2. Current cultural affairs
Last update: February, 2022
After the Bundestag elections in autumn 2021, the new coalition agreement concluded between the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Bündnis90 / Die Grünen and the Free Democratic Party of Germany under the title "Mehr Fortschritt wagen. Alliance for Freedom, Justice and Sustainability", the following priotiries for cultural policy were agreed upon:
"We want to make culture possible with everyone by ensuring its diversity and freedom, regardless of form of organisation or expression, from classical music to comics, from Low German to record shops. We are convinced that cultural and artistic impulses can promote the awakening of our society, they inspire and create spaces for public debate". (Koalitionsvertrag, S.121, https://www.bundesregierung.de/resource/blob/974430/1990812/04221173eef9a6720059cc353d759a2b/ 2021-12-10-koav2021-data.pdf?download=1)
- Anchoring culture as a state objective in the Basic Law
- Advocacy for accessibility, diversity, gender equality and sustainability
- Social situation of artists: Closing the GenderPayGap, equal + diverse juries + improving the social situation of freelance artists
- Promotion of culture: continuation of NEUSTART KULTUR funding, expansion of the Federal Cultural Foundation and the Federal Cultural Fund as drivers of innovation, strengthening of the structures of the independent scene
- Establishment of a "Green Culture" focal point for ecological transformation
- Creation of a competence centre for digital culture
- Establishment of a "Plenum for Culture" to improve cooperation between local authorities and with producers, associations and civil society.
- Development of strategies for rural areas
- Reaffirmation of the federal government's cultural commitment to the capital city
- De-bureaucratisation of the law on subsidies
- Strengthening cultural venues: libraries as third places, clubs and live music venues, galleries
- Evaluation of the Cultural Property Protection Act
- Strengthening the cultural industries: Establishing a contact person for cultural and creative industries at the federal government, strengthening the games location, examining the promotion of independent publishers, reorganising the federal government's film promotion.
- Commitment to a fair balance of interests in copyright
- Cultural heritage: safeguarding and making accessible the architectural cultural heritage, further development of the special programme for the protection of historical monuments, continuation of the reform process of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, further development of the Humboldt Forum.
- Media: debate on the value of free media for democracy, optimising coherence between European, federal and state law, combating hate speech and disinformation, expanding Deutsche Welle
- Culture of remembrance: protection of memorials and adequate funding of memorial work, promotion of research in memorials, advancement of history mediators of and in the immigration society, special responsibility towards our European neighbours.
- Nazi looted art: further repatriation of cultural objects seized as a result of Nazi persecution
- Strengthening the history of democracy in Germany, in particular promoting the sites of the Peaceful Revolution
- Colonial heritage: advancing the reappraisal of German colonial history, restitution of colonialy burdened collection items in dialogue with the societies of origin, development of a concept for a place of learning and remembrance of colonialism. (See ibid., pp. 121-126).
One of the priorities for 2020 and 2021 was the creation of measures to support the cultural sector in the COVID-19 crisis.
In the past 20 years, discussions and actions (on the part of public and private actors) have focused on the following key issues (in chronological order):
Support for cultural institutions in the capital Berlin:
In 2001, the federal government and Berlin concluded a Capital City Culture Agreement, which takes into account the increased commitment of the federal government to culture in Berlin. Among other things, the agreement stipulated that Berlin institutions would be taken over by the federal government and that an annual contribution to the Capital of Culture Fund would be made, which currently stands at 15 million euros.
UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity
Germany ratified this UNESCO Convention on 12 March 2007. As early as 2004, the German Unesco Commission, in cooperation with civil society, had founded the Federal Coalition for Cultural Diversity, which accompanies the work on the Convention. In 2009, the German UNESCO Commission published the White Paper "Shaping Cultural Diversity", which contains recommendations for action from civil society and for the implementation of the Convention in and by Germany. In the meantime, Germany has submitted 3 state reports on implementation, the most recent in February 2021 for the reporting period 2016 to 2019. (https://www.unesco.de/sites/default/files/2021- 03/3.%20StateReport%20%2820%29%20DEU.pdf.)
Enquiry Commission on Culture:
The final report of the Enquete Commission of the German Bundestag, published in 2007, which contained over 400 recommendations for the improvement and further development of cultural policy on more than 500 pages, is still considered a reference framework today. (https://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/16/070/1607000.pdf)
Shaping the cultural infrastructure
In March 2012, four renowned authors from cultural administration and cultural management - ArminKlein, Pius Knüsel, Stephan Opitz and Dieter Haselbach - published a book entitled "Kulturinfarkt. Too much of everything and the same everywhere". In it, they plead for a radical restructuring of cultural policy and propose halving the existing cultural infrastructure in order to redistribute the funds that become available. This publication has attracted a great deal of public attention, triggered many - often very emotional - debates and initiated numerous events and further publications.
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)
After the establishment of a free trade agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership TTIP) between Europe and the USA was adopted in 2013, there were demands in the cultural sector in Germany for exceptions for the cultural and media sector. Central points of criticism from numerous actors from the cultural, nature conservation and environmental sectors were, among other things, the equal treatment of cultural goods with regular economic goods, which does not satisfy the dual character of the concept of culture, and above all the concern that cultural funding in Germany could be seen as a restriction on free trade. In July 2014, the European Citizens' Initiative "Stop TTIP" was formed, among 150 actors from 18 European countries. This citizens' initiative was rejected by the European Commission. The alliance appealed against it to the European Court of Justice. The alliance also launched a signature campaign in autumn 2014 and handed over more than 1 million signatures to the Commission President in December. In 2015, the Day of Cultural Diversity (21 May) became a day against TTIP, and on 10 October 2015, a large demonstration "Stop TTIP" took place in Berlin, attended by more than 250,000 people. In May 2017, the European Court of Justice ruled on the complaint of the European Citizens' Initiative and rejected it. The self-organised Citizens' Initiative, founded in response to the rejection of the official European Citizens' Initiative, collected 3.2 million signatures against TTIP and CETA between October 2014 and October 2015 and reached a quorum in 23 member states.
Concept-based cultural policy in the federal states
Numerous federal states have drawn attention to themselves in recent years with new cultural policy structures and programmes. In the meantime, there are concrete initiatives for a more concept-based and planned cultural policy in most of the 16 federal states. They use different instruments: e.g. cultural conventions (Saxony-Anhalt 2013), cultural policy strategies (Brandenburg 2012), cultural concepts (Thuringia 2012, Bavaria 2012, Saxony-Anhalt 2014), cultural development concept (Lower Saxony 2011), cultural dialogue (Baden-Württemberg 2020, Schleswig-Holstein 2022), master plan (Bremen 2006, Hesse 2022), cultural policy guidelines (Mecklenburg-Vorpormmern 2020), framework concepts (Hamburg 2004). Federal Länder submit cultural reports, which are usually updated every several years.
State culture laws
In North Rhine-Westphalia, a state culture law - i.e. a law that does not only deal with one sector but with the comprehensive cultural sector - came into force for the first time in December 2014. The discussion about this as well as other laws supporting culture also reached the parliaments in some other federal states (see also chapter 4.2.). This was preceded in previous years by specific laws on individual sectors (e.g. libraries and music schools) in individual Länder. In November 2021, the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia passed the new Cultural Code for NRW, which will come into force in January 2022 (see also Chapter 4.2). Other federal states are also considering drafting their own cultural laws.
In June 2013, the then Federal President Joachim Gauck laid the foundation stone for the reconstruction of the Berlin Palace, the former residence of the Prussian kings. After completion, collections of non- European cultures from Berlin museums (including the Ethnological Museum and the Museum of Asian Art) will be displayed there under the name "Humboldt Forum". The topping-out ceremony took place in June 2015. As early as 2002, an international commission of experts had presented a concept for the use of the City Palace and recommended the establishment of a Humboldt Forum - as a place for dialogue between world cultures in the centre of the capital - also in connection with the collections of European art on the Museum Island. The Humboldt Forum was and is the subject of numerous debates, some of them very emotional, including questions of location (including the demolition of the Palace of the Republic of the GDR), provenance, self-staging, spatial separation from the European ethnological collections, and cost increases19. In December 2020, the museum was opened digitally (corona-related), and with the opening in July 2021, visitor operations also began.
Provenance research / repatriation of unlawfully removed artworks + dealing with collection items from colonial contexts
Since the fall of the "Iron Curtain", international discussions on the return of cultural property unlawfully seized from its owners during the Second World War have led to concrete restitutions of art objects. Since 2003, the "Advisory Commission in connection with the restitution of Nazi-confiscated cultural property, especially from Jewish ownership" has been active, taking on the role of mediator in the event of problems in the course of restitution claims. Its members are academics and prominent personalities. In autumn 2006, a far-reaching debate began about the restitution of works of art, which arose when a famous painting by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was returned by the government of Berlin to the heirs of the former owner. Subsequently, a number of similar cases became known. Museums intensified research into the provenance of their artworks and were supported by special funds. At the beginning of 2008, an office for provenance research was established at the federal level at the Institute for Museum Research of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation to support museums in their research into art stolen under National Socialism. The announcement of the Schwabing Art Find in November 2013, which included more than 1,400 works, sparked the debate about restitution and the return of unlawfully acquired cultural property. At the beginning of 2015, the Provenance Research Unit was transferred to the newly created
German Centre for the Loss of Cultural Property based in Magedeburg. In 2015/2016, the first chairs for provenance research were also established at universities in Germany. A focus on the expansion of provenance research was set in the BKM; for example, a guide on dealing with collection items from colonial contexts was published in 2018. The 2018 report by Felwine Saar and Benedicte Savoy on the restitution of African cultural property, which was also published in German in 2019, also sparked a debate in Germany. The discussion about cultural objects from Africa in collections in Germany. In 2019, a Provenance Research Day was held in Germany for the first time. In January 2022, the Coordination Office for Provenance Research in North Rhine-Westphalia, based at the LVR-Landesmuseum in Bonn, began its work.
Culture and Climate / Culture and Sustainability
For some years now, the topic of sustainability in culture has gained importance in cultural policy discourse. In this context, an ecological deficit of cultural policy is lamented, a new nature-based understanding of culture and sustainability as a guiding goal of cultural policy action are demanded. At the federal level, a Council for Sustainable Development and a Sustainability Culture Fund have been established. The Länder and municipalities are beginning to develop concepts, as are cultural institutions. The German Cultural Council has launched a campaign to network the sustainability discourse between the environmental and cultural sectors, and the Institute for Cultural Policy is working intensively on the topic in various research projects. In 2020, an action network "Sustainability in Culture and Media" (https://aktionsnetzwerk-nachhaltigkeit.de/) was founded (see also 2.8).
Capital of Culture 2025
One particular measure supported by the EU cultural funding programme is the initiative "European Capital of Culture". After Berlin (1988) and Weimar (1999), Essen was the third European Capital of Culture in Germany for the Ruhr region with RUHR.2010. According to a rotation decided in 2014, Germany will again host a European Capital of Culture in 2025 (alongside Slovenia). The German pre-selection will be made in a multi-stage process by the federal states, the Federal Foreign Office and the Conference of Ministers of Culture. On 12 December 2019, the shortlist consisting of five cities was announced with Magdeburg, Hanover, Nuremberg, Chemnitz and Hildesheim. The European expert jury decided at the end of 2020, and the Conference of Ministers of Culture confirmed the decision in January 2021: Chemnitz will be European Capital of Culture in 2025 under the motto "C the Unseen" (https://chemnitz2025.de/).
Women in Culture and Media
For the past 10 years or so, the topic of "Women in Culture and the Media" has come into sharper focus, as evidenced by its thematisation in public hearings in the Cultural Committee of the German Bundestag as well as a series of enquiries. In 2016, a study commissioned by the Federal Commissioner for Culture and the Media and prepared by the German Cultural Council, "Women in Culture and the Media. An overview of current trends, developments and proposed solutions" (https://www.kulturrat.de/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Frauen-in-Kultur-und-Medien.pdf). Based on the result of this study - the still prevailing imbalance - a project office "Women in Culture and Media" (https://www.kulturrat.de/thema/frauen-in-kultur- medien/projektbuero/), based at the German Cultural Council, was established in 2017. In addition to committee and network work, its fields of work include in particular a "mentoring programme" (https://www.kulturrat.de/thema/frauen-in-kultur-medien/mentoring- programm/). This is aimed at women who aspire to become leaders in the cultural and media sector. Since 2017, five mentoring rounds with 130 tandems have already been realised. A sixth round of calls is planned for spring 2022.
As in all areas of society, Covid-19 has also had a huge impact on culture since March 2019. The closure of cultural institutions and cultural education facilities, the cancellation of cultural events and the non- realisation of art and cultural projects pose enormous challenges for all cultural actors, threatening the existence of quite a few artists, cultural associations, cultural institutions and companies in the cultural and creative industries. Politicians and administrators at the federal level as well as in the individual federal states and also in some municipalities have aA variety of support instruments have been developed, consisting of a set of direct financial benefits (grants, loans), indirect financial benefits (tax relief) or changes in access rights and grant regulations, as well as advisory services. There are general and culture-specific instruments. But civil society also supports cultural practitioners and cultural institutions with donations and through established funds. With "NEUSTART KULTUR", the Federal Government launched a comprehensive "rescue and future programme" for the cultural sector in summer 2020. It initially comprised 1 billion euros, which was increased to 2 billion euros in spring 2021. The funds were spent in different programme lines by the cultural associations.In addition, the federal government has provided a special fund for cultural events amounting to 2.5 billion euros. It consists of economic aid for (smaller) events that can only take place with a reduced audience and of cancellation insurance for larger events. (See also: https://www.culturalpolicies.net/covid- 19/country-reports/germany/).
Last update: February, 2022
The normative framework is laid down in the Basic Law (Constitution). Articles 1 to 19 set out the fundamental rights. These include the right to free development of the personality (Art.2), equal rights for men and women (Art. 3), freedom of belief (Art. 4), freedom of assembly (Art. 8), freedom of association (Art. 9).
Article 5 includes freedom of expression in speech, writing and image (para. 1), freedom of the press (para. 1), rejection of censorship (para. 1), and freedom of art, science, research and teaching (para. 3). The Basic Law's guarantee of artistic freedom (Article 5, Paragraph 3) not only establishes artistic autonomy and the right of cultural institutions and organisations to self-government, but also protects them from directives and regulations by the state. As an objective value decision for the freedom of art, it is also understood as a mandate to the state to actively promote and support it.
The Basic Law does not yet contain a state objective of culture, although in recent years there have been various initiatives and numerous debates by cultural, sports and legal politicians to include a new Article 20b "The state shall protect and promote culture", which, however, could not be implemented by autumn 2021. Nevertheless, the topic was part of numerous party programmes in the summer of 2021. The current coalition agreement "Mehr Fortschrittt wagen" (https://www.bundesregierung.de/resource/blob/974430/1990812/04221173eef9a6720059cc353d759a2b/ 2021-12-10-koav2021-data.pdf?download=1) now states: "We want to anchor culture in its diversity as a state objective". (S. 121)
Last update: February, 2022
Economic and social situation of artists
As early as 1975, the federal government presented a report on the social situation of artists in Germany (based on the Authors' Report and the Artists' Inquiry). In response, the legislature affirmed that artists and publicists were in particular need of protection and passed the Artists' Social Insurance Act. Since 1981, this social insurance for artists has become a central instrument for supporting the social situation of artists and publicists by creating access to statutory health, long-term care and pension insurance.
The Künstlersozialkasse (KSK) (https://www.kuenstlersozialkasse.de/) is responsible for the insurance assessment. Self-employed artists and publicists pay half of the insurance contributions. The other half of the contributions is paid by the "users" of the artistic performance in the form of the flat-rate artists' social security contribution on all royalty payments to a self-employed artists or publicists (30 per cent) and the federal government via a subsidy (20 per cent). The prerequisite for compulsory insurance is that an artistic or journalistic activity is carried out on a gainful basis and not only temporarily. In 2020, 192,500 artists and publicists were insured with the KSK. (See also 4.1.3)
The social situation of artists has been increasingly discussed in recent years. Various studies have been published, for example "Arbeitsmarkt Kultur. Zur wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Lage in den Kulturberufen" (Deutscher Kulturrat 2013 https://www.kulturrat.de/wp- content/uploads/2016/04/studie-arbeitsmarkt- kultur-2013.pdf), on the "Economic and Social Situation of Visual Artists" (BBK 2016) or "Frauen und Männer im Kulturmarkt - Bericht zur wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Lage" (Deutscher Kulturrat 2020 https://www.kulturrat.de/wp- content/uploads/2020/10/Frauen-und-Maenner-im-Kulturmarkt.pdf). The "Betroffenheit der Kultur- und Kreiativwirtschaft von der Coronapandemie" (how the cultural and creative industries are affected by the corona pandemic) based on a scenario analysis were published in the report of the same name, published by the Initiative Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft der Bundesregierung and the Kompetenzzentrum Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft des Bundes in January 2022.
In 2013, the international movement "Art but fair" was launched with the aim of achieving fair working conditions and appropriate fees in the performing arts and music. The organisation consists of three mutually coordinated non-profit associations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The movement aims to raise awareness of the issue, including through the publication of studies such as "Fair working conditions in the performing arts and music?" (2016: https://artbutfair.org/wp- content/uploads/2016/05/p_study_hbs_319.pdf) and the development and implementation of a certificate (seal of quality) for cultural institutions.
The improvement of the framework conditions for artists and cultural workers has also been discussed in parliament (e.g. expert discussion in the culture committee of the German Bundestag in 2017). The current coalition agreement also dedicates a separate section to the "social situation in art and culture". Specifically, it mentions as goals: Transparency about and closing of the gender pay gap, juries and committees with equal and diverse representation, reporting on the social situation, inclusion of minimum remuneration in the funding guidelines, better protection of hybrid stabilisation of the KSK and an increase in additional income limits from self-employed non-artistic work. (https://www.bundesregierung.de/resource/blob/974430/1990812/04221173eef9a6720059cc353d759a2b
/2021-12-10-koav2021-data.pdf?download=1, S.121). The Conference of Ministers of Culture is also currently dealing intensively with the social situation of artists and is developing concrete measures to support them.5
Freedom of art
Artistic freedom is enshrined as a fundamental right in Germany in Article 5(3) of the Basic Law. There it is one of the most strongly protected fundamental rights in the German catalogue of fundamental rights. The Federal Constitutional Court counts artistic freedom among the basic rights of communication and therefore considers it essential to the basic democratic order.
In the last five years, there has been increased discussion in Germany about the freedom of art. The "freemuse reports" also list violations of artistic freedom in Germany, One specific occasion was the cancellation of the concert by the left-wing punk band "Feine Sahne Fischfilet" at the Bauhaus in Dessau in November 2018. The director's argumentation was that the design and architecture school, as a Unesco World Heritage Site, should not become a venue for political agitation and aggression. The Bauhaus board feared in particular the demonstrations already announced by right-wing groups in front of the Bauhaus. Numerous actors from politics, cultural practice, the feuilleton and civil society took a stand against this decision, among them the former director of the Bauhaus, who interpreted the cancellation of the concert as a damage to democracy and cultural life in Germany. The band's concert was eventually realised at another venue in Dessau.
The discussion of artistic freedom was also prompted by demands from the AfD that no public funds be used for The "neutrality requirement" has been the subject of numerous events and legal disputes. The issue of "neutrality" has been the subject of numerous events and legal disputes.
As part of the celebrations of the 70th anniversary of the Basic Law in May 2019, a number of events and media reports also took place on the topic of artistic freedom.
The topic of artistic freedom is at the centre of the Arts Rights Justice programme, which is based at the UNESCO Chair of Cultural Policy for the Arts in Development at the University of Hildesheim. From 2017 to 2019, the project investigated the persecution of artists and the threat to artistic freedom internationally, offered documents in the form of an online library, organised exchange forums and initiated advocacy groups.
But various actors from cultural policy and cultural practice also warn against restricting the freedom of art through "exaggerated political correctness". Discussions on the topic of "cancel culture" have increased in the last two years.
During the Corona crisis, the discussions about the restriction of fundamental freedoms as well as the direct and indirect attacks on artistic freedom and the search for cultural policy responses gained in importance.
Support for the mobility of artists
Numerous intermediary organisations (including the Goethe-Institut) and associations have set themselves the goal of supporting the mobility of artists. The International Society of Fine Arts, for example, represents the interests of visual artists, among other things with the information portal touring-artists (https://www.touring-artists.info/home/), which contains a wealth of information for mobile visual and performing artists on the topics of visas, customs, taxes, social insurance, etc. and with numerous projects and events on mobility and international exchange.
Last update: February, 2022
The topic of digitisation has only been recognised as an area of cultural policy work in recent years.
In 1997, the first Computer Games Museum (https://www.computerspielemuseum.de/) opened in Berlin as a permanent exhibition on digital interactive entertainment culture. In 2011, the Computerspielemuseum in Berlin opened a new permanent exhibition.
Since 2009, the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media, together with two games associations, has awarded a prize for an educationally valuable computer game (endowed with 385,000 EUR, sponsored by the games associations).
In 2009, Gamescom (www.gamescom.de/), the world's largest trade fair for computer and video games, was also held in Cologne for the first time.
In November 2012, the first beta version of the German Digital Library was launched at the address http://www.deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de. This portal creates the basis for networking all German cultural and scientific institutions and their digital offerings in the medium and long term and for integrating them into the European digital library Europeana. The first full version was released on 31 March 2014. The DDB contains digitised holdings and indexing information from cultural and scientific institutions such as libraries, archives, museums, heritage offices, media libraries as well as universities and other research institutions. It provides central access to digital images of books, documents and files, paintings, statues, installations, monuments, films and music. It currently contains 41 million objects.
After an Enquete Commission worked on the topic of "Internet and Digital Society" in the 17th legislative period (2009-2013), the German Bundestag decided in February 2014 to establish a Bundestag committee "Digital Agenda". Thus, for the first time, the German Bundestag has a permanent parliamentary body dedicated to current net policy issues. In August 2014, the Federal Government presented the "Digital Agenda" 2014 to 2017, the aim of which was to enable all citizens to participate in the opportunities of digitalisation and to set framework conditions for living, learning, working and doing business in the digital world. The "Digital Agenda" set the guidelines for the Federal Republic and bundles measures in seven central fields of action, including "V: Education, Science, Research, Culture and Media". In March 2015, Dieter Grony was appointed as "Commissioner for Creative and Digital Economy". In August 2018, a Federal Government Digital Council began its work in the Federal Chancellery.
In April 2019, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research presented a digital strategy and created new funding instruments for digital policy through the launch of major programmes - e.g. the "Digitalpakt Schule" (Digital Pact for Schools) for investment in digital education infrastructure with 5 billion euros and the "Nationales Forschungsinfrastruktu" (National Research Infrastructure).
In addition to the federal government, the federal states also have their own digital strategies.
The German Cultural Council has worked hard to ensure that games are recognised as part of the cultural sector. In 2020, it published a handbook on games culture ( https://www.kulturrat.de/wp- content/uploads/2020/12/HandbuchGameskultur.pdf).
In 2019, a pilot phase for federal computer games funding was implemented. The funding programme has since been made permanent. Since 2019, around 340 projects have been funded under the federal government's games funding programme. The federal budget provides up to 50 million euros annually for this purpose. In June 2021, the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure created its own games department. This is intended to strengthen Germany as a games location and make it more visible internationally. In the new legislative period, responsibility for games funding was transferred to the Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection.The corona pandemic has once again highlighted the urgency of the ditgital transformation in the education and culture sector and emphasised that digitisation and digital policy are key tasks for the future. In August 2021, the Federal Government Commissioner published a Perspective Paper "Cultures in Digital Transformation", which shows both the current status and the need for future action. This also implements a coalition agreement of the 19th legislative period, which provided for "a strategy backed by substantial and financial resources for the future of cultural institutions and their digital transformation" (see ibid. p. 10). During the pandemic, the then Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy provided targeted support for companies, including those from the cultural and creative industries, in their digital restructuring. Incentives for digital transformation were also created within the "NEUSTART KULTUR" rescue and future package of the Federal Commissioner for Culture and the Media, for example with the programme line "dive in - Programme for Digital Interactions" (via the Federal Cultural Foundation). Numerous other funding actors have launched further specific programmes, e.g. "Fonds Digital" of the Federal Cultural Foundation, and cultural institutions, especially during the pandemic period, have developed new digital formats and the project has created a range of mediation services.
Last update: February, 2022
Cultural diversity in general
Cultural diversity has become increasingly important in Germany in recent years. This can be seen in a variety of publications, studies, programmes, events and projects by cultural institutions on this topic. In 2013, a separate institution on diversity was established in North Rhine-Westphalia - the Zukunfts-akademie NRW as a centre for diversity in art, culture and cultural education – which, however, ceased to work due to the end of funding in late 2019, with the dossiers and handouts created remaining as a store of knowledge on the academy’s internet platform. Other important players in this area are the Federal Foreign Office, the UNESCO Commission, the Federal Cultural Foundation – regional actors are also increasingly dealing with cultural diversity..
A change from interculture to transculture or diversity can also be seen in the discussion of terms in recent years.
In June 2017, the initiative DIE VIELEN (THE MANY) was launched. Its goal is “to promote international
attitudes, tolerance in all areas of culture and international understanding,
and the promotion of popular education. THE MANY wants to strengthen communication
and opportunities for action among artists, ensembles and actors in the
performing and visual arts. This applies in particular to artists for whom
theatre and art provide means to work on a society that is composed of people
of all skin colours and gender variations, sexual orientations, needs and
abilities, from religious and not religious.” The initiative has launched a Declaration
of the Many, which has now been signed as a declaration in numerous
municipalities and federal states by more than 2,500 cultural institutions as a
signal for an open society against racism, discrimination and national
 See, for example, the contributions in the handbook for cultural education.
 For example, Mandel, Birgit (2013): Intercultural Audience Development. Future strategies for publicly funded cultural institutions, Bielefeld: Transcript.
 For example, the programme Living Diversity - Shaping Society by the Bertelsmann Foundation.
 For example, the development of concepts for the diversity-oriented opening of different cultural institutions.
 A brief introduction to transculture is provided by the brochure of the same name.
National / international intercultural dialogue
In the global context, the most important actors and programmes in Germany are those of foreign cultural policy (see 1.4.). Particularly noteworthy here are the Goethe-Institut, the Institute for Cultural Exchange (ifa), the House of World Cultures, the Federal Foreign Office and the German UNESCO Commission (DUK). In recent years, debates on the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions have been the focus of the DUK's activities, involving a broad alliance of political and social actors (see Chapter 1.4.2).
Many cultural institutions of various forms in cities and municipalities have committed themselves to transcultural dialogue and have developed numerous programmes and activities. In recent years, the government, especially the Federal Foreign Office, has supported the establishment of several programmes to promote cross-border intercultural dialogue. Worth mentioning is the "kulturweit" programme, a project of the German UNESCO Commission in cooperation with the Federal Foreign Office. Since 2009, this international cultural voluntary service has offered young adults the opportunity to engage in cultural relations and education policy for six or twelve months. The volunteer posts are located in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America as well as in Central, South- Eastern and Eastern Europe. The aims of the programme are
on the one hand, to strengthen the intercultural competence of young adults and, on the other hand, to increase the visibility of German cultural relations and education policy institutions.
"kulturweit" is organised by the German Commission for UNESCO and is implemented through its partner organisations in cultural relations and education policy based in Germany.
In addition, institutions mentioned in Chapter 1.4 are also active in this field. Another important actor is the Federal Cultural Foundation (https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en) with many programmes and projects on cross-border intercultural dialogue, such as the "International Museum Fellowship Initiative" and the programme established in 2012.
"TURN - Fund for German-African Cooperation". Some private foundations are also active in this field, such as the Mercator Foundation with its "Competence Centre for International Understanding" and the current thematic cluster on integration, or the Bosch Foundation with its projects on international understanding. Twelve German foundations, including for example, in addition to the latter, the Allianz Cultural Foundation, the Bertelsmann Foundation and the Volkswagen Foundation have formed a group of the "Engaged Europeans" have been formed, who are committed to deepening European integration with a variety of projects. Increasingly, however, regional actors are also complementing this picture.
In 1994, the Intercultural Council was founded, in which people of different origins and nationalities as well as from various social groups such as trade unions, employers' associations, religious communities, migrant and human rights organisations, municipalities and state agencies, media, science and sport worked together. The Council, which was committed to peaceful coexistence in a multicultural society at federal, state and municipal level, initiated round tables and discussion forums and developed and tested model projects. It dissolved in July 2017.
In 2003, the second Federal Congress on Cultural Policy of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft took place on the topic of "inter.kultur.politik" took place in Berlin. In 2005, an intercultural network called "Ratschlag Interkultur"
was founded, in which both institutions and individuals participate. It is coordinated by the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft e.V. and works together with the German UNESCO Commission. The most important projects of the initiative are the federal conferences held every two years since 2006 and the expert conferences in which theoretical and practical issues are discussed. 'In addition, it initiates "think tanks".
In 2009, a round table on intercultural education was launched by the Federal Cultural Foundation and seven migration associations. It aimed to develop recommendations for intercultural education in primary, secondary and tertiary education institutions as well as in cultural associations. Round tables for integration" were also founded in numerous municipalities.
The first German Islam Conference took place in 2006. It is a dialogue forum between representatives of the German state and Muslims in Germany. The aim of the long-term dialogue is to promote coexistence and social cohesion. In its first phase from 2006 to 2009, it mainly negotiated fundamental questions and worked out legal framework conditions. In its second phase from 2010 to 2013, the focus was on their implementation and the anchoring of the German Islam Conference in society. The focus of the third phase (2014 to 2017) was on strengthening Islamic welfare and social participation as well as on religious practice and participation in religious law. In its fourth phase, the Islam Conference has repositioned itself: it no longer meets in fixed forums and formats, but initiates topic- and occasion-related events and cooperations. In 2011, the Academy of the Arts of the World (www.adkdw.org/de/about#adkdw) was founded in Cologne to promote intercultural dialogue within the arts. It brings together renowned artists, musicians, dancers, theorists, authors, curators and other cultural actors from all over the world and from all disciplines who, as a society of artists, determine and shape the Academy's programme.
Last update: February, 2022
Intercultural education is not an official part of general school education. At least it plays a role in teaching practice as a cross-disciplinary principle. There is also a growing sensitivity to this issue in schools. In addition to some provisions for bilingual education, there are also many projects that use the arts as a medium to address intercultural issues that arise in schools.
Intercultural education is primarily carried out by educational institutions (kindergartens, schools, further education institutions). However, the topic is also gaining importance for cultural policy. In fact, it is the cultural institutions that take the initiative on this topic and seek cooperation with schools.
The normative framework is set by the human rights articles in the Basic Law (Constitution). The focus is on the recognition of difference, the development of tolerance, the ability to engage in intercultural dialogue, information about the cultural traditions and values of people of other religions, and the rejection of racism and violence. In educational institutions, mastery of the German language as a "lingua franca" is crucial in this regard.
Art and music schools are now also conceptually addressing transcultural aspects in their work and are increasingly integrating instruments from other cultures into their teaching offer
Many intercultural programmes and activities aim to awaken an understanding of other cultural traditions and ways of life, to increase knowledge of basic human and civil rights, and to develop humanitarian and democratic values. In this respect, intercultural and democratic skills are mutually dependent.
As part of the intensified political efforts towards practical measures for cultural integration, special attention is paid to intercultural education. Concrete stipulations are proposed in several educational plans for the pre-school sector and for primary schools in the individual federal states. The German Cultural Council has also prepared a cultural policy paper called "Intercultural Education - an Opportunity for our Society".
Last update: February, 2022
The media have only become a focus of public cultural policy in the narrower sense in recent years. Previously, only film promotion was considered an object of this policy area. It is carried out by the Federal Government and the Länder in order to promote film as a cultural asset and to support the national cultural industry. Article 5 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany states that everyone has the right "freely to express and disseminate his or her opinion in speech, writing and pictures and to inform himself or herself without hindrance from generally accessible sources. Freedom of the press and freedom of reporting by radio and film are guaranteed. Censorship does not take place".
The dual broadcasting system
Television and radio programmes in Germany are produced and broadcast by public broadcasters and private companies. This "dual broadcasting system" was emphasised by the Federal Constitutional Court in its 4th broadcasting judgement of November 1986. Public service broadcasting is of particular importance in this context, as its obligation to provide education means that it must guarantee the independent basic provision of information, education, advice and entertainment; in particular, it must offer contributions to culture. Private broadcasting, on the other hand, is therefore permissible with a lower basic standard of diversity, since public service broadcasting assumes the task of providing the basic service.
The Interstate Broadcasting Treaty / Interstate Media Treaty
The aim of the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty between all 16 federal states (1.RStV 1987, 22nd Interstate Broadcasting Treaty Amendment 2019) is to create uniform federal regulations for public and private broadcasting.
Of particular importance was the 12th Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty (2009) with new regulations for the permissibility of the broadcasters' offerings on the internet. According to this treaty, the public broadcasters may no longer make their programme and accompanying information available for retrieval after seven days after broadcasting. Offerings that go beyond this are permissible for longer if they are included in the broadcaster's telemedia concept and have passed the so-called three-step test. This includes, for example, documentaries and information programmes (duration: 12 months), cultural programmes (up to 5 years) and programmes with contemporary or cultural-historical content (unlimited). The 15th Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty, which came into force in 2013, brought about a paradigm shift with regard to broadcasting financing: the household levy was introduced, according to which broadcasting fees were no longer charged per device but per household. 33 In the 19th Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty,which came into force in 2016, an online-based youth service was mandated by ARD and ZDF.
On 1 May 2019, the 22nd Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty came into force, which reorganises the telemedia mandate of the public broadcasters: the online offerings are to focus on moving images and sound in order to distinguish themselves from the offerings of the press publishers; at the same time, they are to be given more leeway in the length of time they are made available.
In November 2020, the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty was replaced by the Interstate Media Treaty. This treaty regulates the rights and obligations of broadcasters and now also of telemedia providers in Germany.
Diversity in broadcasting
Section 11 of the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty of 31 August 1991, as amended by the Twenty-Second Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty (May 2019), stipulates that the programme content of public service broadcasters "shall provide a comprehensive overview of the international, European, national and regional events in all essential areas of life" in order to "promote international understanding, European integration and social cohesion in the Federation and the Länder". In order to present the diversity in the German-speaking and European area, the television broadcasters should, according to § 6 of the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty from 31 August 1991, as amended by the Eighteenth Amendment to the Interstate Broadcasting Treaty, "reserve the major part of their total broadcasting time for feature films, television plays, series, documentaries and comparable productions for European works in accordance with European law".
Nevertheless, there are no official quotas to which programme providers must adhere. In cultural and media policy in the Federal Republic, quota regulations - also with regard to certain population groups - as an instrument for promoting European film and television production have so far not been considered suitable for solving problems.
The German television landscape includes various stations that broadcast predominantly cultural content. In the early days, especially the third channels showed characteristics of cultural programmes. The development of separate cultural channels began from the mid-1980s, such as the emergence of 3sat (1984), ARTE (1992) or ZDFkultur (2011), which emerged from the ZDFtheaterkanal. ZDFkultur existed until 2016; in February 2019, ZDFkultur was revived as a digital offering in the ZDF-Mediathek. The cultural content of the channels ZDF, 3sat and arte is bundled under the brand. German radio also has channels specialising in cultural content, such as hr2 Kultur (1950), WDR 3 (1964), Deutschlandradio Kultur (1994), SR 2 KulturRadio (1995), SWR2 (1998), rbb's kulturradio (2003, previously RADIOkultur since 1997), ARTE radio (2002) or NDRkultur (2003).
COSMO (until the end of 2016 Funkhaus Europa), one of the international radio programmes for Germany, now broadcasts Refugee Radio at certain times, a separate format in English and Arabic that offers news on the current situation in Germany and the political discussion.
Last update: February, 2022
The language in schools, media and other forms of communication as well as the official language in the Federal Republic of Germany is German. Maintaining the German language is the task of all social groups. Learning the German language is also an important prerequisite for integration. Improving the language skills of immigrants is therefore a focal point of integration efforts. In addition to the Länder and municipalities, the Federal Government itself promotes language acquisition with a variety of measures. In addition, there is a wide range of private providers.
Dialects are cultivated and also promoted on a regional and communal basis. The "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages" came into force for Germany on 1 January 1999. According to this charter, Low German is protected as a regional language and promoted in the federal states concerned. The minority languages protected and promoted by the Federal Government and the Länder concerned are the languages of the minorities traditionally resident (i.e. autochthonous) in Germany and protected under the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. These are the languages Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and the Romany of the German Sinti and Roma.
Last update: February, 2022
In recent years, the issue of gender equity has received greater attention.
In June 2016, the study "Women in Culture and Media" of the German Cultural Council was published, which contains data on the proportion of women in the individual branches of culture, in broadcasting, in education, in leadership positions, as well as the presentation of the legal instruments of gender equality policy in Germany and recommendations for action.
The BKM has made gender equality in the arts, culture and media a key concern of its policy. In the 2017 coalition agreement, the governing parties committed themselves to this,
"To further expand equality and gender justice in the arts, culture and media. This applies to leadership positions, appointments to juries and committees as well as decisions on grants and funding. Concrete measures include the "Round Table Women in Culture in Media" launched by the BKM in 2016, the establishment of a project office "Women in Culture and Media" at the German Cultural Council since 2017), the establishment of a "1:1 Mentoring Programme for Women" (since 2018), the publication of data reports (e.g.. "How female is the cultural industry?"), the commissioning of further studies (e.g. "Women in Culture and Media: A European Comparison" (2017)), the family-friendly design of scholarships and prizes (e.g. at Villa Massimo) and in 2018 the establishment of an independent trust office against sexual abuse and violence. The topic is also mentioned in the Coalition Agreement 2021 - in the form of advocacy for gender equality and closing the GenderPayGap and juries with equal and diverse representation. (see also 2.1)
Women artists have founded their own networks and associations to represent their interests and exchange ideas. One of the cross-disciplinary associations is GEDOK (https://gedok.de/), which was founded as early as 1926 as the Gemeinschaft Deutscher und Österreichischer Künstlerinnenvereine aller Kunstgenattung. The aim of GEDOK today is to present the work and achievements of women artists through exhibitions, events, etc. and to improve the special living and working situation of women artists. GEDOK is committed to the gender-equitable shaping of all areas of cultural life. Its instruments include the awarding of prizes and the organisation of competitions. In addition, there are sector-specific networks such as the "BücherFrauen" (since 1990), the archive "Frau und Musik" (since 1979), "Pro Quote Direction" and "Pro Quote Media" (since 2012).
The Gabriele Münter Prize, established in 1994, stands out in the prize landscape at the federal level. It was offered by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth in cooperation with the BBK, theGEDOK and the Frauenmuseum Bonn and is an art prize endowed with 20,000 euros for the life's work of professional women artists aged 40 and over. It was awarded for the last time in 2017.
Institutions for the promotion of equality have also been established at the state and municipal level, such as the Frauen-Kulturbüro NRW (Women's Cultural Office NRW), founded in 1991, whose aim is to make women more visible, realised, among other things, through the awarding of the NRW Women Artists' Prize, the awarding of scholarships, the holding of further training courses and the publication of studies (e.g. on the participation of women in NRW: "Frauen in Kunst und Kultur - Zwischen neuem Selbstbewusstsein und Quotenförderung" (Women in Art and Culture - Between New Self-Confidence and the Promotion of Quotas). The world's first women's museum was also founded in Bonn in 1981, where more than 700 exhibitions have been held since its inception. Over 3 000 works by women artists were shown. In the meantime, women's museums have also been opened in Berlin, Bremen and Wiesbaden.
Also worth mentioning is the "International Women's Film Festival Dortmund Cologne" (https://frauenfilmfest.com/), which emerged from the film festivals "femme fatale" in Dortmund and the "Feminale" in Cologne founded in the1980s and which, in addition to the annual international competition, is dedicated to networking women from various trades in the film industry.
Last update: February, 2022
In recent years, the topic of inclusion has gained importance in the cultural sector.
In 2009, the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was ratified by the Federal Government. It is the first text of a legal nature that grants people with disabilities not only creative potential, but also the right to develop it.
At federal level, in 1981, the International Year of Disabled Persons, the office of the Federal Government Commissioner for Matters relating to Persons with Disabilities was established as a central point of contact with the Federal Government on all matters affecting persons with disabilities and is attached to the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
EUCREA Verband Kunst und Behinderung e.V. (https://www.eucrea.de), the umbrella organisation representing the interests of artists with disabilities in German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland), was founded in 1989. It is committed to more diversity in the field of art and culture, develops model projects to make visible how inclusion can take place in the art and culture sector, sensitises artists, cultural institutions, politics and administration to the potential of artists with disabilities, encourages cooperation and works on the further development of training opportunities and fields of employment.
Since 2015, the BKM has supported the Network Culture and Inclusion at the Remscheid Academy as a dialogue and expert forum. It facilitates the exchange of experiences and approaches from theory and practice, science and research, the association landscape and politics. In 2018, the funding principles for the "Mediation and Integration" programme were amended, which means that new strategic and methodological approaches in the field of inclusion as well as the transfer of successful projects to other institutions and sectors are also supported. In institutions permanently funded by the BKM, grants are linked to the condition that the participation of people with impairments is also strengthened. The BKM also funded the model project "Art and Inclusion" of the EUCREA Verband Kunst und Behinderung e.V.. The aim was to improve the work and training situation of artists with disabilities and their integration into the cultural sector. The project "CONNECT - Art in Process", funded by the Federal Cultural Foundation, builds on the "ARTplus" programme and is intended to transfer the model developed there to other cultural institutions. In the film sector, funding from the BKM is tied to the production of an accessible version. The German Federal Film Board (FFA) has also set up a "Round Table" in which representatives of associations of people with disabilities work with cinema operators, distributors and technical companies to define new standards for accessible cinemas.
"Too often, however, artists and cultural audiences with disabilities are still left out. Some progress has been made in recent years, e.g. with regard to accessibility in large museums and inclusive art education but not enough. There is not only a lack of accessible cultural venues, but also of inclusive cultural and media offerings, e.g. literature in simple or easy language. As actors, people with disabilities are still strongly underrepresented in the cultural sector. When it comes to training and employment, it is often the disability that is seen first, not the potential of the applicant."14 - this is the view of Aktion Mensch, as published in the dossier "Inclusion in Culture and Media".
In the Coalition Agreement 2021, advocacy for accessibility is highlighted as a goal in the cultural sector.
Last update: March, 2020
The Federal Republic of Germany has ratified the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. It entered into force for Germany on 1 February 1998. The autochthonous minorities and ethnic groups of German nationality, i.e. those traditionally resident in Germany, are protected by this Convention. Four recognised national minorities live in Germany: the Danish minority, the Frisian ethnic group (North Frisians, Sater Frisians), Sorbs and the German Sinti and Roma.
The protection and promotion of national minorities also includes the minority languages Danish, North and Sater Frisian, Upper and Lower Sorbian as well as the Romany of the German Sinti and Roma. The regional language Low German (Plattdeutsch) is also protected in Germany. The basis for this is the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages of the Council of Europe of 5 November 1992, which came into force in Germany on 1 January 1999. The Federal Government, the Länder and numerous local authorities support the members of the national minorities and the speakers of Low German in preserving their cultural identity through many measures.
The Sorbs invoke legal foundations of direct German law for their promotion. Their cultural and ethnic preservation is guaranteed by the State Treaty of the Länder Brandenburg and Saxony of 28.8.1998 (Staatsvertrag_mit_Protokollnotiz.pdf (sorben.com).
In 2002, the previous office of the Federal Government Commissioner for Aussiedler Affairs was supplemented by the Commissioner for National Minorities. The current incumbent has been Bernd Fabritius since 2018.
In Germany live about 50 000 Danes, about 60 000 Sorbs and about 70 000 Sinit and Roma.
People with a migration background
In 2020, according to the microcensus, 21.9 million people lived in Germany who themselves or at least one of whose parents did not have German citizenship at birth. This corresponded to a population share of people with a migration background of 26.7 percent. While "Germans with a migration background" have the same political rights as all other Germans, they still often suffer discrimination in everyday life, at school, when looking for accommodation and at work. Foreigners living in Germany are subject to a multitude of regulations. After the reform of the "Aliens Act" (1990) and the "Citizenship Act" (2000), the "Immigration Act" of 2005 was a third important political instrument on the way to recognising the Federal Republic as a country of immigration, leading to an improvement in the situation for people from other cultures and countries living here. Binding rules for immigration and integration were established for the first time in Germany and were officially approved.
For some years now, the integration of people of different ethnic origins, religious orientations and cultural traditions has been considered a central task of society and also in the cultural sectorCultural policy. Especially in recent years, the topic of diversity in its many aspects (ethnic origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental abilities, age) has become more prominent and has gained a lot of importance - in discourses, cultural policy and cultural practice.
In a growing number of cities (e.g. Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Dortmund, Essen, Osnabrück) and Länder (for example North Rhine-Westphalia), there are interdepartmental integration concepts in which culture plays a not insignificant role and which are appropriately funded. In recent years, there has been a discussion about the necessity of a cultural policy that focuses more on the cultural interests and rights for the participation and self-organisation of ethnic minorities. Since 2006, the Federal Chancellor has organised integration summits in Berlin every one to two years (thirteen so far), at which, among other things, cultural and cultural policy issues were addressed. The result of the first integration summit was agreement on the creation of a national integration plan, which was then presented for the first time in 2007.
In addition to the integration summits, a number of nationwide conferences on interculture or diversity were held, including by the Federal Council for Cultural Diversity. Another actor is the Expert Council of German Foundations for Integration and Migration, which was founded by eight foundations as the as an independent, scientific body that adopts positions on integration and migration policy issues. Its current members are seven foundations: Stiftung Mercator, Volkswagen Foundation, Bertelsmann Foundation, Freudenberg Foundation, Bosch Foundation, Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft and Vodafone Foundation Germany. for Integration and Migration, which was founded by eight foundations as the
In recent years, many documents have been published on the topics of integration and "cultural diversity" or diversity, including, for example, "Cultural Diversity in the Urban Community" (German Association of Towns and Municipalities 2004); "Stuttgart Impulses on Cultural Diversity" (2006); the "National Integration Plan" of the Federal Government (2007), the "Cologne Appeal" (German Association of Towns and Municipalities North Rhine-Westphalia 2008), "Intercultural Integration Report. Munich lives diversity" (City of Munich 2010),
"Intercultural Cultural Work" (Kultusministerkonferenz 2011) and the "National Action Plan Integration" (2012). In May 2012, a study was published presenting the "State of Municipal Integration Policy in Germany".
Special attention is currently being paid to the importance of schools and early childhood education in teaching transcultural competence and acceptance of cultural diversity. Concrete stipulations have been proposed in several educational plans for kindergartens and primary schools in the individual federal states. At all levels of cultural policy responsibility, there are special institutions, concepts and funding for the art and culture of national and ethnic minorities and for transcultural exchange. transcultural programmes are offered or promoted, among others, by the federally funded House of World Cultures, by the federally funded Fund for Socioculture, and by projects of individual Länder and numerous municipalities.
In 2005, the Federal Government Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration was located in the Chancellery and upgraded to Minister of State for Integration. The current holder of the office since December 2021 is Reem Alabali-Radovan (SPD) The tasks include, among other things, submitting a "Report on the Situation of Foreigners in Germany" (the so-called Integration Report) at least every two years.
In May 2015, the 10th report on the situation was published, focusing on education - from early childhood education to university studies - as well as the training and labour market. In it, it is noted quite self-critically: "The data situation makes it clear that we ... are too hesitant to take the step towards an immigration society" and "that our education system does not always succeed in enabling people to achieve educational success that matches their potential, regardless of their social background". In December 2019, the 12th report entitled "Germany can integrate. Promoting potential, demanding integration, strengthening cohesion" (12-integrationsbericht-data.pdf (integrationsbeauftragte.de).
In addition, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees has produced the Federal Government's Migration Report once a year since 2005. So far, 17 migration reports have been published, most recently in December 2020 for the reporting year 2019 (migrationreport-2020.pdf;jsessionid=33C3FFE47A7FCDF5794FC74917CFE396.intranet252 (bamf.de). There are also integration commissioners in the federal states and in some municipalities.
Last update: February, 2022
The goals of the New Cultural Policy in Germany largely reflect the requirements and objectives of the Council of Europe's definition of "social cohesion". In addition, they are of growing importance in relation to equality of cultural opportunities, cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue.
In this context, the 1999 integrated federal and state action programme entitled "Socially Integrative City" is also of interest. The aim of the programme is to improve living and housing conditions in neighbourhoods - in urban and socially vulnerable areas. The programme has been continued since 2020 under the title "Social Cohesion".
The positive impact that culture and the arts have on the process of cultural integration and social cohesion is increasingly recognised. However, few local or state authorities implement concrete programmes and projects. Some Länder, however, such as North Rhine-Westphalia, have specific support programmes.
Local authorities and public and private cultural institutions (such as cultural centres) remain the most important actors in this field. In addition, foundations are also becoming increasingly active: the Federal Cultural Foundation and the Cultural Foundation of the Länder both cooperate with civil society institutions and can be highlighted in this context. The cultural activities of the churches are also gaining in importance in this context.
Addressing audiences who feel particularly alienated from the arts is at the heart of projects that address the problem of social cohesion. Programmes such as the use of artists in public schools (e.g. with the project "Cultural Agents for Creative Schools" - see 5.1) or projects by theatres or orchestras working in social contexts such as neighbourhoods, homes for the elderly, hospitals, etc. are examples that can be seen as both innovative and effective. There has been a certain revival of the social and cultural ideas of the seventies and eighties, when cultural policy had its focus on the social impact of culture and art, as expressed in the term "socioculture".
In addition, there are a number of programmes whose aim is to support disadvantaged children and young people in accessing cultural and educational opportunities, for example with the programme "Kultur macht stark" (Culture makes you strong), which was launched in 2013 (see 5.1)
In June 2020, the German Foundation for Engagement and Volunteering was established (https://www.deutsche- stiftung-engagement-und-ehrenamt.de). It began its work in July 2020 with headquarters in Neustrelitz. The aim of the foundation is to sustainably strengthen voluntary work, especially in regions with weak economic growth and in rural areas. This also goes hand in hand with the decision to locate the foundation in a structurally weak region in eastern Germany. The foundation serves primarily as a service centre.
Last update: February, 2022
Since the turn of the millennium, the discussion about a sustainable and environmentally friendly cultural policy has become more intense in Germany. In the process, the ecological deficit of cultural policy is bemoaned and a new nature-based understanding of culture is demanded. Sustainability, conservation of resources and slowing down are demanded as guiding goals of cultural policy action. Exemplary for this is the project of the Institute for Cultural Policy of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft on the topic of "The significance of culture for the guiding principle of sustainable development" (2001/2002), in the context of which the "Tutzing Manifesto for strengthening the culturally aesthetic dimension of sustainability"15 was created in 2002. The conference was supported by renowned actors from the fields of culture, the environment and science and received a great deal of public attention. Based on the recognised deficit that culture has not played a role in international concepts and declarations on sustainable development to date, and referring to the "World Summit on Sustainable Development" in Johannesburg in 2002, it called for Agenda 21 processes to be structurally opened up to the topic of culture and aesthetics.
The German Council for Sustainable Development was founded in 2001. It advises the Federal Government on sustainability policy. Its members are 15 people from civil society, business, science and politics who are appointed by the Federal Government every 3 years. It also carries out its own projects and provides impetus for social dialogue.
However, the early opinion-forming processes - mainly initiated by civil society actors - have been followed by little concrete cultural policy action. Only since climate change with its catastrophic consequences has dominated the media headlines has it become increasingly clear that the old question of the limits to growth and the resulting constraints and necessary decisions are increasingly challenging all policy areas, including cultural policy. Increasingly, we are hearing calls for federal, state and local cultural policy to be oriented towards the criteria of a sustainable and climate-friendly cultural policy. There are calls for cultural and environmental policy to be more closely interlinked and for the sustainability debate to be expanded to include the cultural issue. Specifically, programmes are called for that allow cultural institutions to adapt to the climatic conditions to be expected in the coming decades and to provide incentives that encourage institutions to generate ideas for a change of course and to communicate them proactively.
A further task is seen in the sustainable equipment and management of the cultural infrastructure.
In 2016, the draft of a German sustainability strategy was published, and in January 2017 the strategy was adopted by the Federal Government. It also refers to the special role of art and culture. In March 2021, the Federal Cabinet decided on its further development.
For about 5 years now, there has also been a more intensive preoccupation with the topic of sustainability in cultural policy. In 2017, the Council for Sustainability launched the "Sustainability Fund", a programme to promote transformative projects on sustainability culture. The Federal Chancellery provided funding of 7.5 million euros for the fund for 4 years. The fund ended in December 2021, during which time several idea competitions were launched on various projects in everyday culture (e.g. food, mobility, building). A total of 89 projects were supported with the money from this fund. The German Cultural Council, the umbrella organisation of German cultural associations, has also put the topic high on its agenda. Supported by the German Council for Sustainable Development and in cooperation with the Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland, it launched a campaign in September 2018 to build a bridge between the sustainability discourse of the natural and environmental sector and cultural policy debates. In 2020, the "Action Network Sustainability in Culture and Media" (https://aktionsnetzwerk- nachhaltigkeit.de) was launched as part of the Summer Academy of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft (Society for Cultural Policy). It is the central cross-sectoral contact point for the topic of "operational ecology" in culture and media. The Action Network currently consists of about 30 partners, including municipalities, cultural institutions, cultural associations, research institutions, energy agencies, etc. The Action Network organises climate protection organisations. The action network organises climate workshops, offers further education programmes such as "transformation manager for sustainable culture" and carries out pilot projects. In the spring of 2021, for example, a pilot project entitled "CO2 calculator for Culture” and a few months later "Climate balance for Culture in NRW", in which 16 cultural institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia are accompanied in the use of the CO2 calculator and in the preparation of climate balances.
The Kulturstiftung des Bundes (KSB) is one of the other actors promoting sustainability in the cultural sector. The KSB itself already participated in the EMAS certification for ecological management in 2012, which obliges institutions to undergo regular environmental audits and to improve their environmental behaviour. In autumn 2020, KSB initiated a pilot project "Climate Balances", which supported 19 cultural institutions nationwide to draw up a model climate balance of their institutions and to determine their carbon footprint . The KSB has also submitted an open application for a "Zero Fund" with which it wants to support cultural institutions in testing climate-neutral forms of production.
In 2020, the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media presented a sustainability report for the first time.
For about two years now, there has also been an intensified discussion about the extent to which the topic of "sustainability" becomes part of the guidelines for funding cultural actors. Numerous research projects on the topic of "culture and sustainability" have also been launched . In addition, several guidelines for cultural events, institutions and organisations have been published in the last two years.
The Coalition Agreement 2021 also provides for the establishment of a "Green Culture" focal point for ecological transformation.
 Tutzinger Manifest (2002), in: Kurt, Hildegard / Wagner, Bernd (Hrsg.), Kultur – Kunst – Nachhaltigkeit. Die Bedeutung von Kultur für das Leitbild Nachhaltige Entwicklung, Bonn / Essen: Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft e.V. / Klartext Verlag (Dokumentation 57), p. 265-267.
No information available.