There is no specific definition of the cultural industries in Slovenia. The presentation of the scope of the cultural industries in Slovenia follows the definition of the EU Green Book – Exploring the potential of cultural and creative industries, which states that cultural industries encompass (beside traditional art sectors, such as performing arts, visual arts and cultural heritage) also film, DVD and video, TV and radio, video games, new media, music, and books and press. Table 2 and 3 contain estimated data on the size of the cultural industries in Slovenia.
Table 2: Estimates on the size of the cultural industries in Slovenia, 2002 and 2007
(in million EUR)
Value Added |
(in million EUR)
|Press and literature||780.7||1 068.9||351.9||454.0||15 967.0||16 563.0|
|Music, theatre, opera||59.0||93.1||26.6||44.3||1 238.0||1 483.0|
|Film and video||103.5||172.5||48.6||71.5||1 825.0||2 431.0|
|Visual and graphic arts||7.3||9.4||4.8||5.9||252.0||255.0|
|Radio and television||125.4||170.7||65.5||87.4||3 038.0||2 991.0|
|Software and databases||337.9||669.8||196.7||390.6||5 859.0||9 584.0|
|Advertising||195.2||394.3||41.0||79.2||1 824.0||2 478.0|
|Total||1 640.4||2 612.0||751.8||1 150.3||31 034.0||36 603.0|
Source: Economic contribution of copyright-based industries in Slovenia, U. Chitrakar, L. Knežević Cvelbar, K. Hren, M. Marc, A. Podnar, P. Rebec, S. Šlander Wostner, WIPO – World Intellectual Property Organisation, Slovenia, 2011
Table 3: Statistics of the cultural industries in Slovenia, 2012
|Sort of cultural activities||Number of units||Number of employees||
|J58.11 – Publishing of books||237||904||80 595 000||2 124 000|
|J58.13 – Publishing of newspapers||57||1 312||125 462 000||4 133 000|
|J58.14 – Publishing of periodicals||145||504||53 309 000||688 000|
|J59.20 – Publishing of phonograms||133||76||13 205 000||532 000|
|J58.19 – Other publishing||135||234||25 137 000||4 336 000|
|J59.11 – Film and video production||545||491||108 497 000||15 125 000|
|J59.13 – Film and video distribution||21||42||11 051 000||315 000|
|J59.14 – Cinematography||17||118||19 044 000||1 752 000|
|J60 – Broadcasting||305||781||77 176 000||1 661 000|
|J63.91 – Press agencies||66||102||4 169 000||711 000|
|TOTAL||1 661||4 564||517 645 000||31 377 000|
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, http://www.stat.si, 2014.
The main state actors in support of audio-visual activities are the Slovenian Film Centre and Studio Viba Film Ljubljana. The latter is responsible for the technical part of the realisation of the national film programme i.e. projects that have been selected for co-financing by the Slovenian Film Centre. It faces difficulties in meeting the challenges of the ever more rapid development of technical resources as well as problems in coordination and financing its activities. The additional budget sources for investment were given in 2013 in the amount of 116 996.33 EUR and in much smaller extent in 2014. It must be also said that in recent years Viba Film Ljubljana had allocated the income of the market to the urgent upgrading and investment.The main part of the Slovenian state allocation for audio-visual culture transferred through the Slovenian Film Centre. This organisation has been transformed from the former Slovenian Film Fund in 2010, and has taken all of the Fund’s responsibilities. The main goals of the Centre are providing subsidies for the cinematographic and audiovisual industry and culture such as production, development, promotion and distribution, digitisation, film audience projects and other projects related to the film culture in general. Among the goals of the Slovenian Film Center are also fostering cooperation among Slovenian professionals and international subjects and fostering of development and use of new technologies and digitalisation both in the fields of production and presentation as well as education by means of audio-visual and cinema devices. The main change to take place with the institutional transformation is the possibility of out budget sources of financing of films’ production, namely from the National Radio – Television Company , as well as more focus on monitoring of appropriate spending of given public funds. A lot of debate has been going on in recent years, mostly regarding allocation of subsidies and human resource management at the Centre, which have led to criticism and even to (unsuccessful) interpelations against the former Minister of Culture in 2006.
In 2012, drastic changes were made due to the “austerity” programme of the newly elected Slovenian government. It was firstly reported that the Centre would be discontinued and its work continued in the form of a body within the Ministry. Later, the decision was revised due to outcry from professionals and it was decided that the Centre maintain its work as an independent institution. Its total level of funds been allocated by the ministry amounted to 4 586 542 EUR in 2012. Included are the funds for the Media Desk services in amount of 25 000 EUR and the funds for audiovisial production fro the Media. Some new tenders have been included in the work of the Centre: the tender for co financing of realisation of audio-visual projects tender for co financing of digitalisation of cinemas, tender for the project of film culture and for film related associations. The funds allocated to the Slovenian Film Center are slowly rising, but they are not diminishing. Additionally to the funds provided through the Slovenian Film Center, an important source of the state support remain the services provided by the Film Studio Viba film Ljubljana as part of public service.
There are several other important actors in this field, of public and private and non-profit origin. Public exhibitors are mostly financed by local municipalities, and several of them (14) are joined in the Slovenian Art Film Network, but also by important and stable subsidies from the ministry of culture. Some of them have focused and transformed into exclusive art cinemas, and have also joined the Europa Cinema Network.
There are also active private film providers, both companies as well as non-profit associations. Most of the private companies depend on public financial sources for the realisation of their programmes. Therefore, the private for-profit sector is undeveloped and weak regarding self-standing and independent production. There are some relatively strong non-profit associations and unions however, e.g. the Association of Slovenian Film Producers, the Association of Slovenian Movie Directors, the Association of Slovenian Film Creators, etc. Their power is mostly exemplified when negotiating a rise in the national film budget with the state authorities, where they have been successful in recent years.
Films selected in the public tenders of the Slovenia Film Centre are co-financed in a large percentage (from 50 up to 80%). This public aid is justified mostly by the small size of the Slovenian film market and Slovenian film as a cultural exception. Other sources of funds (market, European funds) are not explored and raised sufficiently, although the minority co-production are rising from 2010 on. There is almost none cooperation between the audio-visual and film field and the private economy, except for some cases of private sponsorship.
Publishing of music
The national cultural policy has a number of objectives regarding support to music. Among others, it supports accessibility of diverse, quality and aesthetically demanding music production in Slovenia and among cross border Slovene minorities. It also aims to co-finance musical editions and publishing. Both aims show the tendency to support publishing of music in all its various forms: music scenery production, symphony music, choral music, small ensemble classical music, ballet, folk music and dance, jazz, contemporary musical forms, popular music and youth subcultures.
In the area of music publishing, the Ministry of Culture explicitly aims to enrich the musical archives by publishing editions and scripts by quality Slovenian composers and players. It supports the publishing of musical portraits of Slovenian composers as well as digitalisation of important works from national musical heritage.
The field of music publishing, on the one hand, suffered a lowering of funds from 2007-2009 for medium-term, programme support, while, on the other hand, raising funds for individual projects. Most of the editions it supports on programme tender are produced by the Society of Slovenian Composers. According to the authors of the National Analysis of Conditions in the Field of Music (Ministry of Culture, 2011), the field of music publishing is in some sort of development downfall, which is documented by high volatility in applications to the regular programme and project tenders of the ministry.
The Ministry’s most frequent contractual partner regarding the publishing of non-commercial CDs is the Založba kaset in plošč RTV Slovenija (publisher associated with the Slovene national radio and television), whereby approximately 15 CDs are produced annually. The Ministry works to a lesser extent with private publishers. The main criteria for the Ministry to grant subsidies in the area of musical publishing are top quality, notable success and appearance on non-commercial radio and television stations or on international concert stages, Slovenian origins and first publication of archive music scores. Special attention is paid to musical reviews and professional publications. Increasingly, various societies also appear as publishers, this being their supplementary activity. In 2009, the Ministry of Culture subsidised the publication of 68 CDs, 47 scores and 58 new musical works.
In 2004, the Slovene Music-Information Centre was established. The centre is a basic information point for access to information on Slovenian musicians, music, musical heritage and contemporary activities. In addition to providing information, the purpose of the Centre is to promote Slovenian music to Slovenes and to an international public and to provide access to music material. The Slovene Music-Information Centre should become an important lever for the development and usage of digital contents and possibilities that are provided by the Internet. In 2006, the Centre was accepted into the International Association of Music Information Centres (IAMIC). In 2008, Slovenia was presented as the principal guest at the World’s Music Market Midem in Cannes. The Ministry of Culture earmarked 220 000 EUR for this event.
Publishing of books
Until 2008, the main support for activities in the book field came from the Ministry of Culture in the form of co-financing programmes and projects. In May 2008, the Decision establishing the Slovenian Book Agency was taken by the Slovenian government and the allocation of public funds has been legally delegated to this paragovernmental organisation (see chapter 4.2.5) which received wide support among the professional public.
In 2009 The Slovenian Book Agency has supported 398 book titles and 50 journals. Number of translated Slovenian authors is growing – in 2009, 69 works of Slovenian authors were translated into 22 languages. Increased focus has been given to international cooperation and promotion, including successful presentations of Slovenian literature at the international book fairs in Frankfurt, Leipzig and Bologna. 40 institutions have been financed on programme terms, as well as 33 literary events and festivals. The Institute of Library Compensation is becoming more well-known and recognised, which is shown by the rise in compensated authors in 2009 to 946 (or 96% of eligible authors).
All together there were 5 012 books and 1 473 brochures published in 2009, which shows a constant and significant rise since 2007. Also, several measures to support reading and librarianship have been implemented, such as Reading Badge, Book for Everybody, and Growing with the Book.
Similar to the work of the Slovenian Film Centre, the work of the Slovenian Book Agency was under threat in 2012 due to the austerity programme by the newly elected Slovenian government. At the beginning of March 2012 the minister Žiga Turk announced that both agencies were to be discontinued and their work carried out as part of the regular ministry’s tasks. Only under drastic protest by Slovenian culture experts and artists has the decision been changed, yet the resources of both agencies have been significantly reduced.
After the changes in 2012 another task of “fundraising from non-governmental sources” has been added to the Slovenian Book Agency’s tasks despite its. On 6 June 2012 the Agency announced it would stop its programme of financing of science publications due to a lack of funds and that also other funds (including culture) are under threat. In 2013 the Agency had 5 employees as compared to 7 in years 2010 and 2011. In 2013 the Agency received 5 185 225 EUR from various public sources as compared to 8 327 012 EUR in 2011.
In 2010 Ljubljana, the Slovenian capital held the UNESCO title of World Book Capital City, which brought important results both for the city as well as the state in general. New infrastructure for literature activities was put in place. Pogledi, currently the only Slovenian newspaper devoted exclusively to art and culture was started. The Ljubljana Resolution on Books, which is described by Dr. Uroš Grilc, head of the project, as “for the first time bringing under one roof all key international organisations in the field of publishing, book marketing and libraries”, was adopted at the World Book Summit, and a number of important book events, festivals and projects have taken place. Ljubljana is also planning to apply for the permanent UNESCO title of City of Literature.
Concerning training and education programmes for cultural industry professionals, there is a special study programme for publishing at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. The Association of Publishers and Booksellers of the Slovenian Chamber of Commerce and Industry has developed regular training activities with the aim to inform, educate, share experiences and discuss topics from the field. The major event in this regard is the Publishing Academy, which has taken place for the past 6 years during the annual Book Fair in Ljubljana.