As a legacy of the communist period, the state is expected and indeed is performing as the main sponsor of cultural institutions. That applies also to those connected to local governments, including the vast network of houses of culture (művelődési houses). With the regime change, opportunities for private investments and initiatives opened up and they led to a fundamental overhaul of the cultural industries, such us publishing, design, art galleries etc. – festivals can also be added to this list.
Independent art groups have a decisive role in challenging the primacy of large public ensembles, particularly in drama and dance, since the late communist era. In the rock music scene, spontaneous bottom-up emergence and independent operation are the rule.
The changes in the last few years have been so substantial that the focus of genuine overviews should very much be on these latest developments (see chapter 1.3.3).