State intervention in the functioning of the cultural industries is limited to regulating access of different producers to the marketplace, providing direct subsidies to selected activities and introducing tax incentives and allowances which could facilitate the development of different areas of the industry.
Over the last few years, the number of enterprises whose activities are classified as ‘cultural and creative industries’ has been systematically growing. In 2018, it reached the level of 117.2 thousand entities operating in various fields of broadly understood culture. The most frequently represented areas of culture in 2018 were: advertising (28.9 thousand entities), books and press (27.0 thousand) and architecture (18.8 thousand).
Most of the entities were organised in the form of micro-enterprises (98.9% of all entities classified as cultural and creative industries). In 2018, there were a total of 116.0 thousand of them, which accounted for 5.6% of all micro-enterprises. In the remaining size classes of enterprises, the share of the cultural and creative industries was as follows: small – 1.9%, medium – 1.3%, large – 1.2%.
In 2018, 241.5 thousand people worked in enterprises classified as the cultural and creative industries (12.5 thousand people more than in 2017), which constituted 2.4% of the total number of people working in non-financial enterprises. Micro-enterprises concentrated 70.5% of working people, large enterprises – 13.4%, small enterprises – 8.1% and medium-sized enterprises – 8.0%.
In 2018, entities included in the cultural and creative industries achieved revenues of PLN 83.3 billion, with total costs amounting to PLN 74.6 billion (data from the Central Statistical Office).
In recent years, the creative sectors have become one of the areas of interest of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. A special programme called Creative Sector was created, which aims to develop the Polish cultural and creative sectors and to strengthen their competitiveness both in the EU and beyond. The grant programme supports in particular: educational activities related to these sectors, research projects, prototyping, development and export of products.