In Russia, cultural consumption differs greatly in large cities and in rural areas where the cultural infrastructure is weak. It has been recently recognised as a general political problem of providing equal cultural access and evening out cultural participation. The proposed means to help solve those problems are Internet delivery and the development of mobile facilities (bibliobuses, cinemobiles, etc.).
Table 9: Spending on cultural activities and goods, % of total household spending, 1990-2008
|TV sets, radio receivers, objects for leisure and entertainment||5.0||3.2||3.4||4.6||4.5||4.1||4.6|
|Cultural institutions’ services||0.9||0.5||1.1||1.7||2.1||2.2||2.9|
Source: Gosudarstvenny komitet RF po statistike: Rossiya v tsifrah, 2009. (State Committee of the RF for Statistics: Russia in figures, 2009, Moscow, 2010). Moskva, 2009, p. 128-129.
The main trends in the 1990s were a drop in the number of public cultural institutions and artistic events, together with lower attendance at theatres, cinemas, and philharmonic concerts. On the other hand, there was a rise in the number of television, cable and satellite channels, private radio stations, and e-devices per household, in the 2000s supplemented with the introduction of the Internet. In spite of permanent lamentations on behalf of artistic elite about the “general decline in taste” and “degrading audiences”, the wider public demonstrates its ordinary preferences and readiness to pay for entertainment and pop culture.
Table 10: Cultural services within the structure of paid services, % of total amount provided, 1995-2008
|Tourism and excursions||1.3||1.8||1.4||1.3||1.6||1.7|
Source: Gosudarstvenny komitet RF po statistike: Rossiya v tsifrah, 2009. (State Committee of the RF for Statistics: Russia in figures, 2009, Moscow, 2010). Moskva, 2009, p. 349.
Consumption trends are generally influenced by developments in other aspects of life, for example, the economic crisis of the 1990s and of the end of the 2000s was followed by increasing reliance on free public services (e.g. libraries), drops in attendance rates for paid entertainment events and higher rates of home cultural consumption, and vice versa. However, one can suppose that overall attendance rates drop in traditional cultural institutions: during the last three months of 2005, 83% of Russians did not visit a theatre, museum or attend a concert and 85% had not been to the cinema. In Moscow, related figures were 64% and 66%. According the VCIOM data in 2008, only 8% spend leisure time at the cinema, 6% in museums, and 3% in libraries (chapter 6.3).
Table 11: Volume of cultural services provided per capita, 1993-2006
|Cultural services (in RUB)||68.5||154.3||314.7||441.1||412.3||469.3|
|Tourist services (in RUB)||…||105.1||166.6||320.1||379.0||514.1|
Source: Gosudarstvenny komitet RF po statistike: Rossijsky statistichesky yyezhegodnik, 2008. (State Committee of the RF for Statistics: Russian Statistical Yearbook, 2008. Moscow, 2009). Moskva, 2009.
Sociologists also discovered the immediate correlation between income levels and attendance frequencies.
Traditionally, tourism in Russian has a cultural component and it is a growing sector, especially travelling abroad. In 2002 – 1 639 thousand tours, and in 2008 – 4 305 thousand tours, were sold, of which 775 and 3 183 thousand, respectively, were foreign tours. In 2007, 4.5 million domestic tourists went abroad and only 2.6 million travelled in Russia. However, those figures can be twice as large and the same year 7.1 million Russians went abroad for tourist purposes while in 2008, this number equalled 10.8 million.
Table 13: Trends in attendance rates
|Attendance trends in different cultural fields|
The frequency of visits dropped from 15 per annum per inhabitant in the early 1980s, to 0.25 visits per year per inhabitant in 1996 and increased to an average of 0.3 in 1998-2004 and to 0.4 in 2005-2006. In 1995, there were 80 million spectators, 52 and 50 million relatively in 2005 and 2006. According to the VCIOM survey of 2008, only 18 % of adults visit the cinema several times a year and 43 % cut down during the last 5-10 years; 28 % of respondents prefer home video or TV film translations. Cinema theatres are visited by 36 % of the population including those visiting the cinema several times a week (6 %), a year (15 %), or no more than 3 times a year (7 %); 13 % of respondents have never been to a cinema theatre (2009). Rare attendees complain of the lack of cinema theatres (26%), lack of time (23%) and high ticket prices (20%).
In 2007, programmes of the state radio companies reached 97.5 % of the population; 90.2% of the population had access to 3 and more TV programmes, whereas 0.6% had no access to TV translations at all. In 2007, the “Russia” channel was available to 98.6% of urban and 94.6% of the rural population; the “Kultura” channel reached relatively 79.0 and 35.4%. The access to commercial radio stations increased from 43.6% in 1999 to 63% of the population in 2005. The same year, only 11.6% were reached by the “Orpheus” radio station transmitting classical music (the rural population made up 5.6% of the total). In 2010, the VCIOM survey estimated TV as the main source of news (92%); relatively 15% and 12% receive news from the Internet and on the radio. The TV as a source of information dominates villages and small towns (93% of dwellers); 47% of respondents also prefer listening to music on TV and 32% on the radio; 58 % of the young and 33% of well educated prefer their own records.
The number of spectators dropped from almost 72.9 million in 1985 to 27.6 million in 1998 and grew slightly to 31 million in 2001. This number decreased again and in 2010 was 30.7 million, of which 13 million visited performances for children. In 2007 and 2009, the total number of performances equalled relatively 132 and 139 thousands of which relatively 73.8 and 77.7 thousand were addressed to children. The average price of a theatre visit was 255 RUB, while an opera and ballet average visit cost 361 RUB and the cost of a performance for children was 136 RUB in 2010.
Visits to concerts organised by the companies within the Ministry of Culture responsibilities decreased from almost 90 million in 1980 to less than 55 million in 1997 and went down to 17.5 million in 2004; then the number of visits grew slightly to 21 million in 2010. The philharmonic concert attendances grew slightly from 11.2 in 2000 to 12.6 million in 2008, and in 2010 equalled 14.8 million, and contributed a lot to the general increase in attendances in 2009, which totalled 21 million**. The 35 national philharmonic organisations and companies were most successful, increasing their audiences from 1.4 in 2008 to 1.8 million in 2009. In 2004 and 2008, concerts for children reached relatively 4.76 and 4.77 million spectators, the number of which decreased to 4.44 million in 2009. According the VCIOM estimations, only 6% of respondents prefer live music; most listen to music on TV, over the radio, on records, and on the Internet.
Museum visits reached a peak of 144 million in 1990 and dropped to 65.6 by 1999; rising slightly again to 75.1 million in 2002 and totalled 77.6 million in 2010. About 41% of the latter were organised as excursions. However, the number of organised exhibitions grew from 33 in 2004 to 40 thousand in 2007 and 46 thousand in 2010; lectures rose relatively from 133.6 to 136 thousand in 2010. According the VCIOM estimations in 2009, 53% of the population had been to museum several years previously and 20% have never been there. In Moscow and St. Petersburg, 18% of respondents had visited a museum during the previous three months; 35 % of respondents have no wish to go to a museum (in 2008 this share equalled 26%).
Cultural houses (Clubs):|
The number of people involved in activities based in cultural houses within the Ministry of Culture system rose from 4.7 million in 1996 to almost 6 million in 2000, and remained stable since, of which about 60% are village dwellers. In 2002 – 7.9 million, in 2003 – 8.1 million and in 2010 – 8.2 million events were held, of which 4.9, 5, and 5.4 million in those years were free of charge. There were 171 million paid visits to club events in 2002 and 142 in 2010; about half of paid events are film screenings but the number of spectators is declining. According the survey of 2005-2007, up to 80% of clubs’ amateur practitioners is made up of children, teenagers, and retired people.
From 2003 – 2007, about 40% of the population was served by libraries within the Ministry of Culture system. The number of library visits rose from 462.2 million in 1995 to 474.7 million visits in 1999, then dropped to 463 million in 2003 and is still decreasing. The number of registered users decreased from 71.8 million in 1995 to 59.6 million in 2000 and to 56.4 in 2009, while the number of visits remained more or less stable.
The number of spectators fell from 21.5 million in 1992 to 6.7 in 2004 and to 5.9 in 2009.
The number of visitors rose from 5.7 million in 1998 to 6.9 million in 2001 and remained at the same level until 2003. In 2009, the number rose to 10.5 million visits of which only about 4% were organised as excursions.
Ministry of Culture and other statistical publications, different years.
* Concerts organised by companies within the Ministry of Culture responsibilities.
** Data on rock and pop music shows, etc. are not included.