,000, and thus 2.9% of all employees subject to social insurance contributions, were employed in this sector. Added to this were the approximately 257,000 self-employed. Thus, the core employment in the cultural and creative industries in 2018 was about 1,195,000. If the 302,000 marginally employed and the 199,000 marginally employed (self-employed and freelancers with an annual turnover of less than 17,500 EUR) are also taken into account, the total number of working population for 2018 was almost 1.7 million. In 2018, the cultural and creative industries contributed 100.5 billion EUR, or around 3 percent of the total gross value added.
In the meantime, cultural and creative industry reports are available in all federal states, which are updated at different intervals. The most recent versions are listed here: Baden-Württemberg 2018, Bavaria 2012, Berlin 2008, Bremen 2010, Brandenburg 2009, Hamburg 2012, Hesse 2016, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 1997, Lower Saxony 2007, North Rhine-Westphalia 2007, Rhineland-Palatinate 2008, Saarland 2010, Saxony 2017, Saxony-Anhalt 2015, Schleswig-Holstein 2017 and Thuringia 2009. Numerous municipalities have also published cultural and creative industries reports - e.g. Dortmund, Düsseldorf, Aachen, Dresden, Cologne and Karlsruhe.
As in other countries, strategic partnerships in Germany, are increasingly being formed between the public and private sectors (public-private partnerships), in order to fund cultural projects and institutions. These strategic partnerships are expected to proliferate in the future. Even during periods of sluggish economic activity, the culture industries have been determined as an economic growth factor. Culture industries have been increasingly supported through cultural policy measures: indirectly through measures like tax exemptions and more directly e.g. though support to a music export office.
In 2007, intense discussions were held on the relevance of culture and creative industries for economic development and the employment situation in Germany. The Federal Government, in particular the Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media, introduced the programme Culture Initiative and the Creative Industries as a method of optimising the framework for their growth and to financially and infrastructurally support the "Music Initiative", a core area of the creative Industries. This topic held an important place in the German EU Presidency, in the first half of 2007.
In the report of the Commission of Enquiry of the German Parliament, cultural industries occupy a prominent position in the report. The Yearbook for Cultural Policy 2008 ("Jahrbuch für Kulturpolitik 2008") of the Institute of Cultural Policy within the Association for Cultural Policy (Institut für Kulturpolitik der Kulturpolitischen Gesellschaft) is likewise dedicated to this subject.
There are special training and in-service training programmes for professionals in the culture industries. At the higher education level, a number of cultural management and cultural marketing courses have been set up in the last ten years, which also provide qualifications for the culture industry sphere (e.g. the Institute for Culture Management at Ludwigsburg College of Education, the Academy of Music and Theatre, Hamburg, Passau University); they concentrate, however, on management and marketing methods. There are more concrete efforts to provide training - organised by private business - in the individual industry sectors and also, for example, within publicly financed small business start-up programmes for art and the culture industries. Exemplary in this area, has been StartART, which formed part of the North Rhine-Westphalia start-up network Go!nrw, and, within that, the Start Up Centre Culture Industry Aachen (Gründerzentrum Kulturwirtschaft Aachen).
In 2007, the Ministry of Economic Affairs of Northrhine-Westphalia started a new programme in this field, particularly for young cultural entrepreneurs and artists with Create nrw.
In 2010 the initiative took another important step by setting up a Centre of Excellence for Culture and Creative Industries in Eschborn with 8 regional offices. The Centre of Excellence was inaugurated during the regional conference held by the office of North Rhine- Westphalia in April 2012, by the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media. The task of the competence centre is "to make the cultural and creative industries visible, to communicate their interdisciplinary potential for the economy, society and politics and to develop solutions for challenges affecting the sector together with the players". The implementation is achieved by networking within and across sectors and by the conception and implementation of cross-border cooperation and special event formats
Last update: March, 2020
According to the current monitoring report Culture and Creative Industries 2019, there were 17,411 companies in the book market in 2018 (compared to 16,232 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was 13.5 billion EUR (2009: 14.8 billion EUR). In 2018, 69,000 people were employed in the book market's core labour force (2009: 79,000), 52,000 of whom were employees subject to social security contributions (2009: 63,000). The book market's gross value added in 2018 was 5.3 billion EUR (2009: 4.7 billion EUR). At 3,400 companies, the retail book trade accounted for the highest share of companies (2009: 4,300). Within the book market, the publishing companies generated the highest sales of 8.3 billion EUR.
According to the same report, there were 31,197 companies in the press market in 2018 (compared to 34,317 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was approx. 29 billion EUR (2009: 31.4 billion EUR). In 2018, 143,000 people were employed in the press market (2009: 168,312), 112,000 of whom were subject to social insurance contributions (2009: 134,000). The gross value added of the press market amounted to 12.5 billion EUR in 2018 (2009: 10.4 billion EUR). At 8,000 companies, the retail trade in magazines and newspapers accounted for the highest share of companies (2009: 9,500). Within the book market, the biggest turnover of 10.0 billion EUR was generated by the publishing of newspapers.
Last update: March, 2020
In 1967, the Film Funding Act created the first legal basis for federal film funding. This act, which came into force in 1968, already contained essential elements of the law in force today, such as the establishment of the Film Promotion Agency, reference film promotion, short film promotion, support for cinema operators and the collection of a film levy. The producers of subsidised films were obliged to transfer the television exploitation rights to the Film Promotion Agency. The last amendment entered into force on the 1st of January 2017. Among other things, it provides for a gender-equitable composition of the bodies, securing a high level of the levy, more efficient structuring of funding, increased funding for screenplay promotion, greater remuneration for the performance of producers and better promotion of short films, as well as improving the participation of people with disabilities in the cinematic experience as a community.
The German Federal Film Board (Filmförderungsanstalt FFA) is a federal agency under public law. It is Germany's national film promotion agency and supports all aspects of German film. In addition to its task as a funding body, it is also the organisation of central service providers for the German film industry. It funds cinema films in all phases of creation and exploitation: from script development and production to distribution, sales and video. Additional funds are used to promote cinemas, preserve the film heritage, promote the perception and distribution of German films abroad and to provide film education. In addition, the FFA has a mandate to support cooperation between the film industry and television stations to strengthen German cinema. Furthermore, the FFAregularly collects, analyses and publishes the most important market data of film, cinema and video industry in Germany. The FFA's budget for 2018 was 78.7 million EUR. The funding is financed by the collection of the film levy. The tax is levied on users of cinema films, including cinemas, companies in the video industry including providers of video-on-demand services, television broadcasters and marketers of Pay-Tv programmes.
In addition, the FFA administratively oversees the film funding of film projects supported by the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (BKM). These include the German Film Fund (DFFF), the German Motion Picture Fund (GMPF) and the handling of project funding for long and short films.
The funding instruments also include numerous prizes (e.g. “German Film Prize”, “German Screenplay Prize” and “German Short Film Award”). In addition, film festivals and symposia (e.g. “The Berlin International Film Festival”), international film productions (through bilateral film agreements), as well as institutions dedicated to the restoration and preservation of the cultural heritage of film (e.g. Foundation German Cinematheque in Berlin and the German Film Institute in Frankfurt am Main) are also supported by the the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (BKM).
The FFA's cinema support aims to strengthen and maintain the nationwide and diverse cinema structure and its quality in both urban and rural regions. There is funding according to the project principle and funding according to the reference principle. Funding is granted, among other things, for modernisation, the creation of barrier-free access, for measures to strengthen competitiveness and for media pedagogical support.
In 2019, the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media initiated an emergency aid programme of EUR 5 million for the promotion of cinemas in rural areas, with which cinemas in towns with up to 25,000 inhabitants will be supported with investments. A new Future Cinema Programme (17 million EUR) is planned for 2020.
Deutsche Welle is the foreign broadcaster of the Federal Republic of Germany and a member of Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ARD). It is broadcast in around 30 languages. Today, Deutsche Welle works trimedially: television (DW-TV), radio and internet. In accordance with § 4 of the Deutsche Welle Law, the task of Deutsche Welle is to make Germany understandable as a cultural nation that has grown up in Europe and as a free democratic constitutional state – and to promote understanding and exchange between cultures and peoples. This makes it one of the pillars of the Federal Republic of Germany's foreign cultural policy. Deutsche Welle is largely funded by tax money from the federal budget. It receives its subsidy through the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (2019: 365 million EUR). Approximately 3,000 employees from 60 nations work at the headquarters in Bonn and the Berlin location. In 2018 Deutsche Welle celebrated its 65th anniversary.
According to the current monitoring report Cultural and Creative Industries 2019, there were 17,808 companies in the broadcasting industry in 2018 (compared to 17,853 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was 10.4 billion EUR (2009: 7.4 billion EUR). In 2018, 43,000 people were employed in the broadcasting sector (2009: 39,000), 25,000 of whom were subject to social insurance contributions (2009: 21,000). Gross value added in the broadcasting industry amounted to 7.7 billion euros in 2018 (2009: 6.3 billion EUR). The largest share of companies was made up of 251 radio broadcasters (2009: 266). Within the broadcasting industry, the largest turnover of 8.1 billion EUR was achieved by television broadcasters.
Last update: March, 2020
According to the current monitoring report Culture and Creative Industries 2019, there were 14,382 companies in the music industry in 2018 (compared to 13,862 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was 8.7 billion EUR (2009: 6.3 billion EUR). In 2018, the music industry employed 53,000 people in main occupation (2009: 47,000), 39,000 of whom were employees subject to social security contributions (2009: 33,000). Gross value added in the music industry in 2018 was 5.8 billion euros (2009: 4.5 billion EUR). At 1,600 companies, the highest share of companies was in the retail trade with musical instruments etc. (2009: 2,200). Within the music industry, the largest turnover of 2.1 billion EUR was achieved by theatre/concert organisers.
The German Music Publishers' Association is made up of 350 music publishers who, with sales of 690 million EUR, account for around 90 % of music publishing sales in Germany. The German Orchestra Association is the interest group for professional musicians, which is committed to further the development of professional orchestras, choirs and theatres and independent ensembles and, as a trade union, advocate
s better working conditions for musicians.
Last update: March, 2020
According to the current monitoring report Cultural and Creative Industries 2019, there were 40,363 companies in the software and games industry in 2018 (compared to 27,018 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was 45.0 billion EUR (2009: 24.3 billion EUR). In 2018, the software and games industry employed 439,000 people in main occupation (2009: 244,000), 399,000 of whom were subject to social security contributions (2009: 217,000). Gross value added in the software and games industry amounted to 32.7 billion EUR in 2018 (2009: 15.2 billion EUR). At 25,800, other software development accounted for the highest share of companies (2009: 18,600). Within the software and games industry, the largest revenue of 33.3 billion EUR was generated by other software development.
The federal government also promotes game development. The federal budget for 2019 is also to receive funds of 50 million EUR for the introduction of a games fund, which in future will be used to promote computer game development at federal level. The fund will be located at the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure.
According to the same report, there were 60,822 companies in the design industry in 2018 (compared to 48,332 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was 20.5 billion EUR (2009: 17.6 billion EUR). In 2018, 153,000 people were employed in the design industry in main occupation (2009: 125,000), 92,000 of whom were subject to social insurance contributions (2009: 77,000). The gross value added in the design industry in 2018 was 10.5 billion EUR (2009: 9.0 billion EUR). Advertising design accounted for the highest proportion of companies, with 13,100 companies (2009: 18,100). Within the design industry, advertising design generated the highest turnover of 12.6 billion EUR.
The report also states that there were 39,285 companies in the architecture market in 2018 (compared to 39,956 in 2009). The turnover in 2018 was 11.9 billion EUR (2009: 8.0 billion EUR). In 2018, 133,000 people were employed in the architecture market in main occupation (2009: 100,000), 93,000 of whom were employees subject to social insurance contributions (2009: 77,000). Gross value added in the architecture market amounted to 7.4 billion EUR in 2018 (2009: 4.7 billion EUR). The highest share of companies was made up of 24,400 architectural offices for building construction (2009: 28,100). Within the design industry, the largest turnover of 8.0 billion EUR was achieved by architectural offices for building construction.
Last update: March, 2020
Although the term "cultural tourism" was first used in the 1980s – also through European Union support programmes – there is no generally applicable definition, and in recent years it has been extended to include everyday objects and behaviour. In general, the term "cultural tourism" can be differentiated between the supply-oriented (the core of the definition is the supply of attraction), the demand-oriented (the starting point is the behaviour of the tourists) and the value-oriented definitions (cultural tourism as an offer of attractions accompanied by monument preservation and didactic objectives). Detached from this, four basic characteristics of cultural tourism can be identified: the tourist's interest in culture, the visit of cultural institutions, the attendance of cultural events and the well-founded provision of information. The cultural tourism offer ranges from historical buildings (churches, museums, castles) and contemporary architecture (railway stations, new museum buildings) to historical sites and urban ensembles (battlefields, old towns), cultural events (festivals, folk festivals, carnival customs) and cultural sights (wine landscapes) to typical regional gastronomic offers (food, wine).
Cultural tourism in Germany consisted mainly of city tourism. In order to promote cultural tourism in rural areas, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy launched the project: The destination as a stage: how does cultural tourism make rural regions successful?, from 2015 to 2018. With this project rural regions were specifically supported in marketing their cultural offers. Five model regions were selected for project implementation. One component of the project was the online dialogue platform www.culturcamp.de.
field of action cultural tourism has gained relevance for cultural management
in recent years. In 2018, the Cultural Tourism
Study 2018 was presented by the Institute for Cultural Management of the
Ludwigsburg University of Education with the results of an empirical study of
the practice of cultural and tourism actors (cultural institutions, cultural
administrations and tourism organisations).
 Burzinski, Matthias / Buschmann, Lara / Pröbstle, Yvonne (2018): Kulturtourismusstudie 2018. Empirische Einblicke in die Praxis von Kultur- und Tourismusakteuren. Ein Kooperationsprojekt von projekt 2508 und dem Institut für Kulturmanagement.