2. Current cultural affairs
Last update: February, 2022
The main objective of cultural policy (before 2004) was the maintenance and support of a centralized system. The creation of a decentralized model and the redistribution of powers were supported only on a declarative level.
In the post-revolutionary period (since 2004), experiments with entrepreneurism and total privatization of the cultural industries began. However, against the background of modified legislation and the institutional model of centralization, the cultural policy pursued did not provide a systematic capital inflow, but was focused on the "blind" application of market logic to the cultural sphere. This strategy failed, both in terms of investor interest and in terms of development of institutions and infrastructure. In practical terms, the institutional reform had led to changes in legislation which resulted in a strengthening of the centralized system, and unification, instead of diversification.
The coalition "Georgian Dream", which won the parliamentary elections in October 2012, formed a new cabinet of ministers. Respectively, the new leadership of the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection started to develop a new strategy of cultural policy.
In 2016 the strategic document Culture Strategy 2025 was adopted. The formulation of the Strategic Goals and the sub-goals therein is of an integrative nature, which is an obvious innovation in the practice of cultural policy in Georgia. 8 Strategic Goals are:
- Awareness Raising and Education
- Access to Culture and Cultural Diversity
- Culture and Other Key Areas
- Funding of Culture
- Cultural Infrastructure and New Technologies
- Creative Industries
- Internationalization of Culture
- Principles of the Governance of Culture
Specific tasks (Chapter III: Sector-specific Tasks) are based on traditional forms of art and culture, such as:
- Cultural Heritage
- Cultural Tourism
- Libraries and Archives
- Traditional Crafts
- Audio-visual sector
- Literature and Publishing
- Performing arts
- Visual arts
- Media and Broadcasting
This section of the document was based only on those expert opinions that were collected by the Ministry in the process of developing the Strategy (no strategies and full-scale research on the forms of art were available). Accordingly, the need for scientific, statistical research for the development of sub-strategies for each form of culture was declared.
The development of sub-strategies began with the implementation of the 2017-2018 Action Plan for Implementation of the Culture Strategy.
Despite a promising start, no significant steps have been taken towards strategy development and implementation in 2018-2021.
No changes were made in the culture funding model and diversification of financial resources, or in the implementation of the principle of “good governance” and full integration of culture in other industries in the context of sustainable development.
The main goal of the government programme for 2021-2024 – “Towards Building a European State” (published in December 2020) is:
“To overcome the crisis created by the pandemic, thereby ensuring a rapid recovery and development of the economy to create a stable and secure environment for every citizen.”
The following was again declared in the field of culture: “State programmes and initiatives promoting the development of arts and culture will be continued and expanded in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Culture Strategy through 2025. Legislation regulating the arts and culture will be improved, including legislation in the field of cultural heritage. A flexible arts and culture management model will be established, which will be approximated to European standards and an effective funding mechanism.”
Last update: February, 2022
Cultural rights in Georgian legislation are mainly reflected in the Constitution (1995), the Law on Culture (1997) and the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (1999).
According to Article 23, the Constitution of Georgia shall ensure the inviolability of intellectual property and creative freedom. Interference in creative activity or censorship in the creative sphere is not permissible. Placing a prohibition on the product of a creative work or on its distribution shall not be permissible, unless it violates the legal rights of others.
According to Article 34, "The state shall maintain the development of culture, unrestricted participation of citizens in cultural life, expression and enrichment of cultural origins, recognition of national and generic values and a deepening of international cultural relations. Each citizen of Georgia shall be obliged to protect and preserve the cultural heritage. The state shall protect cultural heritage by law."
According to Article 38, citizens of Georgia are equal in social, economic, cultural and political life regardless of national, ethnic, religious or linguistic origin. The freedom of citizens to use freely their native language and to develop their culture is safeguarded.
The Law on Culture establishes the principles of cultural activity and fundamental human rights and freedoms in the field of culture. In particular, according to Article 4, the principles of cultural activity are:
- Freedom and total independence of cultural activity;
- Recognition of national and common values;
- Protection of intellectual property;
- Inadmissibility of monopoly in the field of culture;
- Accessibility and publicity of cultural and creative activity;
- Facilitating awareness and consolidation of cultural individuality by the citizens of Georgia;
- Humanism of cultural activity.
This law protects:
- The right to participate in cultural activity;
- Priority of workers in creative fields against the rights of other subjects of cultural activity
- The right to creative activity
- Freedom and independence of creative activity
(Interference in the creative process, censorship of creative activity, seizure of a creative work, and prohibition of its distribution shall be impermissible, except in the cases if it infringes on the rights and legal interests of any other person, stirs up national, ethnic, religious, or racial discord, preaches war and violence, or makes propaganda of pornography).
- The human right to cultural individuality
- The right to enjoy cultural values
- Art education (the unrestricted right to receive).
- The property rights in the field of culture (all forms of property are recognized by the legislation of Georgia and shall be permitted in the field of culture. Everyone shall have a property right in the field of culture. The results of creative activity shall be under the ownership of the creator, except as provided for by the legislation of Georgia).
- The right to creation of an organization, institution, association, creative union, other non-governmental union and enterprise in the field of culture
- The right to take the results of one’s own creative activity to a foreign country.
The Law also defines the obligation of a citizen in the field of culture “to respect and protect the principles and norms in the field of culture provided for by the legislation of Georgia.”
The Law also defines the scope of authority of state government bodies in the field of culture. In particular, the state shall:
- Human rights and freedoms in the field of culture, including the right to use the creative and intellectual potential by disabled persons;
- Accessibility of cultural activity, cultural valuables and values;
- Cultural heritage objects and history and culture monuments of Georgia.
- Defining the state cultural policy and programmes through allocations from the budget and other funds;
- Establishing the procedure of disposal of cultural values and ensuring accessibility;
- Equity participation in funding cultural non-governmental organizations;
- Charity and sponsorship;
- Supporting creative workers;
- Fighting against monopoly in the field of creation and distribution of cultural valuables
Strategic Goal 1. “Access to Culture and Cultural Diversity” of Culture Strategy 2025 also refers to the right to cultural diversity, free expression and interaction between different cultures. Examples of the institutionalization of norms of professional ethics can be found in the charters of professional societies and associations. An example of this is the Georgian Charter of Journalistic Ethics, which sets ethical standards in the media.
Last update: February, 2022
The Georgian Law on Culture defines two categories of workers:
- Creative worker - a natural person, engaged in creating, rehabilitating or interpreting cultural valuables;
- Culture worker - a natural person, engaged in an activity in the field of culture;
The rights of this category of workers are protected by the Constitution and this law:
- Citizens of Georgia shall be equal in cultural life, whatever their national or ethnic origin, religion, language, disability or another feature;
- The rights of creative workers related to cultural and creative activity shall have priority over the rights of other subjects of cultural activity - the State and a legal person. The rights of a natural person shall be realized on the basis of the legislation of Georgia in the field and the international obligations of Georgia
- Everyone shall have the right to creative activity of any kind, according to one’s own interests and skills.
Article 31 of the Law defines the labour relations and social protection of workers of culture:
- The labour relations of the workers of culture shall be regulated by the labour legislation of Georgia.
- The amount of author royalties and the procedure and time of its payment shall be defined by a contract made with the author, according to the applicable legislation.
- The State shall ensure the social protection of cultural workers, according to the legislation of Georgia.
- The minimum salary of workers of culture shall exceed the average amount of salary of workers of organizations financed from the state budget in Georgia.
The latter provision is declarative and does not apply in reality.
There is no term “free artist” in Georgian legislation and, consequently, there is no law on the status of a free artist, which would define the socioeconomic status of this category, its obligation to the state (special social security, health insurance, etc.).
Nevertheless, at the legislative level, creative freedom and equality of access to culture are generally safeguarded:
- The relevant international legal norms are shared and in force;
- The legislation on copyright and related rights is applicable and harmonized with international norms.
- The existing national legislative framework in the field of culture generally addresses the issue of protection of creative freedom, access to culture and participation in the creation and dissemination of culture in general.
- There is legislation governing creative and trade unions:
- Law on Creative Workers and Creative Unions ( 08/06/1999/ №2059). Under the Law on Creative Workers and Creative Unions, Article 8, paragraph 1, a creative worker may be a person with an independent profession, or may work on the basis of an employment contract or other kind of agreement. The social insurance and pension provision of a creative worker are based on the appropriate legislative acts of Georgia.
- Law of Georgia on Trade Unions, 2 April 1997. №617- IIs. Under this law, artists have the right to associate in art unions or in professional organizations to represent and protect their interests; social protection is enforced under the law Law on Creative Workers and Creative Unions, 02.04.1997 №617– IIs Article 8, paragraph 2, social insurance and pension provision of a creative worker are based on the appropriate legislative acts of Georgia.)
The Trade Union of Creative Workers exists under the Trade Union umbrella.
Traditional Creative Unions operating in Georgia
- Writers' Union of Georgia (created in1932)
- Composers' Union of Georgia (created in1932)
- Artists' Union of Georgia (created in1933)
- Architects' Union of Georgia (created in1934)
- Union of Theatre Workers of Georgia (created in 1945)
- Union of Journalists of Georgia (created in1959)
- Union of Cinema Workers of Georgia (created in1961)
- Designers' Union of Georgia (created in1987)
Creative unions like other nongovernmental nonprofit associations and unions are eligible to participate in the target competition of the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth. There are also practices of financing various projects by municipalities.
Despite the existence of creative and trade unions, it is not a practice in Georgia to agree on the terms of collective agreements or other types of agreements with the client through the unions. There is no system of employment, or any other supportive regulations with the unions. Also, there is no precedent for monitoring the effectiveness of trade organizations.
The state has developed support programmes and LEPLs for both direct (state awards, scholarships, travel grants) and indirect promotions.
An example of direct support is the Culture Promotion Programme, under which the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Youth has held various competitions in 2021.
A special programme of state awards in literature, art and architecture as well as a programme for the support of gifted children and teenagers is underway in Georgia.
Creative workers awards: Order of Honor; Medal of Honor.
These awards are given for exclusive achievements in various fields of culture and art. The candidates are nominated by the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth. Decisions on awards are made by the State Committee for Honor Awards at the President’s Administration.
The Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth gives awards in drama and music – for vocal ensembles, opera and pop singers and folklorists.
Notable awards are instituted by private organizations
- “Saba” - an annual literary award founded in 2003.
- “Duruji” – an annual theatre prize initiated and founded in 2008.
Two institutions have been established for the protection of the copyright of cultural workers and artists: LEPL Sakpatenti and the NNLE Georgian Copyright Association;
Mobility support, in addition to the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth, is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Science, under which the International Centre for Education was established in 2014. It provides scholarships for Georgian citizens wishing to study abroad (including in the field of culture) http://iec.gov.ge/.
Creative freedom, cultural activities and the creation, production and distribution of cultural products and services are free from censorship and/or other restrictive systems.
According to a study conducted within the framework of the European Union-Eastern Partnership Culture and Creativity Programme UNESCO CULTURE FOR DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS/Georgia’s Analytical and Technical Report, the indicator of freedom of self-determination in Georgia is quite high: "Freedom of Self-Determination - Georgia’s final result is 8.5/10, with 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.“
There is no system of independent art boards that provides direct support for creative freedom. There is no registration of artists at risk in the field of culture and, consequently, no monitoring of their protection and no practice of recording precedents of restriction of creative freedom.
Last update: February, 2022
The Georgian government has switched to an electronic management system, which has further refined in the context of remote management and services during Covid-19.
The work on the digital programme of the cultural heritage management system started in 1999 (The first project of applying GIS was implemented in 1999-2000).
Significant work has been done over the years to digitize the allocations of the National Film Fund, the National Library and the National Museum.
The strategic goals of the Culture Strategy 2025, approved in 2016, include “Cultural Infrastructure and New Technologies”:
Goal: The infrastructure of culture is developed, necessary professional environment is provided and the application of new technologies is ensured.
5.2 Objective: The development and effective application of new technologies and the integration of culture into the digital realm contributes to the strengthening of the cultural sector, intensification of creative processes, and the creation of innovative products and services.
In accordance with the Culture Strategy 2025 priority “Improvement of Cultural Governance” the following was created in 2017:
- Institutional support for innovative ecosystem is provided by: The Board of Research and Innovation of Georgia (founded on 03/02/2015. It represents a consultative body to the Government of Georgia, designed to support the development of science, research and innovations).
- Strategy “Innovative Georgia 2020”, 2016 https://idfi.ge/public/upload/IDFI/2020/Qashibadze2.pdf
- Law of Georgia on Innovations, adopted 22nd of June 2016, N5501-IIs.
Significant shifts in the development of new technologies started in 2014; Georgia’s Innovation and Technology Agency was established at the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development of Georgia. www.gita.gov.ge
The mission of this Agency is to create an ecosystem required for the development of innovations and technologies in Georgia; to promote the commercialization of knowledge and innovation; to encourage the use of innovations and technologies in all fields of the economy; to create an environment for growth in the export of innovations and high-tech products and to develop a high-speed internet network nationwide.
- To develop the use of internet and computer skills for the regional population; the Agency launched the project “Computer for Everyone”.
- Providing computers to students and young people in the regions at a discounted price.
- The project is implemented together with the company Intel.
The first research and technology park and a network of innovation laboratories were created
In 2014, on the basis of three universities jointly collaborating with the private sector, 3 laboratories were created to conduct teaching in:
- Programming for mobile platforms
- Creating computer games
- Computer graphics and visual effects
All labs are equipped with modern techniques. Laboratory staff have undergone additional training, and laboratories are involved in skills competitions organized by the Agency and in creating startup companies.
The Agency works both with the private and educational sectors to continue the development of innovation laboratories on the basis of other educational institutions.
In 2021, Georgia's Innovation and Technology Agency and Catapult Georgia (Catapult Ventures, one of the leading Silicon Valley venture funds) signed a partnership agreement, according to which Catapult Georgia will invest $ 50 million in Georgian technology and innovation startups.
Last update: February, 2022
Georgia is rich in the diversity of ethnic, religious and cultural groups, which has given the country a unique and centuries-old experience of intercultural dialogue. According to the 2014 census, ethnic minorities make up about 14% of the population.
According to the data of UNESCO CULTURE FOR DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS, Georgia’s Analytical and Technical Report, 2017, tolerance towards other cultures is indicated at 66.23%. This indicator determines the level of readiness for intercultural dialogue as well as the level of interaction within the community. A similar figure reflects respect for cultural diversity in state policy-making, which is converted into Georgian legislation and strategic documents.
The Constitution of Georgia provides for the equality of all citizens regardless of their national, ethnic, religious or language background. Freedom for citizens to use their native language and to practice their culture is safeguarded. In addition to the Constitution, the rights of minorities are specified in the Laws on General Education, on Culture, and on Broadcasting. To assist minorities to exercise their constitutional rights the state supports:
- Languages of minorities in the educational system;
- Maintenance of minority cultures and development of their creative activities; and
- Cultural cooperation with countries that have Diasporas residing in Georgia.
Georgia acceded to the Vienna Convention on the Protection of Ethnic Minorities and signed the European Framework Convention on National Minorities (2006).
In 2008 Georgia acceded to the UNESCO Paris Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.
On June 28, 2013, the Eastern Partnership Ministerial Conference on Culture, the first in the region, was held and the Tbilisi Declaration was developed, which is based on the principles established in the 2005 UNESCO Paris Convention.
In 2014, Georgia signed the Association Agreement, under which it undertook to develop and deepen intercultural dialogue.
In 2016, the Culture Strategy 2025 was adopted, the Strategic Goal “Access to Culture and Cultural Diversity” of which provides: "Goal: Culture is accessible to all members of society and the freedom of cultural expression is safeguarded."
2.2. Objective: All members of society, including vulnerable groups, youth and minorities are actively engaged in cultural life and have access to cultural infrastructure and resources.
2.4. Objective: Cultural diversity, freedom of expression of different cultures and their interaction empowers the state and contributes to society’s development."
Some state authorities such as the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth, the Ministry of Education and Science, the Public Defender’s Office, The Tolerance Centre, The Council of Minorities and Council of Religions, public TV and radio - broadcasting companies, the municipal culture services - have responsibilities related to minorities and intercultural dialogue.
Under the Law on Broadcasting(Article 16, paragraph l), public broadcasting shall "broadcast a number of programmes in certain proportions prepared in the languages of minorities, about minority groups and programmes prepared by minorities.” Accordingly, Georgian radio and TV have special news programmes in some languages (Abkhaz, Azeri, Armenian, Russian and Ossetian). These programmes occupy 4% of air time on public television and 2% of air time on public radio. In addition, there is special public broadcasting in Abkhaz and Ossetian languages, which covers a part of Abkhazia and the total region of the so called “South Ossetia”. Local community broadcasting companies also provide coverage of various spheres within their broadcasting, including the cultural life of minorities and national intercultural dialogue.
The majority of issues related to minorities are dealt with on the municipal level. The Tbilisi Municipality supports cultural centres (Russian, Azeri and the Caucasus House), sponsors and finances the Petros Adamyan Tbilisi State Armenian Theatre, Tbilisi State Azeri Drama Theatre and A. S. Griboedov Academic Russian Drama Theatre, which is the oldest Georgian theatre (opened in 1845). Three museums address the cultural identity of ethnic minorities of Georgia - David Baazov Museum of Georgian Jews and Georgian Jewish Relations History Museum, Mirza Fatali Akhundov Azerbaijani Culture Museum, and the Smirnovs’ Museum.
Together with the local authorities, the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection carries out different cultural events, festivals, conferences and days of culture (Armenian, Azeri, Lithuanian, Israel etc.). One important cultural event in Georgia was the exhibition dedicated to the 26 centuries old history of the establishment of Jewry in Georgia (held in 1998), which covered the history of the peaceful coexistence of Georgians and Jews.
One of the third sector unions engaged in the introduction and promotion of intercultural dialogue in Georgia is the Public Movement "Multinational Georgia" and the Centre for Cultural Relations of Georgia - Caucasian House - is a cultural, educational and peacekeeping institution (it receives state financial support).
The following NGOs representing cultural minorities are registered in Georgia: the Latvian Association in Georgia "Ave Sol"; "Public Movement Multinational Georgia"; Union of Russian Women "Yaroslavna"; "Armenians' Union in Georgia"; "Ossetins' Association in Georgia"; "Kurds' Union in Georgia"; "Armenian Youth Union in Georgia"; "Yezid Youth Association in Georgia"; "The Independent League of the Kurd-yezid Women in Georgia"; "The National Congress of the Kurd-yezids in Georgia"; "Einung" – German Association in Georgia; "Union of Azerbaijani Women in Georgia"; "Hilel-Tbilisi" – Jewish Youth Foundation; "The National Congress of Assyrians in Georgia"; "The Ukrainians' Association in Georgia"; "The Georgian Federation of the Greek Associations"; and the Polish Community.
Examples of good practice and collaboration between an NGO, government and international organization is the “Diverse Georgia – Civil Society Platform for Cultural Diversity and the Elaboration of a Package of the Non-Governmental Sector Recommendations Concerning the Implementation of the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions” Project by YTA Union. (Support by PARTICIPATION PROGRAMME, UNESCO).
Last update: February, 2022
The Ministry of Education and Science, which is conducting education reform in Georgia, is responsible for promoting intercultural education. National goals for education have been adopted in Georgia in October 2004, stating that the development of intercultural skills for graduates of secondary level education is one of its priorities. The Law on Secondary Education, adopted in April 2005, grants rights to all schools to teach in minority languages and to teach the history of minorities without any discrimination regarding the content or the financial support offered.
In 2008, the new Strategic Vision Project – the National Vision and Action Plan on Civil Integration and Tolerance - identified objectives for the education and culture of minorities.
Intercultural education is a part of the National Curriculum of Georgia and is integrated into teaching, mainly in the subjects of Georgian literature, social sciences and foreign languages.
One of the national education goals in Georgia is to educate tolerant citizens who know how to effectively communicate with diverse individuals and groups.
There are several topics included into the teaching of the arts / music through the general school curriculum covering the artistic experiences from different parts of the world and of the minorities in Georgia.
One of the aims of the introduction of the separate subject, "Civic Education in Georgia" was to increase the student's sensitivity towards the knowledge of human rights, citizenship, world religions and influences of various cultures on society.
The public movement "Multinational Georgia" has developed an alternative package of recommendations and has introduced intercultural education as a part of the general school curricula, within the civil education discipline.
In Georgia, there are public primary and secondary schools for minorities (Azeri, Armenian, Russian), where the Georgian language is taught as the official language. The publication of textbooks for minorities is provided by state procurement.
In accordance with the Culture Strategy 2025 one of the strategic goals is "Awareness Raising and Education".
“Goal: Culture and creativity is integrated across all levels of the education system and the public is aware of its importance."
In accordance with the Government Programme 2021-2024 approved in December 2020:
- A different model of bilingual teaching will be introduced on a large scale for students of non-Georgian language schools.
- The policy of integration of people left out of education in the educational process will be defined, and an alternative curriculum will be developed for them.
- A Georgian language distance learning course will be available for Diaspora representatives;
- Awareness raising activities will be implemented to promote inclusive education.
Last update: February, 2022
Freedom of expression, freedom of the media and information is safeguarded by the law and the Constitution of Georgia (Chapters 19 and 24) as well as a separate normative act on media freedom.
Georgia is ranking 60th in the 2021 World Press Freedom Index.
Adoption of the Laws on Broadcasting and on Telecommunications has initiated a new stage of development of mass media and relations within Georgia.
The Law on Broadcasting, adopted in 2004, was developed in association with the EU and Georgia acceded to the EU Directive "TV without Frontiers". It specifies three kinds of radio and TV companies:
- Public: The Public Broadcaster shall ensure balance between news, social and political, educational and analytical, cultural and sport programmes in accordance with the interests of the public;
- Community: Community broadcasting shall serve community interests; ensure participation of representatives of the community it serves in the broadcasting process; ensure covering the opinions of minorities living within the respective service area including cultural matters, in their native language (Abkhaz, Azeri, Armenian, Ossetian and Russian). These programmes play an important role in pluralism within the mass media and address diversity within the coverage of radio and TV mass media.
Media strategic documents
- Code of Conduct for the Public Broadcaster, 2006.
- Decree #6 of the Georgian National Communications Commission, October 31, 2016 Article 3. Placement of programmes produced in non-state language(s) in the broadcasting net.
- Media and Broadcasting issues are included in the “Culture Strategy 2025” (01.07.2016) https://tinyurl.com/y9xhm3cc
- General Concept of the Programme Policy of the Public Broadcaster, 2017.
- The Transformation and Development Strategy of the Public Broadcaster “Quality, Depth, Diversity” – “Quality, Depth, Diversity” 2017
- The strategic areas of the Culture Strategy 2025 include "Sector-specific Tasks.
Media and Broadcasting
- Use the potential of the media to advance public awareness about culture, cultural diversity and inter-cultural dialogue;
- Update laws and regulations and plan mechanisms in order to establish and develop cultural media outlets; encourage regional, private commercial and non-commercial media to produce cultural products and to cover cultural processes;
- Design measures to help the public broadcaster contribute to the creation and distribution of products of cultural importance;
- Produce special public broadcasting programmes, both in the official and ethnic languages, to expand opportunities for ethnic minorities to access information about cultural processes;
- Support institutions of higher education to develop programmes on cultural journalism and facilitate the participation of journalists working on culture in local and international training programmes;
- Sustain critical evaluation of professional activities to enable analysis of cultural life, which shall in return lead to increased public awareness and allow cultural professionals to assess their own work."
The Public Broadcaster is funded with 0.15% of GDP from the state budget. The Parliament, when planning the state budget, relies on the approved GDP from the previous year, not on the projected GDP for the following year.
In 2004-2005 there was a decrease in the very small share of culture-oriented programmes; in some cases this decline was caused by closing TV companies that had special culture programmes, while in other cases the culture programmes were replaced with more profitable entertainment programmes, e.g. reality shows. In general, only some channels have short programmes in art and culture.
The estimated share of domestic television programmes produced in Georgia vs. imported products is 70 to 30. (Out of 30% imported product, the major part is produced in the USA, followed by Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, Turkey, and India (serials); some product is from the Russian Federation. Almost all products are dubbed by TV companies in Georgian (no exact statistical data is available, the information is given in general).
There are only two TV companies that have a significant share of cultural content:
In 2007, the TV company "Iveria" was launched under the Patriarchy of the Georgian Apostolic Orthodox Church, which is oriented to religious and cultural development.
The only culture-oriented TV channel in Georgian media is “Artarea”. This is a private television channel.
Since December 25th, 2013, Artarea has broadcast as a cable television channel.
According to the data of 2016, culture and art make up 20% of the total content in Georgian public broadcasting. Source: Stat. from State TV, 2016.
There are no other in-depth statistics; no targeted surveys in the media have been conducted on the role of culture and cultural content.
Since 2015, Georgia has switched to digital broadcasting.
The National Strategy for Development of Broadband Networks in Georgia for 2020-2025 and the Action Plan for its implementation envisage the achievement of strategic goals and the development of a digital economy in the country. The Georgian National Communications Commission is working on the introduction of 5G technology by sharing and supporting international practices.
In 2020, a total of 295 operators were registered in the field of electronic communications, of which 89 were TV and 53 radio broadcasters.
Important projects were launched by the Communications Commission in 2020:
- Media literacy projects, including in regions densely populated by ethnic minorities.
- The Young European Ambassadors project, in which young people have deepened their knowledge of European and Euro-Atlantic integration, European values, the country's future prospects and aspirations.
In 2020, the exclusive project of the Media Academy “Online Masterclasses” for journalists was launched. It should be noted that masterclasses are conducted by not only journalists, but also by experts in culture and art (literature and photography).
Last update: February, 2022
The official language of Georgia is Georgian. In the territory of Abkhazia there are two official languages – Georgian and Abkhazian. Abkhazia is populated by two indigenous groups – Georgians and Abkhazs - whose linguistic difference is confirmed by the Constitution.
The significant factor in Georgian national identity is that the Georgian original written language is one of the oldest written languages worldwide (it was created no later than III-IV centuries A.D.). But the oldest literary monument is dated V c. A.D. The Georgian alphabet is used in all dialects of the Georgian language. Only in Abkhazia the modified Cyrillic alphabet has been used since the establishment of the Soviet regime.
In Georgia, national minorities constitute 16.2% of the population, with the largest linguistic minorities being Azeris with 6.5% and Armenians with 5.7%. Until recently the most widespread language after Georgian was Russian.
The Constitution of Georgia obliges all departments, municipal services and users to use the Georgian language and all official versions of legislative texts must be published in Georgian. In order to promote integration of minorities and their participation in the state administration, the Ministry of Education and Science arranges intensive teaching of the official language.
Unfortunately, in the territories beyond the control of the government of Georgia, the teaching of the official language has been stopped and the system of education operating in Abkhazia is based on Abkhazian and Russian and, in the Tskhinvali Region, the education system is based on the Ossetian and Russian languages.
The issues of protection and development of language are within the terms of reference of the Ministry of Education and Science. The support and development of the literary language and language diversity as a cultural phenomenon are also the responsibility of the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection.
The Georgian Language Programme was financed by the Ministry of Education and Sciences. In 2009, this programme was replaced by the Programme of Support for Multilingual Education.
Since 2006, responsibility for the R&D institutes under the Academy of Sciences of Georgia has been delegated to the Ministry of Education and Science. Among these institutes are significant scientific and cultural centres for research and development of Georgian culture, language and literature such as: the Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, the Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature, the Korneli Kekelidze Institute of Manuscripts.
The State Language Department (created in 2017) is a legal entity under public law, which protects the constitutional status of the state language within the framework established by the legislative acts of Georgia, takes care of its popularization and the establishment of norms of the Georgian literary language.
The Georgian language is the native language for many ethnic Georgians who reside outside the country (about 5 million live in Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia, Iran, Europe and the USA). Support and development of the Georgian language abroad is the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs via its Section for Cultural Relations and Relations with the Diaspora. Also, the Ministry of Education and Science has implemented the Programme of Assistance for Georgian Schools Abroad.
2015 - Law of Georgia On the Official Language was adopted.
In 2021, a working version of the State Language Strategy 2021-2030 and the Action Plan for Strategy 2021-2022 was developed.
Last update: February, 2022
The strategic goals of the Culture Strategy 2025, approved in 2016, include “Access to Culture and Cultural Diversity.
"Goal: Culture is accessible to all members of society and the freedom of cultural expression is safeguarded.
2.2. Objective: All members of the society, including vulnerable groups, youth and minorities are actively engaged in cultural life and have access to the cultural infrastructure and resources.
Tasks: Ensure that principles of gender equality are taken into account during the planning and implementation of cultural policy, use the potential of culture to foster gender equality."
In 1996, Georgia acceded to the International Convention on Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, adopted on 29 June 1951 by the General Conference of the International Labour Organization, arranged by the Administrative Council of the International Labour Bureau. However, according to the available statistical data, the average remuneration of women engaged is only 63% of the rate of remuneration of men engaged in the same sphere. At the same time, according to Geostat (in 2020) https://www.geostat.ge/ka , this imbalance in the field of arts, entertainment and recreation in Georgia is minimal.
Among the Ministry staff, the number of women in positions of responsibility is decreasing: in 2004, out of 118 employees of the Ministry, 70 were women (59%); in 2005, out of 151 employees, only 81 are women (54%).
Until 2021, all ministers of culture were men and only one of the deputy ministers (20%) was a woman; from heads of 10 departments, 5 were women (50%).
After the October parliamentary elections in 2020, the first woman (who previously held the position of the Minister of Justice) became the Minister of Culture, Sport and Youth and a Vice Prime Minister in the “Georgian Dream” Government. All her deputy ministers are men.
Also, women are appointed to the positions of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (de jure) and the Minister of Education Culture and Sport of Ajaria Autonomous Republic.
According to GEOSTAT data, as of 2020, 2027 women (70%) and only 909 men (30%) are employed in museums. Among theatre workers – the number of women (50.4%), and men (49.6%) is almost equal (3963 employees in total).
A great number of women are employed as librarians (99%). Out of total 3 325 employees of libraries 3 305 are women (according to 2008 data).
There is no more precise statistical data relating to the employment of women in the sphere of culture.
According to the GEOSTAT data, as of 2020, women have mostly received higher education in education, arts and humanities. In 2019, the number of female teachers was 55 000, which is 6.5 times higher than the number of male teachers. Women outnumber men in vocational and higher education institutions, although gender difference is not so critical there.
In 2017, in accordance with the Culture Strategy 2025, raising public awareness on gender equality has been highlighted by:
- Supporting thematic projects on gender equality
- Supporting women’s creative activities
There are general awareness programmes on gender equality that are implemented by the non-governmental sector and the state (see the Parliamentary Gender Equality Council plans), UN Women’s Projects.
In 2017 the survey “Pilot Scheme for Monitoring Implementation of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions” was conducted (Project by YTA Union). According to the survey, the challenges are as follows:
- The issue of gender equality in cultural legislation is reflected very generally; specifically, women’s cultural rights, including the right to express their creativity, are not covered.
- Gender projects in culture are available as separate initiatives of non-governmental organizations and international organizations that cannot provide sustainable support for the consumption and availability of cultural goods and services by women and their involvement in and access to cultural life.
- There are no mechanisms for monitoring, evaluation and review of gender equality policy in culture; there is no research base and methodology; the efforts of NGOs in this direction are unsustainable.
In 2021 a gender survey was carried out within the project “The information-educational programme to empower women employed in the cultural field in the post-pandemic era by implementing the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions” by the YTA Union.
The findings of the survey have revealed the conflicting attitudes towards gender equality:
- Covid-19 identified one of the most important common challenges as widening the gap in civic consciousness, which manifests itself in the weakening of social cohesion, solidarity and support for women.
- Women and men do not have a "competitive" attitude towards gender equality. Attitudes towards gender policies and laws are also generally positive among both genders.
- The cultural professional community is open and tolerant towards gender balance, as well as directly towards women employed in the field of culture. At the same time, the tolerant attitude of society towards gender balance is to a lesser extent converted into raising the status and role of women and stimulating leadership qualities.
- The data of various gender studies indicate the presence of a “glass ceiling”.
- The gender norms continue to influence the assessment of the professional skills of women and men, and division of occupations.
Last update: February, 2022
The strategic areas of the Culture Strategy 2025, approved in 2016, include “Goal: Culture is accessible to all members of the society and the freedom of cultural expression is safeguarded.
2.2. Objective: All members of the society, including vulnerable groups, youth and minorities are actively engaged in cultural life and have access to cultural infrastructure and resources.
- Support and encourage cultural institutions, organizations and the businesses, including on the legislative level, in order to provide people with disabilities, socially vulnerable groups, refugees, IDPs, residents of occupied territories with the availability of special services (e.g. lower price tickets, free entrance, informational meetings, etc.) and employment opportunities;
- Ensure that cultural infrastructure, new and existing facilities, comply with accessibility requirements for people with disabilities, adopting them where necessary;
- Train the employees of cultural establishments and organizations to develop their skills necessary for communication with vulnerable groups;
- Support cultural establishments and organizations in providing special programmes and materials (e.g. audio-books, books with Braille font, sign-interpretation, subtitles, on-line and digital applications, etc.) for people with disabilities;
- Support the implementation of legal and regulatory mechanisms, creation of a favorable environment and special programmes in order to support the inclusion of people with disabilities in cultural/arts educational processes at all levels of education;
The next step was the preparation of a “Roadmap for Ensuring Equal Participation of People with Disabilities in Georgia’s Cultural and Creative Life for 2017-2018” by the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia in 2017.
This document aims to create the conceptual framework and mechanisms that will facilitate the participation of persons with disabilities in the cultural life of society. The Roadmap is focused on the challenges of accessibility to culture and creativity, cultural education and services by persons with disabilities and contains the list of activities to be carried out by the Ministry in cooperation with relevant authorities (Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Affairs of Georgia; Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia and others) in 2017-2018. The activities provided by the abovementioned Action Plan were planned by the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia, involving various agencies, local or international NGOs working on issues of persons with disabilities, the association of persons of children with disabilities and directly persons with disabilities.
The document reflects the legislative framework regulating the sphere, challenges in terms of the access to culture for disabled persons, the problems of infrastructure adaptation, as well as cultural and arts events, inclusive cultural tourism, inclusive education and employment issues for people with disabilities.
The Roadmap activities have been planned based on the problems identified by the monitoring of the situational analysis/research, quantitative and qualitative data.”
Consequently, the "Action Plan for Equal Participation of Persons with Disabilities in Cultural and Creative Life, 2017-2018" was created.
In 2020, the Law of Georgia on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (6823-rs) entered into force, according to which “the state shall promote the realization of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of persons with disabilities”, including the realization of cultural and intellectual opportunities.
According to the Government Programme 2021-2024 approved in 2020: “Access to culture will increase for the general public, especially the population of the regions, ethnic minorities and people with disabilities, and will promote the development of creative skills of people with disabilities“.
The Ministry of Culture, Sport and Youth funds various projects with the participation of people with disabilities.
In the years 2015-2016, the activities of the Cultural Centre of the Union for Persons who are Blind and the Union for Persons who are Deaf of Georgia were promoted. In 2017 the Project “Inclusive Education in Georgian Museums” was implemented. Also, inclusive concerts, exhibitions, performances with the participation of people with disabilities were promoted and adapted versions of the films “Jay's Wedding” and “I See the Sun” were created. There are various nongovernmental organizations of people with disabilities in Georgia, e.g. Inclusive Dance Development Centre, etc.
Last update: February, 2022
During the past 30 years, as a result of conflicts with the separatist authorities of the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic and former South-Ossetian Autonomous District (the Inner Kartli), a new group has been formed in the population - IDP (internally displaced persons). Currently, there are 286 643 IDPs officially registered, of which 275 096 (95.97%) are from Abkhazia and 11 546 (4.0%) from the former South Ossetian Autonomous District (the Inner Kartli). Following the Russian - Georgian conflict in August, 2008, a new stream of IDP has emerged from so-called South Ossetia, the historical Shida (Internal) Kartli, the region Samachablo and from Kodori (a mountain part of the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic) and from other Georgian cities and villages. This raised the number of IDP's by an additional 192 000 persons. The total number of IDP's is now estimated at almost 500 000.
The state assistance to IDPs is minimal, which causes social discontent of both IDPs and other residents. Since the integration of IDPs in other regions has been difficult due to unemployment and inflation, the idea of social integrity is unsteady. Against this background, the focus of government and public attention is directed to the territorial integrity of the country, the protection of constitutional laws, of IDP's and of minorities.
Following the Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008, voluntary assistance and donations by nongovernmental and trade organizations to support IDP's increased to help address their material needs and psychological rehabilitation.
We may only assume (as there is no special research or debates thereof) that culture is (not) used as an instrument for reinforcement of social cohesion. At the same time the concept of national integrity has ever been supported by the national culture and the national culture has been the basic parameter of the national identity.
Therefore, Georgia for the first time institutionalizes access to culture and declares social issues in the context of cultural policy.
The Culture Strategy 2025 also envisages ensuring access to culture for IDPs as well as social integration and employment through the cultural industries:
"2.2. Objective: All members of the society, including vulnerable groups, youth and minorities are actively engaged in cultural life and have access to cultural infrastructure and resources.
- Organize cultural and creative projects, initiatives, events and campaigns and support access to appropriate spaces/facilities in order to reinvigorate the contribution of vulnerable groups, youth and minorities to cultural life;
- Support the development of specially adopted media programmes in order to contribute to the integration of vulnerable and minority groups into the general public;
- Elaborate incentive measures for students representing disability groups, refugees, IDP's, residents of occupied territories, repatriates and socially vulnerable citizens, in order to ensure their access to cultural studies;
- Support and encourage cultural institutions, organizations and the businesses, including on the legislative level, in order to provide people with disabilities, socially vulnerable groups, refugees, IDPs, residents of occupied territories with special services (e.g. lower price tickets, free entrance, informational meetings, etc.) and employment opportunities;
- Support the engagement of children and youth groups representing refugees and IDPs, repatriates and Georgian citizens residing in occupied territories and abroad in different cultural projects in order to ensure their integration with local coevals;
- Support cultural initiatives of minorities and enhance their knowledge of the Georgian language in order to ensure they have a fair part in the country’s cultural life;
- Ensure that principles of gender equality are taken into account during the planning and implementation of cultural policy, and use the potential of culture to foster gender equality."
Recently, the issues of social cohesion are considered by the government in the context of integration of all layers of youth – representatives of national minorities, urban and rural residents. The main participants of the process are governmental structures. For example, the Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs of Georgia (operated in this format until 2016) effectively is engaged in the planning of such programmes. The working process is implemented in close cooperation with youth organizations, international organizations and various public institutions. Many human rights NGOs use creative projects and art forms for social advertising and promotion of anti-discrimination policies, and educational activities to raise awareness and promote tolerance, etc.
Last update: February, 2022
There is a tradition of active public debates in Georgia, especially in the context of a polarized political environment. Culture often becomes a victim of political mainstreaming. At the same time, the importance of the social aspects of culture is largely understood and voiced by the professional community and the non-governmental sector.
The potential for significant social impact of culture is manifested in the development of cultural tourism and urban planning, creating a new habitat, especially in the historic part of cities.
The heavy interventionist urban policy in Georgia since the 2000s has become an important topic of public debates. The intensity and purposefulness of the debates have in some cases yielded positive results (for example the public and expert monitoring of the restoration-rehabilitation project of the Tbilisi ancient district - Gudiashvili Square).
A positive example of ensuring informed, transparent and participatory processes for the development of a policy of cultural expression diversity are the meetings organized by the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection in the process of creating the Culture Strategy in 2015-2016. Both the state and 36 NGOs that signed the Memorandum “Creating a Culture Policy Together” actively supported the informed policy-making process. As a result, the issues of equal access to culture and the social aspects of culture have been reflected in this document.
An important place in the Culture Strategy 2025is allocated to the equal access by different groups to culture. "2.1. Objective: Culture is made accessible to all, including the communities in mountainous regions, municipalities adjacent to the state borders, occupied territories and across the dividing lines of occupied territories."
The correlation of culture with social welfare and intersectoral cooperation is also reflected in the Third Goal of the Strategy: "Goal: Culture and creativity help other key areas to contribute in a wider sense to the State’s sustainable development and social well-being.
Objective: Regular cooperation among cultural professionals, public, civil and private sectors brings about more effective decision-making and problem-solving methods and results in a better quality of life."
Other documents which more or less reflect the aspects of the cultural impact of culture, serve this goal as well:
- The Georgian National Youth Policy Concept for 2020 – 2030 (7054-rs; 24/07/2020) in addition to various educational and social areas, includes support for youth cultural and creative activities (in frames of interest groups, clubs, hubs and summer camps).
- State Strategy for Civic Equality and Integration and Action Plan for 2015-2020 (1740; 01/09/2015) addresses the issues of preserving the culture of ethnic minorities and promoting a tolerant environment.
- The Law on Innovations (N5501-II dated 22.06.2016) is aimed at creating an environment conducive to the creative industries.
- The Georgian Tourism Strategy (2015) is a document focused on greater socialization and commercialization of cultural infrastructure, cultural heritage sites and cultural services.
Last update: February, 2022
Cultural sustainability is one of the goals of Georgia’s cultural policy. However, it is written only in the Culture Strategy 2025.
Other strategic documents of Georgia indirectly refer to culture. Recognition of its potential economic, social and environmental consequences is the achievement of the Ministry of Culture and the nongovernmental sector only.
"The Sustainable Development Goals National Document“
"The Sustainable Development Goals National Document depicts the priorities of the UN SDGs at the national level, aimed at promoting the implementation of SDGs and introduction of evidence-based national policy according to the 2030 agenda.
The Sustainable Development Goals National Document equally addresses the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental."
Socio-Economic Development Strategy of Georgia 2020
Socio-Economic Development Strategy of Georgia 2020 outlines the country’s economic development visions, where tourism is a part, which includes the use of cultural monuments and the sale of various cultural products; however, no direct vision is apparent in the context of cultural development.
The Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection has developed the "Culture Strategy 2025" (approved 30.06.2016), which includes the main indicators and trends in the field of culture. The purpose of the document is to establish an interagency coordination platform; on the basis of this Strategy the policy Goal s within the framework of the Strategy 2025 will be included in the policies of other Ministries (http://www.culturepolicy.gov.ge/getfile/29f126fc-420a-43f5-bcecadaf14f9d779/.aspx).
Consequently, since 2016 there is a sustainable coordination mechanism that is the basis for the development under the common umbrella of culture policy.
At the same time, there is an internal interdepartmental plan designed to provide the appropriate reflection of the trends specified in the policy document in the budgets and action plans of the Ministries.
- Interagency Action Plan for Implementation of the Culture Strategy for 2017-2018
- Action Plan for Equal Participation of Persons with Disabilities in Cultural Life for 2017-2018
- Roadmap for Developing Cultural and Creative Industries in Georgia 2016 – 2017. CREATIVE GEORGIA.
These documents show that the society and state structures have already come to the understanding that a synergistic approach is necessary for the implementation of national sustainable development policies, taking into account the multifaceted resources of culture and their importance.
The Culture Strategy 2025 contains the 3rd strategic Goal: Culture and Other Key Areas.
The expected result of this Goal is: culture and creativity will contribute to various areas and the sustainable development of the country and the well-being of society, in general.
"Goal: Culture and creativity help other key areas to contribute in a wider sense to the State’s sustainable development and social well-being.
Objective: Culture is integrated into the development policies of different sectors, different government agencies and municipalities based on regular consultations between the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia and other important agencies and stakeholders.
- Raise the awareness of policy-makers and other key stakeholders about the cultural spill-overs on and the economic impact;
- Taking into view the crucial role of culture with regard to economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, integrate culture into policy planning documents on the national, sectoral and regional levels, and into other policy sectors;
- Create a platform for regular consultations between policy-makers of culture and other agencies, which shall ensure their involvement in the policy-planning processes from its initial stages;
- Develop joint initiatives and programmes between the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia and other agencies, in order to enforce the development of the national economy and contribute to a wider international recognition
Last update: February, 2022
The problem in Georgian cultural policy is not having a paradigmatic approach to culture in whole or in part, but understanding the essence of a "cultural" component of the cultural good and its significance in a long-term strategy.
Moreover, culture is becoming increasingly important as a tool of the political and economic power of the elite: In Georgian cultural policy a significant, fast emerging class of political and financial elites is implanting the ideology of a "consumption" policy. This naturally reflects on cultural consumption and participation. In Georgia, cultural consumption is a field for further manipulation of a well-established political PR system. The best illustration of this is the architecture of the "new" Georgia beginning from the presidential palace to the cultural complex on Rike in Tbilisi, as well as the pseudo-rehabilitation projects such as the Rabat complex in Akhaltsikhe. In the long term, the implementation of such a policy through manipulating consumption in order to ease the government will result in an even more rapid decline in public taste.
Cultural consumption is differentiated
Consumption is changing at the expense of diversification and stratification of society; an increase is forming in the gap between the elite and the majority of the population which stays near the poverty line. However, the emergence of a middle class slowly occurs, albeit at the expense of the bureaucracy.
Over the past 30 years (1990 to 2020), no surveys and other systematic studies have been conducted in the culture area; there are no accurate data on culture from the State Department of Statistics. However, we can say that there is an empirically revealed correlation between income level, education level and intensity of cultural consumption.
It is obvious that the public, the majority of which is near the poverty line, cannot participate to the full extent in the process of creation and consumption of the cultural product; for the same reason it is impossible for the majority of the public to provide adequate care for the privately-owned cultural heritage that damages the common cultural landscape and heritage. All these factors provoke impunity for the political and economic elites, which have lobbied for and implemented such projects as "The New Life of Old Tbilisi", which resulted in the unqualified reconstruction and restoration of historic districts and was a futile waste of budgetary funds.
Cultural consumption is also differentiated according to the place of residence: the lowest traditionally remains in the countryside, where the cultural infrastructure is poorly developed. Therefore, the general political task of ensuring equal access to culture and leveling participation in cultural life remains relevant throughout the country. The tools for solving this problem may be the Internet. The level of cultural consumption and nature of participation vary under the effect of such factors as, for example, the economic crisis, under which the free services provided by public institutions become more attractive. "Domestic consumption of culture" is also growing (use of the Internet and the option of downloading, often illegally, various cultural and artistic content).
The main problems and challenges that were identified during the development of the Culture Strategy 2025:
- Information deficit on the role of culture and its economic potential;
- Education programme flaws - culture and creativity are inadequately reflected in the education stages;
- Culture is not equally available to all members of the community. Cultural diversity is not adequately protected and developed;
- Culture and creativity are not integrated into the policies of other fields and there is no great awareness of its contribution;
- There are no relevant social guarantees for cultural workers and their remuneration is low;
- Cultural infrastructure and its material-technical base are underdeveloped;
- Budgetary funding of culture is poor and alternative sources of funding are not developed;
- Cultural governance at central or municipal levels can to be improved;
- Surveys and statistical data are scarce;
- The legislative base and mechanisms for promoting integration into the international space of culture are to be improved
Source: Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection ( 2016)
One of the priorities of the Strategy was to create a new model of culture financing. In 2016, the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection formulated the idea of a financial sustainability package, which includes the following:
- Exemption of real assets used in the creative, artistic and scientific research activities (theatres, centres, museum, etc.) from property tax;
- Exemption of the activities implemented in the cultural field under the state order from value added tax;
- Exemption of royalties, cash and other awards paid by the state from income tax;
- Charity Law and voluntary 1% initiative;
- Drafting the law on state pensions, which means the possibility of retaining pensions for persons employed in artistic organizations;
- Transferring a part of lottery revenues to the cultural sphere.
- As of December 2021, this package has not been, however, realized.
- The openness of public cultural policy does not always meet European standards;
- The decision-making system and indicators are not always clear (especially since 2021);
- Underdevelopment of civil society: the lack of responsibility and involvement in the protection of cultural heritage, urban planning matters, etc.
- The legislation remains unbalanced:
- The primary issues are to improve the legislative framework in the field of cultural heritage, especially in the context of decentralization and self-government reform, and the Concordat.
- Over the past 15 years, the representatives of culture have required the introduction of the Sponsorship Law as means of diversification of the financing of culture and legislative improvements for the delimitation of powers and the protection of regional and municipal sectors of culture. The central government was quite skeptical about this idea.