In an average Polish household, according to the Central Statistics Office 2008, most of the budget for culture was spent on cable TV fees (c.a 90 PLN per capita). Purchase of newspapers and periodicals, as well as public TV fees, took second place with c.a. 40 PLN per capita each. Only c.a. 17 PLN was spent on books and c.a. 14 PLN on theatre and cinema tickets.
Table 14: Household expenditure on private cultural participation and consumption, by domains, 2006-2013 (yearly for 1 person)
|Items (Field/Domain)||Household expenditure for culture in PLN (EUR*)||% share of total household expenditure|
|Newspapers and periodicals||
|Books and other publications||
|Theatre, music hall, cinema entry fees||
|Purchase of stereo appliances||
|Purchase of TV sets||
|Purchase of video appliances||
|Purchase of sound and image carriers||
|Radio, TV licence fees||
|Cable TV fees||
Culture 2008, Central Statistical Office.
* Yearly average rate (National Bank of Poland).
A new report on Social Diagnosis 2013, Objective and subjective quality of life in Poland, has been prepared by the Council for Social Monitoring at the University of Finance and Management in Warsaw. In 2013, from 13%-20% of examined households had to give up going to the cinema, theater, opera, concert, visit a museum or exhibition, with the purchase of a book or the press for financial reasons. Most of resignation (20%) concern going to the cinema and the lowest (12.6%) visit a museum or exhibition. In 2013 compared to 2011 scale of household financial difficulties in the some forms of participation in culture did not change significantly
Graph 3: Have any of the household members been forced to stop their cultural participation for financial reasons in recent years (%), 2007-2011
Source: Social Diagnosis 2011.
In 2011, also 13%-20% of examined households were unable to go to the cinema, theatre, opera, museum, etc. due to financial reasons – less than in 2007 but a little bit more than 2009. Most of restrictions concern the purchase of books – 20.4% of households and visits to museums and galleries at 12.6%. At the same time, the level of interest in attending culture is decreasing. The research from 2009 revealed that over 40% of respondents declared that they do not want to visit museums (in 2011 it was 45.9%, in 2007 – 38.1%) and 5.8% do not wish to buy newspapers (in 2011 it was 5.9%, 2007 – 3.7%).
According to the Social Diagnosis 2009 most households (almost 76%) assessed that provision for their cultural needs in the previous 2 years had not changed. However, almost 19% of households observed a deterioration of the situation and only 5% stated an improvement in that field. All forms of participation are related to material well-being (income and household equipment) and are correlated to the level of civilisation (number of modern communication tools). Both depend on the level of education of the population. In almost all cases, when the householder has higher education the household has a collection of books of between 100 and 500 volumes. There is growing participation in culture through the Internet, for example 30% read newspapers online in 2009.
According to the Report on the condition and diversification of urban culture in Poland, prepared for the Polish Culture Congress 2009, the changes in forms of cultural participation and consumption are very visible. The difference between metropolitan and smaller urban areas is still large. However, the technological and civilisation changes are leading to a universal rejection of traditionally understood institutionalised culture.
There is no regular and complex monitoring of participation in culture at national level apart from the reports of the Central Statistical Office. Also, the data is diversified only for different social groups but not in terms of gender, age or education. There are no surveys monitoring the participation of national minorities or immigrant groups.