1. Cultural policy system
Last update: September, 2018
Federal involvement in the development of Swiss cultural policy gained a new, more modern momentum following the transformation of Pro Helvetia (otherwise known as the Arts Council of Switzerland) from a governmental consortium into an independent public foundation in 1949. Until this time, support for culture was derived mainly from the cantons and cities. Federal support for cultural activities was minimal, with the exception of resources provided to build the Swiss Federal Archives (1848), the National Museum (1890), and the Swiss National Library (1894). The constitutional basis for these cultural activities of the Swiss Confederation was the unwritten cultural competency of the Federal Constitution, which arose as a result of the overall context of the Constitution. The Swiss Confederation began promoting culture with the establishment of the Federal Office for the Conservation of Historic Monuments in 1886 and with the Federal Decree on the Promotion and Elevation of Swiss Art of 1887. Today, federal involvement in cultural life has increased. However, the cantons and cities continue to provide the majority of resources to support cultural activities.
From the 1950s, there were signs that the quality of life in Switzerland was improving. General rates of participation in cultural life increased parallel to rising levels of education, widespread use of the mass media and a reduction in the amount of hours devoted to working life. At the same time, traditional structures, including the family, were breaking up and the sprawl of urbanisation was expanding. The arts tried to address these societal developments on various levels, which led to a broader mandate and definition of culture.
Until the end of the 1960s and early 1970s, culture was mainly considered a private matter in Switzerland. There was almost no public discussion on it. Exceptions are the federal promotion of the film industry, which was already incorporated in the Federal Constitution in 1958 (Article 27ter of 1958, now Article 71), in 1962 the enactment of Article 24sexies (now Article 78), which encourages the Confederation to protect the environment and the cultural heritage of Switzerland, and in 1959 Article 22bis (now Article 61) as the first statutory basis for the cultural heritage protection. In the late 1960s, discussion on cultural policy intensified and resulted in the establishment of a legal basis (Pro Helvetia Act of 1965) and the definition of a public mission for Pro Helvetia; the creation of a temporary Federal Commission of Experts for Swiss Cultural Matters (the Clottu Commission, 1969); the Conference of Swiss Cities on Cultural Matters (CSCC 1970) and the establishment of the Federal Office of Culture (FOC) in 1975.
While the concept of culture was being broadened, based on the UNESCO concept, culture as an important dimension in many policy sectors was being discussed. National cohesion (identity) and diversity as well as the growing gaps between urban and rural areas became central issues in this context.
In 1980, the "Federal Cultural Initiative" reinvigorated the debate on cultural policy in Switzerland. According to the initiative, one percent of federal expenditure should be spent on culture. Both the "Cultural Percentage Initiative" and the moderate counterproposal of the Federal Council of 1986 were rejected by a narrow margin by the Swiss electorate. The Confederation introduced a further cultural initiative in 1991, through which the Federal Council sought to emphasise especially the identity-establishing function of culture both within and beyond Switzerland, on a local, regional, and national level. The initiative of 1991 highlighted culture and its promotion as an element conducive to unifying Switzerland, a country formed of four language groups and of several cultural communities. In 1994, this initiative was also rejected by a narrow margin.
During the 1980s, there was a growing interest on the part of the cantons and cities to increase their support for cultural and socio-cultural activities. This interest manifested itself in action and in the realisation that a more comprehensive structure for cultural policy at the local level was required. Toward the end of the 1980s, the need to evaluate cultural policies appeared on political agendas. One example in this respect was the establishment of the Conference of Cantonal Directors of Culture (CCDC).
Public budgets were cut in the early 1990s. Responsibilities between the different levels of government with regard to culture needed to be more clearly defined in areas such as the support granted to institutions of national interest, equality between different language regions of the country, and foreign policy. These developments were also influenced by the failed ballot of 1992 on Switzerland's accession to the European Economic Area (EEA), which put the country's political cohesion to a serious test, as the French-speaking part of the country voted in favour of accession, but were outvoted by the German-speaking majority, who voted against. The Languages Act (2007) can be considered one of the consequences of this period. There was also renewed interest in pursuing scientific debates about culture and cultural policy as well as continuing public discussions on the establishment of a constitutional basis for cultural competencies. The promotion of culture in Switzerland was not placed on a firm constitutional basis until the revision of the Federal Constitution in 1999. Essentially, responsibility for culture continued to reside with the cantons (Article 69 para. I Constitution). The new Constitution confirmed the previous responsibilities of the Confederation for film (Article 71), for national heritage protection and conservation (Article 78), for language and understanding between linguistic communities (Article 70), and for foreign affairs (Article 54). Pursuant to the constitutional revision, the federal government now has legal base for the promotion of cultural endeavours of national interest and for lending support to the arts, especially in the areas of film and education (Article 69 para. 2).
On the legal basis of the revised constitution, Swiss Parliament passed the Federal Act on the Promotion of Culture (Culture Promotion Act) at the end of 2009. This Act renders concrete and implements Article 69 of the Federal Constitution. On this basis, strategic aims have been defined for the first time for the most important actors of the Confederation for the period from 2012 to 2015.
Today, culture is an important element in different policy areas - from the debate on national cohesion (including the discussion of a language and minority policy) to the discussion on whether cultural industries have to be considered as part of a forward-looking cultural policy.
Main features of the current cultural policy model
The two main elements of the Swiss (cultural) policy model are: federalism and subsidiarity.
For Swiss cultural policy, federalism means that measures are decided upon and implemented at a local and regional level, which are considered to be closer to the artists' and the publics' voices and their needs. Subsidiarity presupposes that the lowest, smallest or least centralised authority takes responsibility if possible. The respective higher levels, for instance, the cities, cantons, or the federal government, lend subsidiary support, which is primarily financial. This means that public resources for culture are provided first by the cities, and then subsidiarity by the cantons and the federal government. Furthermore, private sponsorship is almost conditional or a requirement in order to receive public grants. The private sector acts as a kind of guarantor, in that public funds will only be provided if matched by private funding.. Switzerland's cultural tapestry is a patchwork of twenty-six cantonal approaches rather than a single, national design.
Because of the flexibility of the Swiss model, there are some inherent difficulties such as the duplication or overlap of efforts. Concentrating cultural policy measures on a common goal is rather difficult and the elaboration of mid and long-term perspectives is quite a complex task (see chapter 1.2.6). Particularly on the national level, discussions can take years and at times result in expensive compromises.
For this reason, the new Culture Promotion Act places great emphasis on precisely delimiting federal powers in comparison with those of the cantons, communes, and cities, which are primarily responsible for the promotion of culture. Under the new Act, the financial steering of the federal government's promotion of culture is effected by means of a four-year payment framework (Dispatch on Culture), and reads as a declaration of the cultural policy guidelines of the federal government.
On 25 October 2011, the federal government, cantons, cities, and communes signed a Convention for a National Dialogue on Culture. The Convention marks a first step toward the implementation of the Dispatch on Cultural, and is aimed at establishing closer cooperation between the various levels of the state in the future. It remains to be seen whether the enactment of the new Culture Promotion Act (which came into effect on 1 January 2012) and the associated strategic four-year periods will reduce the friction occurring to date.
Cultural policy objectives
Failing a single, unified national definition of culture, it is difficult to point to cultural policy objectives reflecting the attitudes of the major players in Swiss cultural policy (mainly the cities and cantons) at the same time.
Nevertheless, in the discussion on the new Federal Act on the Promotion of Culture, which was passed at the end of 2009 and enacted in January 2012, several papers outlining cultural policy objectives were developed. Thus, for instance, Article 3 of the new Act mentions the following objectives: "The promotion of culture by the federal government shall have the following aims: a) to strengthen the cohesion and cultural diversity of Switzerland; b) to promote a richly diverse and qualitatively outstanding range of cultural activities and offerings; c) to establish favourable conditions for cultural workers and cultural institutions; d) to provide the population of Switzerland with access to culture and to facilitate such access; e) to make Swiss cultural work known abroad." Accordingly, Article 8 establishes the following priorities: "The Confederation shall in the first instance support projects that a) provide the population with access to culture, or that facilitate access; and b) make a particular contribution to the safeguarding or development of cultural or linguistic diversity."
The Swiss Federal Council's Dispatch on Culture for 2016–2019 identifies the most important aims of the country's efforts to promote culture:
- to preserve Switzerland's tangible and intangible cultural assets, that is, archaeological sites, monuments, historic townscapes, and moveable cultural assets; to gather, record, preserve, and disseminate (print, audio, video, and web) information about Switzerland; to safeguard and breathe life into Switzerland's cultural heritage; to prevent the theft, pillaging, and illegal import and export of cultural assets; to lend specialised support to the professional documentation, archiving, and collection of cultural assets;
- to promote a rich and varied cultural life of a high quality: to foster the free development of professional artistic and cultural production in all sectors; to create favourable conditions for cultural institutions and organisations; to nurture artistic talent; to promote exchange between public, civil-society, and private cultural initiatives;
- to enhance the cultural participation of all population groups: to strengthen cultural and music education and intercultural skills; to enable equal access to culture for all population groups; to promote the cultural activities of laypersons and lay organisations; to foster art education and cultural education;
- to strengthen the social cohesion of a diverse population: to raise greater awareness among the Swiss population for the country's various cultures; to stimulate exchange between cultural and linguistic communities; to safeguard multilingualism as a hallmark of Switzerland; to protect the linguistic and cultural rights of minorities; to ensure linguistic freedom, and to preserve and promote minority languages; to nurture individual and institutional multilingualism in Switzerland's national languages;
- to ensure cultural exchange with countries abroad: to cultivate lively and balanced cultural exchange with other countries; to make known Switzerland's cultural production and cultural heritage abroad; to spread Switzerland's cultural production through international markets; to preserve Switzerland's interests, national communication, and image abroad; and
- to contribute to Switzerland's attractiveness as a location for business and education; to tap and utilise the creative, innovative, and economic potentials of culture; to improve and develop the conditions for the cultural industries; to convey the rich and varied cultural life of Switzerland to tourists and visitors (e.g., the diversity of museums and collections).
Similar formulations of these aims can be found in the various cantonal acts on culture. Importantly, these aims are not ranked in hierarchical order, but are assigned equal status. Both national cultural policy and the cultural policy of the Swiss Confederation must orient themselves towards these aims. Depending on changes in cultural policy and its conditions, individual aims can be strengthened or emphasised.
Last update: September, 2018
The graph illustrates the important players on the federal level. The various structures for cultural support provided on the municipal and cantonal levels are quite heterogeneous and cannot be reduced to one basic model. They range from operationally separate cultural administrations with specialised staff for the different sectors of the arts and culture in most of the larger cantons and cities (e.g., Zurich, Bern, Geneva, Lausanne, Basel) to (ad hoc) committees in smaller cities responsible for culture, education, and sport at the same time.
Communes and cities play a key role. One important committee in this respect is the "Conference of Swiss Cities on Cultural Matters" (CSCC). Within the CSCC, the cultural policy delegates of the member cities meet to determine strategies for Swiss cultural policy, pass resolutions, or issue statements. Cultural policy and the promotion of culture in Switzerland should be undertaken jointly by the Swiss Confederation, the cantons, and the communes. The CSCC therefore cooperates with the Swiss Federal Office of Culture (FOC), the Pro Helvetia Foundation, and the Conference of Cantonal Directors of Culture (CCDC).
Last update: September, 2018
The current constitutional basis confines federal involvement in cultural policy to a small number of sectors, such as film (funding of film production and distribution, festivals, professional training), nature and heritage conservation, languages, and educational and cultural activities of national interest including foreign affairs. There are 26 cantons and more than 2 352 cities / communes in Switzerland. These are the major players in cultural promotion, and they set their own priorities and act mostly independently from one another. The five major cities (Zurich, Geneva, Basel, Bern and Lausanne) play a particularly important role and determine the public debate and discourse on culture. Altogether, they provide over 80% of cultural funding at city-level.
The great heterogeneity among the cantons, cities, and communes only allows for an outline of the wide range of activities undertaken with more or less emphasis subject to the financial situation, the number of inhabitants, cultural traditions, and several other factors:
- definition of cultural policy programmes;
- support for institutions, organisations, programmes, and individuals;
- operation of their own programmes and institutions; and
- awarding of prizes and honours.
The main federal players, however, can be described in a more direct way:
The Swiss Federal Office of Culture (FOC) actsunder the responsibility of the Federal Department of Home Affairs (FDHA). The FOC is the expert authority of the Swiss Confederation for cultural policy, cultural promotion, and the preservation of culture. It supports the development and implementation of cultural policy on the federal level, and prepares decisions to be taken by Parliament. It also plays an important role in areas of general interest like language policy, minorities, etc. Its promotion activities comprise three areas: cultural heritage (national heritage protection and conservation, transfer of cultural assets, museums and collections), cultural work (film, honours and awards, supporting cultural organisations), and the grassroots promotion of culture (language and communication policy, music education, reading promotion, transient populations, and Swiss schools abroad).
The Pro Helvetia Foundation, otherwise known as the Arts Council of Switzerland, is 100% funded by the federal government. It acts independently in a wide range of cultural sectors, including the visual arts, music, literature and the humanities, theatre, dance, culture, and society. Article 32 of the new Culture Promotion Act describes Pro Helvetia's tasks as follows: "The [Pro Helvetia] Foundation shall promote the diversity of artistic and creative work, make known Swiss art and culture, foster popular culture, and nurture cultural exchange." Pro Helvetia supports projects in four different ways: applications for support (which amount to approx. 70% of the financial resources at its disposal), within its own programmes (approx. 10%), via its network of cultural centres and liaison offices abroad (Cairo, Cape Town, New Delhi, and Shanghai). Further, it maintains a cultural centre in Paris (CCS), and is the principal financial backer of the Istituto Svizzero di Roma (ISR) and the Swiss Institute in New York (SINY) in partnership with the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI); approx. 17%). Also, it provides information and promotion materials (approx. 3%).
For the last few years, Pro Helvetia has been undergoing structural reform. The recently enacted Culture Promotion Act (2009) determines that, with immediate effect, the Federal Council (i.e., the Federal Government) – and no longer the board of the Pro Helvetia Foundation – should define the strategic aims to be pursued by the Foundation. The possible effects of this change will become evident in the next few years.
Within the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA), Presence Switzerland (PRS) promotes the image of Switzerland abroad. PRS is also responsible for implementing the FDFA's cultural foreign policy and for realising cultural projects in cooperation with Swiss delegations abroad. PRS also works on a project-basis, in partnership with the Federal Office of Culture and the Pro Helvetia Foundation.
Within the FDFA, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) supports the promotion of the arts and culture of developing countries, both in Switzerland (mainly film and music) and in the respective countries.
Private players like sponsors, foundations etc., play a major role in the Swiss cultural sector as compared to other European countries (see chapter 1.2.1 and chapter 1.3.3). It is estimated that private foundations disburse between CHF 1-2 billion per annum; between CHF 300-500 million of this sum is used for cultural purposes. Due to the tradition of private involvement in cultural promotion (see chapter 1.1), as well as the system of subsidiarity, whereby the allocation of public funds is in practice considered contingent upon the inclusion of private involvement, it is fair to assume that a very substantial share of contributions are made by private enterprise. However, no current figures are available.
See chapter 1.2.2.
See chapter 1.2.2.
Information is currently not available.
Last update: September, 2018
The Conference of Cantonal Directors of Culture (CCDC) and the Conference of Swiss Cities on Cultural Matters (CSCC) were established more as discussion forums than horizontal coordination bodies. Both meet biannually and invite representatives of the Swiss Federal Office of Culture and the Pro Helvetia Foundation to attend as observers. There is little cooperation between the two conferences. By contrast, the new Culture Promotion Act envisages a clear division of tasks and closer cooperation among all levels of state. On 25 October 2011, the federal government, cantons, cities, and communes signed a Convention for a National Dialogue on Culture. This can be considered a first important step toward the implementation of the Dispatch on Culture.
The main federal players also operate independently of one other. An informal "QUARTETT" committee has been set up to coordinate the promotion of Swiss culture abroad. Members of the committee include the Directorate of Political Affairs of FDFA, Presence Switzerland (PRS), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) (all three belong to the FDHA), the Federal Office of Culture (, and Pro Helvetia (both belong to the FDHA).
Pursuant to the Culture Promotion Act (2009), the federal government has to develop quadrennial strategies. The first one, currently implemented in the 2012–2015 period, stipulates the key points of cultural promotion policy to be routinely placed under the jurisdiction of federal institutions. Interfaces with other important actors on the cantonal and city levels, as well as with private sponsors, also play an important role.
Last update: September, 2018
Since its beginning, Switzerland has had a very strong tradition of federalism and subsidiarity. The recent discussion in Europe on civil society, the third sector, and the corresponding transfer of public responsibilities onto private institutions has therefore not affected the country's cultural landscape in any strong way. Decentralisation, the re-allocation of public responsibilities, and public-private-partnerships are thus well embodied. Of current significance is the project to reorganise the whole system of burden sharing between the federal level and the cantons with the aim of reducing the complexity of these mechanisms. For these reasons, the federal administration and the cantons are developing new approaches – a development which may affect the arts and culture in Switzerland.
Re-allocation of public responsibilities can be observed within the public sector. For example, following a local referendum, the responsibility for the Zurich Opera House was transferred from the City to the Canton of Zurich. Voluntary agreements were made with neighbouring cantons to provide resources for the upkeep of the Opera House. The transfer of financial support can occur in the form of a percentage of the fiscal income of the previous year or as a lump sum. Such inter-cantonal cultural expenditure agreements exist between cantons serving as cultural centres (opera houses, museums with a national outreach, such as the Swiss Museum of Transport in Lucerne) and neighbouring cantons. Under these agreements, cantons operating cultural facilities of supra-regional importance receive compensation. Such agreements are subject to direct negotiations between the respective cantons on the basis of the principles of national revenue sharing and financial compensation. Payments to be made by the Canton of Aargau, for instance, are calculated from the percentage of its visitors to the Schauspielhaus Zürich (Zurich Playhouse), the Zurich Opera House and Tonhalle, the Lucerne Theatre, the Lucerne Symphony Orchestra, and the Culture and Convention Centre Lucerne. Large parts of the Swiss cultural landscape are marked by cooperation between public and private players. Re-allocation can mainly be observed between the public context and the intermediary sector. The most recent examples are the establishing of a National Centre of Competency for Photography by a private patron and the Federal Office of Culture.
Last update: September, 2018
Information is currently not available.
Last update: September, 2018
There are only a few national cultural institutions in Switzerland. These include the Swiss National Library, the Swiss Literary Archive, the Cinémathèque Suisse (see chapter 3.1), and the Swiss National Sound Archives, founded in 1987. The Swiss Literary Archive and the National Sound Archives thus accomplish – in close cooperation with the Swiss National Library – one of the tasks set out in the National Library Act. These archives have the task of collecting, cataloguing, and making available to the public contents that are connected in one way or another with Switzerland's history and culture.
The Swiss National Museum has its main building in Zurich and has two additional locations in the different language regions of Switzerland. It has been transformed into an autonomous foundation. The Federal Act on Museums and Collections came into force on 1 January 2010.
Switzerland has one of the highest concentrations of museums in the world. Since 1950, the number of museums in Switzerland has tripled. In 2013, over 13 million visitors to 1 107 museums were recorded.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, a new tendency can be observed in the private collections of contemporary art. Collectors prefer to establish their own museums or collections – often designed and built by internationally renowned architects. Another example of a private initiative is the anonymous group of patrons called "Ladies First", which gave CHF 20 million to the building of a new theatre in the City of Basel.
The Swiss National Film Archive is a foundation financed by the federal state, the Canton of Vaud and the City of Lausanne (see chapter 2.9).
In Switzerland, there are about 6 000 libraries. Most of the 30 larger libraries (with more than 40 000 000 media units) are university libraries and, at the same time, cantonal and city libraries.
According to the Federal Statistical Office, 272 commercial cinemas with 533 screens provided a seating capacity of 101 000 in 2013. About one third of the cinemas and the seats were concentrated in the five largest centres of Switzerland: Zurich, Bern, Basel, Geneva, and Lausanne. According to the film statistics of the Federal Office of Culture, Swiss films hold a market share of 6.2% and thus fall short of the targets defined by the Federal Office of Culture. It must also be noted (unfortunately) that one characteristic feature of theatrical releases in Switzerland – namely, an original version with subtitles – is in decline. About the same regional distribution can be observed in the 25 larger theatres that have their own ensembles and which attracted audiences of 1.49 million during the 2012/2013 season according to the Schweizerischen Bühnenverband (Swiss Theatre Association). The Schauspielhaus Zürich, for example, is one of the leading theatre houses in the German-speaking part of Europe, and the same can be said about the Théâtre Vidy Lausanne in the French-speaking part of Europe.
Interesting discussions are taking place on burden sharing among large cultural institutions. For more information, see chapter 1.3.1.
The role played by city marketing and cultural tourism strategies is becoming more important for cultural institutions. Interesting examples are the Cultural and Congress Centre set up in Lucerne and several (summer) festivals. Further building work planned over the next five years in Lucerne will add a centre for theatre and musical productions.
Cooperation between the public and private sector plays a significant role and is mostly organised around the modern concept of "matching grants". There are currently more then 10 000 foundations with a public interest, of which around 1 500 have a cultural aim. Since 2001, a new platform called "Swiss Foundations" has been representing grant-awarding foundations in Switzerland. Its aims are to establish quality standards for foundations and to promote the role of foundations in different kinds of partnerships.
Several federal players work together with private partners on various projects (see chapter 1.3.1). An important private partner cooperating in – or even initiating – public projects is Migros – one of Switzerland's main wholesalers. According to its corporate by-laws, Migros spends around 0.5% of its retail turnover and 1% of its wholesale turnover (around CHF 120 million in 2013) on cultural and social activities (http://www.kulturprozent.ch). For example, Migros has created an online cultural support database (http://www.kulturbuero.ch).
Public-private partnerships can be observed on all levels. One example is "Swiss Films" Association to promote Swiss cinema abroad, originally initiated by Pro Helvetia, the Swiss Film Centre, and the Swiss Short Film Agency. With the new division of tasks pursuant to the Culture Promotion Act the Federal Office of Culture ist responsible for financing "Swiss Films".
In the past few years, there has been a shift from "patronage" toward "sponsorship", the latter being complemented by other forms of cooperation. There is a trend among some large companies to develop their corporate identity by organising their own concerts or theatre tours. Furthermore, in contrast to classical sponsorship, investors are now commissioning or developing projects together with cultural institutions or artists. A shift away from traditional or classical culture toward event-oriented culture can also be observed.
Last update: September, 2018
Pro Helvetia works directly with foreign partners using a system of liaison offices and cultural centres. The liaison offices develop regional contacts and nurture long term partnerships in the event sector. They act as a go-between for cultural projects from Switzerland and local events organisers, initiate co-productions with cultural practitioners from the host region and organise residencies for artists. The cultural centres include premises in which events can be held. They are located in international hubs of cultural life, where a representative window to Swiss culture can have a significant impact. The Centre Culturel Suisse in Paris is managed and funded by Pro Helvetia. As regards the other centres, the Swiss Arts Council participates in their cultural programme on the basis of a performance agreement.
The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation stipulates its key countries (developing countries). Within Switzerland's enlargement contribution, the aforementioned countries have been joined by various other countries, which acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004: Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, and Cyprus. In 2010, the list was extended to include Romania and Bulgaria.
The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs supports cultural activities via its network of embassies abroad, e.g., through the contacts and infrastructure of these embassies, or through its transport facilities. The cantons and cities also play an important role in facilitating partnerships on all different levels. A cursory glance at the artists-in-residence opportunities in Switzerland and abroad offered by the Swiss Confederation, cantons, and cities impressively demonstrates this (http://www.artists-in-residence.ch).
Last update: September, 2018
Depending on the issue, the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and / or the Federal Office of Culture represents Switzerland in international organisations like UNESCO or the Council of Europe.
As a non-member state of the EU, Switzerland has limited access to European programmes. Swiss participation on the Creative Europe programme is pending. The cantons are principally responsible for cross-border cooperation within the framework of the Interreg programmes of the EU or the Euregios.
Last update: September, 2018
Projects are prepared on Pro Helvetia's activities with its liaison offices in order to facilitate a direct exchange between professional cultural producers in Switzerland and the corresponding key countries (see chapter 1.4.1). It is also often Swiss institutions that invite guests from particular countries, initiate joint projects, or award a contract. Professional cooperation occurs both by way of public cultural promotion and through private activities. Increasingly popular are the temporary guest residencies in studios provided by cantons, cities, or cultural associations to foreign cultural producers, enabling an exchange between the local professional scene and countries abroad