Collective bargaining agreements
There are many collective labour agreements (collectieve arbeidsovereenkomst, or CAO) in the performing arts, and more generally in the cultural sector. CAOs are labour agreements between employers and employees. This means that a CAO only applies to employees who are working for an employer. When this is not the case, the national legal agreements are enforced. The existing CAOs are mostly found in architecture, arts education, media (broadcasting, journalism, publishing houses), museums and exhibition halls, performing arts (dance, orchestras, theatre companies, and venues), public libraries, retail musical instruments and sheet music. Special trade unions exist to enforce or monitor these agreements.
Almost all art and cultural labour areas are organised in the Culture Federation (Federatie Cultuur), an umbrella employers’ organisation which monitors the results of annual collective bargaining between the large Dutch unions, the central government and the employers’ organisations, with respect to work and related conditions.
There is no special legislation for volunteer efforts, but there is a National Expenses Arrangement (Landelijke Regeling Onkostenvergoeding Vrijwilligers) which stipulates a maximum tax-free reimbursement of expenses of EUR 1.700 a year (see also chapter 4.1.4).