Film, video and photography
The Ukrainian legislative base concerning the film industry is based on ca. 50 laws and by-laws. The Law on Cinematography regulates all film productions regardless of the legal / ownership status of individual film companies.
On the basis of the Law on the Privatisation of State Property (1992), most cinemas are now privatised or run by communities. According to the data of the State Film Agency, only 380 modern cinema theatres operate in Ukraine.
In April 2017, the President signed the Law of Ukraine On State Suport of Cinematography in Ukraine adopted by Verkhovna Rada. The law establishes that sources for the special fund for supporting the national film industry will come from the Ukrainian Cultural Endowment and the government. As it was indicated (see chapter 1.2.2) above, the objective of the newly established Ukrainian Cultural Endowment will be “to enhance the development of culture and arts of Ukraine, to provide favourable conditions for the development of intellectual and spiritual potentials of individuals and society, wide access of citizens to cultural wealth, and to support cultural diversity and integration of Ukrainian culture into the global cultural space”. The law also defines the amount of non-refundable government subsidies (80% for feature films and 50% for film series), cash rebates for film producers (16.6%) and other mechanisms.
Table 9: Films created with state support in 2010-2013 and 2016
|Types of films||Number by years|
Source: State Film Agency of Ukraine, 2013, 2016.
The Law on Television and Radio Broadcasting (1993, with amendments 2002-2017) regulates the activities of state and private TV and Radio companies in Ukraine. The National Council on Television (NCT) is a non-ministerial body for all broadcasters irrespective of their ownership status. It consists of 8 members, four of which are appointed by Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and four – by the President.
The Law on Public Television and Radio Broadcasting (2014, with amendments 2015-2016), establishes the legal basis for the activity of Public Television and Radio broadcasting and determines the principles for activity of the National Public TV and Radio Company of Ukraine. The law defines the objectives for creating Public Television: to satisfy the information demands of society, to involve citizens in discussing and resolving the most important social and political issues, and to support formation of civil society.
The Law on Access to Public Information (2011, with amendments 2012-2015) provides access to public information in various ways: by systematic disclosure of information in official printed media, on official websites, at information stands, and in other ways; providing information by demand.
The government made several positive legislative changes in 2015. In February the Parliament approved the liquidation of the National Expert Commission for the Protection of Public Morals, a controversial body that was created in 2004 to enforce the observance of morality laws by the media. Amendments to the Criminal Code adopted in May 2015 increased penalties for crimes against journalists, including attacks, threats, abduction, murder and the destruction of property.
The organization Reporters Without Borders RSF highlights significant progress by Ukraine in freedom of expression, rising in 2016 by 22 points among 180 countries to 107th place with the characteristics “visible problems”. This progress was one of three best results in the world.
RSF also notes that “authorities have adopted a number of reforms, including media ownership, transparency and access to state-held information, but wealthy businessmen still keep a tight grip on the media. The manifestations of a worrying information war with Russia include book blacklisting, bans on certain journalists entering the country and paranoid behaviour by intelligence services. In the lawless separatist-controlled areas in the east, there are no critical journalists and no foreign observers”.
See also chapters 4.1.6 and 4.1.7.