3. Cultural and creative sectors
Last update: November, 2020
In 2020, government responsibility for heritage moved from the Department of Culture, Heritage and Gaeltacht to the Department of Housing. As stated in the Heritage Act (2018), the department is responsible for “promoting interest in and knowledge, appreciation and protection of the national heritage.” Other Government departments and agencies also impact heritage, such as the Department of the Environment and the Office of Public Works (OPW). The OPW responsible for the day-to-day maintenance and presentation of all national monuments in state care and national historic properties.
The Heritage Act of 1995 established the Heritage Council as a public body with the task “to propose policies and priorities for the identification, protection, preservation and enhancement of the national heritage, including monuments, archaeological objects, heritage objects, architectural heritage, flora, fauna, wildlife habitats, landscapes, seascapes, wrecks, geology, heritage gardens and parks and inland waterways.” The Council has a small staff of circa twenty. The Heritage Council coordinates circa 2,200 events across the country as part of an annual national heritage week to celebrate Ireland’s built, natural and cultural heritage.
At regional level, there are 27 county heritage officers employed by local authorities in partnership with the Heritage Council and under the auspices of the Heritage Officer Programme, which was initiated in 1999. Their role is to promote heritage awareness, to develop policy and provide advice and information on local as well as national heritage issues.
Although intangible heritage was never clearly defined under the Heritage Act, there is a history of protection and preservation of intangible heritage. The National Folklore Collection at the University College Dublin, with circa two million manuscript pages, is recognised as one of Europe’s largest archives of oral tradition and cultural history and inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. This recently digitized collection documents many aspects of local Irish language, traditions, and customs from the early twentieth century.
In 2018, the Minister of Culture, Heritage and Gaeltacht launched a four-month public consultation process to inform the development of the new national heritage plan for Ireland, Heritage Ireland 2030. There were some welcome minor changes in policy direction reflective of contemporary concerns around climate change. However, An Taisce (an independent charity that preserves and protects Ireland’s natural and built heritage) responded with grave concern that the Government was not taking climate change into account sufficiently. They called for a plan that “recognises the scale and urgency of the threats facing our natural world through mass extinction and climate change.”
The Department’s policy intent with Heritage Ireland 2030 is to have an integrated approach to heritage across the whole of Government where relevant to other policy areas, which is similar to the approach proposed in the Culture 2025 policy framework and tied under the objectives of Project Ireland 2040. The difficulty with this approach is that subsequent governments need to follow this same strategy. More often, the incoming government makes changes or rewrites the national strategy to match their political manifesto.
According to An Taisce, “the vision in Heritage Ireland 2030 lacks any clear objectives, or any real targets […] Promulgation of policy, and the promotion of partnerships, community projects and engagement is irrelevant unless legally effective and adequately resourced and timetabled actions are put forward. These actions will need to be targeted and measurable, and should address, amongst other things, biodiversity loss, and threats to cultural heritage.”
Lack of funding is one of the biggest issues impeding the protection of Ireland’s natural heritage, according to An Taisce. In comparison to other EU countries of comparable wealth, support for the protection of landscape and cultural heritage in Ireland is poor.
Heritage at the Heart is the title of the Heritage Council’s strategy for the years 2018-2022. Beyond the aspirational language of ‘nurturing belonging’, the strategic plan is short on clear goals and targets that reach beyond maintaining the status quo.
Heritage and tourism
The impact of tourism on cultural heritage and heritage policy is an ever-present policy challenge in Ireland. While Ireland currently enjoys a low population density, there is a belief that tangible and intangible cultural heritage assets offer an endless resource to promote tourism while still offering such assets as meaningful amenities for local communities. The Heritage Act could offer better support for the common ownership and responsibility for the national environment, intangible heritage and recent heritage. There are a number of areas in the legislation that offer too much protection to the landowner.
As recent urban development has affected the capital city Dublin, urban cultures such as nightclub culture have been negatively affected with a recent trend of venues being developed into hotels. At times the protection of this less tangible cultural participation is inadequate against the tide of development of hotels for the tourist economy.
In 2020, the newly formed coalition government has further increased the potential for instrumental use of cultural heritage to achieve tourism goals by placing responsibility for culture and tourism under the aegis of the same department.
The Irish Landmark Trust is a non-profit organisation founded in 1992 that finds interesting and unusual properties that are in need of conservation and protection. The Landmark Trust’s mission is to ‘nurture the symbiotic relationship between heritage and tourism’. While the relationship between tourism and heritage is an important one, it is also understandable that tensions exist within this relationship around the balance between protecting fragile heritage for present and future local communities and developing a robust and sustainable tourism offer.
Last update: November, 2020
The National Archives of Ireland was established in 1988 following the amalgamation of the State Paper Office (SPO) and the Public Record Office of Ireland (PROI). Under the terms of the National Archives Act (1986), the National Archives is responsible for the preservation of departmental records that warrant permanent preservation as archives, and of providing access to archives in its care to members of the general public. Records of governmental departments and their agencies are transferred to the National Archives when they are thirty years old.
The National Archives has developed policies to ensure the permanent protection and preservation of archives in their care and to facilitate access through the provision of a high quality public service. The Archives Framework 2018–2020 sets out the policy framework to ensure a coordinated and standardised approach in the management and preservation of archives during 2018–2020. The National Archives Strategic Plan 2018–2022 outlines the priorities for the development of archives including the completion of the Archive Repository Project, improving the visibility of archival and public services, and developing the civil service-wide records management plan including the development of capability in the National Archives to manage electronic records. The Digital Imaging Policy 2016 sees digital imaging as the primary means of assisting preservation whilst simultaneously enabling wider access to collections of national significance.
The Irish Society for Archives was founded in 1970, before the National Archive Act. It published the Irish Archives Bulletin which later grew into Irish Archives, which remains Ireland’s only dedicated archives journal that promotes the place of archives in Irish society. It also organises lectures on topics of interest to archivists, the users of archives and the wider public.
The Library Council, established in 1947, was replaced in 2012 by Libraries Development as the national agency for the development of libraries within the Local Government Management Agency (LGMA). Local authorities operate a network of public libraries across Ireland. Public libraries are open to everyone and most of their services are free.The Department of Rural and Community Development published Our Public Libraries 2022: Inspiring, Connecting and Empowering Communities in March 2019 to guide the development of the public library service in Ireland. The first national strategy for the library service entitled Branching Out was published in 1998. Opportunities for All was the title of the libraries strategy for 2013–2017. The web portal Libraries Ireland is managed by Libraries Development, within the Local Government Management Agency (LGMA), on behalf of the public libraries. This work is supported by the Department of Rural and Community Development.
The tender process for the procurement of library books for the libraries of Ireland has granted 60% of the EUR 6 million annual contract to a UK company. This has had a negative impact on Irish booksellers. The decision was heavily criticised by Irish cultural bodies such as the Irish Writers Centre and Poetry Ireland.
Last update: November, 2020
In 2018, the Arts Council published Making Great Art Work: Theatre Policy & Strategy 2018. In this strategic plan the Arts Council stated that their investment in theatre production is primarily through three mainstays: strategic funding, arts grants funding and project awards. This is complemented by a series of specifically tailored schemes and a range of supports to individual artists.
Strategic funding supports the essential infrastructure required to sustain and develop theatre in Ireland. This funding gives a level of security to mostly established theatre organisations such as the Abbey, Druid and Project, and is expected to yield a return of quality “exemplary” work. They are also expected to engage “to a significant level” with the people of Ireland. Arts grants funding supports the artistic vision of artists and arts organisations to develop a programme of excellent arts activities over a defined period of time. Project awards offer support on a once-off basis to both new and established artists and companies.
The Arts Council’s strategy places equal emphasis on ‘artist’ and ‘public engagement’. The strategy encourages the theatre sector to invest in more diverse partnerships including co-production, co-presentation and co-curation with the aim of reaching more public. The strategy also gives specific mention to establishing robust policies within the theatre sector around gender and diversity equality.
The precarious nature of theatre workers is a prevailing issue for the sector. A recent Theatre Forum survey elaborated the precarious nature of performing artists work. The survey revealed that a third of artists earn less than the national minimum wage of EUR 9.55 per hour and 83% of the artists are paid flat fees regardless of hours worked.
A grassroots movement entitled Waking the Feminists has had an important impact on Irish theatre and culture in highlighting gender and equality issues. The movement was founded by set designer Lian Bell in response to the Abbey Theatre’s announcement of their new season programme in November of 2015. The movement took issue with the fact that there were 18 men on the programme (writers or directors) and just two women. All of the plays were written by men apart from one play, which was referred to as a “monologue for children”. Waking the Feminists was very successful in garnering public support.
Initially, Waking the Feminists was intended as a one-year campaign. However, in 2016, the Arts Council commissioned the organisation to conduct research on gender balance in Irish theatre. This resulted in Gender Counts: An Analysis of Gender in Irish Theatre 2006-2015, a comprehensive research report on gender balance in Irish theatre over a ten-year period. The report found that the four highest-funded theatre organisations had the lowest female representation. In fact, “the higher the funding an organisation receives, the lower the female presence”.
A number of actions resulted from the Waking the Feminists movement, including a coordinated effort by ten theatre organisations coming together in 2016 to consider their own record in programming and supporting women within the theatre sector. With support from the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, they spent two years meeting to discuss the development of their own gender policies with the aim of producing concrete "action plans and measurable results" to identify processes that would ensure gender parity and dignity at work into the future. The resulting Gender Equality in Practice in Irish Theatre was launched by the Minister for Culture, Heritage and Gaeltacht in 2018. Also in 2018, the Irish Theatre Institute published Dignity in the Workplace: Towards A Code of Behaviour in Irish Theatre.
The immediate impact of Waking the Feminists was to prompt policy action and public commitments from Ireland’s leading theatre organisations to gender balance and equality. The movement was a catalyst for industry-wide debate and consultation on the issues and for government policy change. But the most significant impact was the collective empowerment of women to challenge those in power on the issue of inequality, and to stir society to question how women are viewed and treated in the theatre world and in society as a whole.
Last update: November, 2020
At a national level, the Arts Council of Ireland is responsible for funding visual arts in Ireland. Making Great Art Work: Visual Arts Policy and Strategy 2019-2022 was published by the Council in 2018. The Arts Council supports individual artists to buy time to make new work and to develop their practice through funding programmes such as the Bursary Award, Next Generation Award, Project Award, and Arts Grant funding. Artist led studio spaces and workspaces are supported through the Visual Artists’ Workspace Scheme. Through strategic funding the Council indirectly supports visual arts organisations to support artists.
As stated in the strategy, a recurring challenge is the ability to sustain financially viable careers in visual arts. The Council states that “the lack of a strong industry framework and production models, outside of individual exhibition opportunities over the lifetime of an artist’s career, is problematic for working artists.” In fact, numerous reports have been conducted as far back as 1979 on the living standards and earning potential of visual artists. Consistently, research has clearly demonstrated that only a very small minority of visual artists are able to financially sustain a career in the visual arts. Most visual artists are forced to sustain their artistic career through incomes derived outside of their visual art practice, requiring second and third jobs to make ends meet. According to the 2010 Arts Council Report on living standards, 67% of artists earn less than EUR 10,000 per annum from their creative work. The data refers to 2008 figures that don’t account for the significant cut in earnings felt across all sectors post recession. The average annual salary in Ireland was EUR 45,256 in 2016.
According to research conducted by the representative body for visual artists in Ireland, Visual Artist Ireland (VAI), funding sources available to artists are meagre. Artists in Ireland are entitled to apply for tax exemption status on earnings derived from their creative works. While this is of assistance to a number of artists, the majority of artists do not earn enough from their creative works to merit the administrative burden of claiming for the relief.
The Artist Tax Exemption Scheme allows income earned by visual artists from the sale of original and creative works to be exempt from income tax. The scheme is governed by Section 195 of the Taxes Consolidation Act (1997). It is administered by Revenue with assistance from the Arts Council. While this scheme has helped artists since 1969, it has not changed the living conditions of artists generally. Artists in receipt of funding from local or national cultural agencies can avail of the scheme.
Availability of artists’ workspaces is also a current issue, especially in Dublin. As the commercial pressures increase and the availability of space decreases with commercial development, artists have felt the squeeze in terms of lack of available space to rent and increasing rental costs. There are a number of long established subsidised studio spaces available, but it has been acknowledged by Dublin City Council that the issue needs to be addressed.
 The Arts Council/An Chomhairle Ealaion (1979) The Living and Working Conditions of Artists in Ireland; The Arts Council Ireland & The Arts Council Northern IRELAND (2010) The Living and Working Conditions of Artists in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; Visual Artist Ireland (2009) The Social Economic and Fiscal Status of the Visual Artist in Ireland.
 Central Statistics Office, Earnings and Labour Costs
Last update: November, 2020
Ireland has had major individual successes internationally coming from the cultural and creative industries. However, government policies and strategies regarding the sector have to date provided inconsistencies around the definitional scope and the relationship to the economy. At a basic level there is a lack of clarity as to which Government department is responsible.
A number of reports point to the central importance of content creation in driving future economic growth within the context of a knowledge-based economic agenda. Most recently, the national cultural policy framework of the Department of Culture, Heritage and Gaeltacht — Culture 2025 (2016) — aimed amongst other things “to integrate cultural policy within broader social and economic goals.” (p.3) The creative industries were defined as “including film and television production, animation, broadcasting, electronic games, architecture, design and fashion, publishing, media and advertising.” (p.5) However, when the final policy framework Culture 2025 was published in 2020, the cultural and creative sectors are defined as industries and occupations which focus on creativity as a means to deliver commercial success, export growth and resilient employment for Ireland including: advertising and marketing; architecture; crafts; design; fashion; film, TV, video, radio and photography; IT, software and computer services; publishing; museums, galleries and libraries; music, performing and visual arts. The 2020 draft policy document has not been followed by a strategic action plan or a clear budget agenda for specifically funding the cultural and creative industries sector, which limits its effectiveness.
The cultural and creative industries still provide opportunity for growth. In recent government policy, the significance of the cultural and creative industries in driving economic growth and jobs provision has been recognised by policymakers with increased focus on scaling up capacity within the audio-visual sector. However, the coordination of actions through a national strategic plan is lacking. Following the publication of the government’s first Audio-Visual Action Plan (2018), an additional EUR 200 million in funds for Screen Ireland was announced over the next ten years. Examples of recent initiatives by national and local governments include the development of Troy Film Studios in Limerick.
Local authorities in Ireland have launched the Culture and Creativity Strategies 2018-2022. Supported by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht and the Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government, each local authority is implementing a five-year strategy. While there are many great individual initiatives implemented under the strategy that aim at increasing participation and social cohesion, it is unfortunate that there is no overarching national policy guidance on the conceptualising of what is deemed to belong to the cultural and creative industries.
Creative Ireland is currently working on a Creative Industries Roadmap expected to be published in 2020. The Roadmap is expected to clearly define the creative industries in Ireland as industries and occupations which utilise creativity as a means to deliver commercial success and employment. The roadmap is expected to concentrate efforts on:
- design-based (i.e., industrial design, product design, web design and visual communications, user-interface/user-experience design and software design, service design, and strategic design),
- digital creative (i.e., games sector, and the post-production/visual effects (VFX) which supports the audio-visual sector, but is also an export service in its own right), and
- content creation industries (i.e., advertising and brand development, but also including new content for commercial social media uses, online distribution and mobile applications (‘apps’) as well as content for new platforms such as augmented/virtual/mixed reality.
Last update: November, 2020
IBISWorld’s Books, Newspaper and Magazine Publishing in Ireland Industry Trends (2014-2019) showed an average industry growth in Ireland of -4.3%. According to the IBISWorld outlook for 2019–2024, the book, newspaper and magazine publishing industry is expected to decline further, although this is primarily owing to newspaper publishers continuing to struggle to sustain a stable portion of the advertising market due to fierce competition, despite expected growth in revenue from digital advertising. In conjunction with dwindling newspaper circulation figures, revenue from print advertising is expected to continue to fall at a faster rate than digital advertising revenue grows. However, the outlook for magazine and book publishers is positive. The number of businesses stands at 335 with employment at 6,690. The companies holding the largest market share in the industry include Independent News & Media PLC and The Irish Times DAC., followed by Associated Newspapers (Ireland) Ltd, Independent Star Ltd, and Penguin Random House Ireland Ltd.
A briefing document from the Irish Book Industry Forum raised concerns about the procurement policy within the new library policy. They are concerned that it represents a move towards value before quality service in offering 65% of contracts to the lowest price (large scale UK supplier). It is argued that this puts Irish publishers at a disadvantage. Books published in Ireland will have to be transported to the UK for library binding and so forth in order to be sent back to Ireland again. This will incur additional sales costs to Irish publishers, but is also environmentally wasteful and expensive. This policy is in direct violation of the Irish Government’s and EU’s policy on “Green Public Procurement”. They suggest that this new policy creates a monopoly putting the sustainability of the industry's ecosystem at risk. There is also a risk of ‘dumbing down’ the selection of books available to Irish readers. The writers lobby group Words Ireland have called for a reinstatement of the school library fund that was scrapped during the financial crisis.
The Arts Council offers support to emerging and professional writers through funding and bursaries such as literature project awards, commission awards, professional development awards, writers in schools schemes, arts grants, next generation awards, and literature bursary awards.
Last update: November, 2020
The audio-visual sector in Ireland had a gross value added or EUR 1,049.9 million in 2016. This figure includes film, television and animation, commercials, video games and radio. That same year, there were 16,930 jobs in the whole of the audio-visual sector. On its own, the film, television and animation sector is worth EUR 692 million, including production and distribution/exploitation. The film, television and animation sector comprises 11,960 jobs by way of direct, indirect and induced employment across the economy. Direct employment within the sector is 7,070, while the direct employment figures on production is 4,480.
Film and television productions in Ireland benefit greatly from a tax incentive for film under Section 481 of the Consolidation of Taxes: a 32% tax credit for film, television and animation. In 2016, the outlay from Government under Section 481 was estimated at EUR 91.9 million. It is estimated that every euro of Section 481 outlays returned EUR 1.02 in tax revenue to the Irish government. This result was arrived at before taking into account the tax revenues generated by screen tourism and other spillover effects, and therefore, should be viewed as a conservative estimate.
In 2017, Irish films, television and animation spent over EUR 292 million in the economy. This direct impact figure represents an annual increase of 10% on 2016 spend and an increase of 192% since 2007. There has been constant growth in production activity throughout the industry since 2007, except for a dip in 2015, which represented the changeover to a new updated system of Section 481.
Screen Ireland's funding improved when an additional EUR 200 million in funds for Screen Ireland was announced over the subsequent ten years in the government’s first Audio-Visual Action Plan (2018). Screen Ireland offers support for screen writers, directors and production companies by providing investment loans for the development, production and distribution of film, television and animation projects.
The Broadcasting Authority of Ireland supports the audio-visual sector in Ireland through programmes, such as Sound & Vision 4 for television and radio. This programme provides funding in support of high quality programmes on Irish culture, heritage and experience, and programmes to improve adult literacy.
 In 2016 the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, the Department of Communications and the Department of Enterprise commissioned SPU/Olsberg to produce a report measuring the value of the audiovusual sector. The report was published in 2018 using 2016 baseline data.
 Olsberg SPU/Nordicity estimates based on data from RTE, BAI, CRAOL, Irish Times, Core Media, IFB, Imirt, Industry surveys, company accounts, ONS, Indecon and CSO.
Last update: November, 2020
The Arts Council offers support to emerging and professional musicians through awards and bursaries such as music project awards, music commission awards, professional development awards, beyond borders awards, arts grants, next generation awards, music bursary awards, music recording schemes, and touring and dissemination of work schemes.
The music funded by the Council includes, traditional folk music, jazz, contemporary classical, classical and opera. The popular music industry is not supported by the national government or by the Arts Council through any specific music schemes. A business expansion scheme for music exists, but the sector has made very little use of it. Local authority arts offices also offer funding for musicians that live or work within the location of the authority.
Music Generation is Ireland’s National Performance Music Education Programme, initiated in 2010 by Music Network. The main demographic focus of their programmes is children and young people under the age of 18. The initiative aims to provide what was missing in music education, i.e. performance music education, and to complement the music curriculum in mainstream education. The catalyst for finally setting up such an infrastructure was a philanthropic donation of EUR 7 million from the band U2 and The Ireland Funds. There are many reports spanning 30 years that highlighted the need for an initiative such as this. These include Deaf Ears? (Heron, 1985), The PIANO Report (PIANO Review Group, 1996), The MEND Report (Heneghan, 2001) and A National System of Local Music Education Services, a report completed by Music Network in 2003 which included piloted projects in two areas of the country, Donegal and Dublin City.
Music Generation works in partnership with national and local partners across the education sector, arts sector and local government. The contexts within which it works include educational, community and arts settings, as well as within probation services, direct provision centres, festivals and innovative and alternative venues. Music Generation programmes cover many genres and include individual music-making and many types of vocal and instrumental ensembles.
The music industry has received funding for the first time from government in 2020 in response to the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on live music events.
Last update: November, 2020
2015 was designated as the Year of Design in Ireland, which involved a EUR 5 million programme of activities to promote and encourage design activity in Ireland. The Year of Design also stimulated debate and discussion around the future of design. A new Policy Framework for Design in Enterprise in Ireland was developed and subsequently launched in 2016 by the Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation. The policy framework included: increased use of design-driven innovation in enterprise, building scale in the design sector and the engineering design sector, supporting entrepreneurship, skills development, and more females in design roles.
The Design and Craft Council published their National Design Strategy for Ireland in 2016. This ambitious strategy pointed out the need for a specific national policy for design in Ireland. Design research is highlighted as a strategic priority to apply design strategies to real-world issues across sectors. Increasing design capabilities in enterprise is also given strategic focus encouraging the introduction of design thinking and skills across all education. The final focus of the strategy relates to facilitating creative communities through user-centred design.
Ireland’s design sector is a fast growing creative industry, with over 3,000 jobs created between 2011 and 2014. In 2015, the sector employed 48,000 people, equivalent to 2.48% of the total workforce. It has a strong regional spread, with over 65% of registered design companies located in the regions. It generates over EUR 38 billion in exports, across traditional and digital design. It attracts significant inward investment, with multinationals such as IBM establishing design centres in Ireland. The sector makes a contribution to the wider enterprise base, with over 80% of Irish firms citing the importance of design to innovation, customer service and profit.
 Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation (2015) Policy Framework for Design in Enterprise in Ireland.
Last update: November, 2020
‘Cultural tourism’ is relatively underdeveloped in Irish tourism policy. A strategy for the development of cultural tourism in Ireland was produced in 2006 by Failte Ireland, the National Tourism Development Authority, entitled Cultural Tourism: Making it Work for You. The strategy struggles to pin down a clear definition of cultural tourism. For instance a major absence is agricultural tourism. While it may be conceived as part of rural tourism, it is not given the strategic attention that it gets in other EU states. The strategy borrows a definition from an Australian strategy from 1994 that is extremely broad. This results in a strategy that mostly validates the cultural elements of the existing tourism strategy rather than define new opportunities for development. The strategy focuses on tourist visits to historical houses, gardens, monuments, museums, heritage centres, art galleries or gardens, festivals and events, and gastronomy. Cultural tourism is recognised as a key driver of the national tourism strategy. The strategy acknowledges the market potential of increasing cultural tourist visits.
The strategy recommends the following changes within the current model: product development — moving from a concentration of focus within silos (e.g. built heritage, natural heritage, performing arts, etc.) to a more holistic cross domain approach, and from ‘observation-based’ (‘look but don’t touch’) visitor experiences to something more embracing and participatory; product marketing — from a presentation of cultural tourism destinations that resembles ‘a supermarket with the products arranged in alphabetical order’ to something that is more compelling, distinctive, joined-up and consumer needs-focused. This strategy should be refreshed and updated. Failte Ireland also offers market research tools for providers to help target cultural tourists, but there is a need for product development that is focused on cultural sustainability.
In 2012, the Arts Council published the report Cultural Tourism: A How to Guide. The guide was aimed at arts organisations wanting to diversify their audience and attract the cultural tourist to participate in their cultural programme.
Culture Ireland plays an important role in promoting Irish culture internationally. The importance of this organisation in balancing the relationship between tourism and culture is not well understood in policy terms. This once autonomous semi-state agency was subsumed into the Department of Arts Heritage and Gaeltacht in 2012. The balance of culture and tourism was tested with an initiative of government called The Gathering. The initiative was successful in generating greater tourist numbers, but was criticised also for its projecting of a clichéd image of a folksy Ireland. There also is a need for a coordinated approach that acknowledges the need for cultural sustainability as well as economic growth.