2. Current cultural affairs
Last update: November, 2016
In 2016, the law on freedom of creation, architecture and heritage is promulgated (loi n° 2016-925 du 7 juillet 2016). It is an ambitious act that concerns all the fields of cultural policies (see chapter 4.2.1). The main objectives of the 119 law articles arte to assert and guarantee the freedom of creation and the cultural diversity, to advocate the role of artists within society, to foster a better and wider cultural access for all, and to reinforce and modernise heritage protection.
Cultural democratisation and cultural democracy
Since the creation of the Ministry of Culture, two mainstream and crosscutting objectives have oriented and motivated cultural policies in France.
On the one hand, the objective of cultural democratisation, which characterises the policy of the Malraux Ministry, aims at widespread access to a conventional offer that is considered to be representative of high culture, of heritage and artistic excellence: opening of Maisons de la Culture (community culture and arts centres) in the 1960s, low or free entrance fees to the national cultural institutions, and actions to expand cultural audiences. One example from 1963 is when the Greek tragedy The Persians by Aeschylus was broadcasted on public television at peak viewing time. More recently, in 2009 the Ministry of Culture granted free entrance to the permanent collections of national museums and national monuments, for all persons under 26 living in European Union.
On the other hand, from the 1970s-1980s, this approach that could be considered to be restrictive and sometimes elitist, was complemented by the cultural democracy approach, which expands the content and the consideration of the artistic and cultural expressions and requests, in all their diversity, a non-hierarchical approach: widening of the ministry's scope of activities, support to emerging practices or creative disciplines that could previously have been considered to be "minor art", like street and circus arts, comics, fashion and decorative arts, jazz, "contemporary or non-classical music" [musiques actuelles].
In this context, cultural development refers to the search for balance between these two regimes of cultural policy, with no elitism or demagogy, in order to reconcile high standards and openness and to develop audiences and participation.
Decentralisation, devolution and agreement-based cooperation (see chapter 1.1 and chapter 1.2.6)
In the 1980s, the French State introduced a territorial decentralisation policy that increased the devolution of responsibilities to autonomous territorial authorities with elected governing assemblies: municipalities, départments and regions. Since the constitutional revision law of 28 March 2003, the first article of the Constitution states that France "shall be organised on a decentralised basis". Territorial authorities developed their own cultural policies. In parallel, the Ministry of Culture set up its own decentralised departments (services déconcentrés), the Regional Directorates of Cultural Affairs (DRAC). The DRAC became the common and regular level of management of ministerial policies.
The joint action of the decentralised State departments and of the territorial authorities gave rise to territorialised and cooperative cultural governance. Public actors articulate their interventions within the framework of a whole range of multi-level agreement procedures: cultural development agreements, "City Contracts" and "Major Urban Projects", "State-Region Project Contracts", etc. In general, the State focuses on the circulation / diffusion policies and major institutions, and on the implementation of the ministerial orientations in the regions, with a view to achieving balanced territorial cultural planning / organisation (aménagement culturel du territoire). Territorial authorities ensure the maintenance of the institutions that they supervise, advocate their cultural identity (in a broad sense), and support creation in its local and international dimensions. The decentralisation is also effective through an increase in autonomy of the public institutions and establishments that are supervised by the Ministry of Culture. This trend is also realised within the framework of contracts with objectives that aim, for example at developing audiences, special actions towards youth or the disabled, diversifying sources of funding, etc. Since 2012, the Ministry wants to reactivate the Council of Territorial Authorities for Cultural Development (Conseil des collectivités territoriales pour le développement culturel, CCTDC), in particular in a context of territorial reform that could impact the respective responsibilities and interventions of the different levels of territorial authorities.
Arts and cultural education
Official statements regularly reaffirm that arts and cultural education is a priority of cultural policies, which allow the fostering of individual self-fulfilment, and the broadening of cultural practices, participation and audiences. Since the 1970s many schemes and devices have reinforced arts and cultural education in and out of schools, the educational mission of the cultural institutions, and also the professional training for arts and culture occupations. In 2000, the ministers of Culture and of Education launched a five-year plan for the development of arts and culture in schools: the Lang-Tasca Plan. In 2005 this policy was revived, with in particular the installation of a High Council of the Arts and Cultural Education (Haut Conseil de l'éducation artistique et culturelle). In 2008, the history of art was added to the compulsory curricula from primary and secondary schools. In 2012, the Minister of Culture Aurélie Filippetti launched a national consultation to develop a new national scheme for arts and cultural education (Bouët-Desplechin report Pour un accès de tous les jeunes à l'art et à la culture : http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/content/download/60251/463625/version/2/file/Consultation+nationale+EAC.pdf ).
Temporary performing artists and technicians (intermittents du spectacle)
Artists and technicians working in the performing arts or audiovisual and entertainment industries (cinema, television, etc.) can have specific social security coverage, derogatory to the national Unemployment Provision Convention, designed for people without regular activity or steady employment, or multiple employers. For about ten years, the Ministry of Culture has to face the question of the preservation of this exceptional status. Every new round of negotiation between the social partners provokes marches and strikes: in 2003, 2014 and 2016 several festivals were troubled, sometimes cancelled, theatres were occupied. In 2014 the Prime Minister appoints a conciliation board (mission « Archambault-Combrexelle-Gille », names of the coordinators) to redefine the intermittence regime in a more stable and secure way. In April 2016, the social partners of the concerned sectors came to an agreement that maintains the regime while modifying some points (increasing participation of employers to the financing, for instance). Moreover, in September 2016 year the Government set up a national fund to support durable employment in performing arts, the Fonpeps.
Cultural diversity is an asset of globalisation. Respecting this diversity is an identity and cultural requirement. France was particularly active in this debate, which was introduced within the framework of the European Union and of the World Trade Organisation in the 1990s, with at first the idea to protect a "cultural exception" (exception culturelle) within free trade agreements. This idea does not mean that a certain culture is exceptional compared to another, but that culture and cultural goods and products must be considered to have an "exceptional" status, which distinguishes them from current consumption goods and which must be somehow guaranteed by public support and specific rules, derogatory to free trade rules. French Ministers of Culture have advocated this approach for twenty years: asserting the "exceptional" character of culture responds, paradoxically, to an economic requirement, that is the promotion of European cultural industries in their pluralistic diversity. So the debate on the exception of cultural goods and products within trade agreements resulted in the question of the advocacy of cultural diversity on an international scale. The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions was adopted in 2005 and came into effect in 2007. Advocating cultural diversity is also one of the major policy lines of the International Organisation of La Francophonie (see chapter 1.4.1). In 2013, 17 Ministers of Culture, and 15 European Film Agencies, including France, officially asked that cultural and audiovisual sectors be excluded from the project of free trade agreement between the EU and the USA (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership), with the leitmotiv "culture is not an ordinary commodity".
Economic dimension and impact of culture – cultural economy
In 1982 Jack Lang, in its speech in Mexico City during a world conference of Ministers of Culture, said the famous phrase "economy and culture, same fight" (« Économie et culture, même combat »). This phrase underlines the importance of cultural activities as factors of economic development - which prefigured the notion of a creative economy that is popular since the end of the 1990s, and emphasises at the same time that creation and the arts cannot be reduced to only economic and financial terms.
Digital transition, information and communication technology, cultural economy (see chapter 2.4)
The development of digital technologies notably transformed information and communication devices, which impacts on many domains of cultural life: cultural consumption, participation and practices, creative processes, and protection of heritage. One of the recent steps in this evolution was the development of interactive sites (Web2.0), smartphones and the open data movement, by which public information must be freely accessible and available for use.
From 2009 to 2011, the Statisics, Planning and Studies Department of the Ministry (DEPS) realised prospective studies on the future of cultural policies in the age of digital technology. They are presented in the reports Culture and Media 2020 and Culture and Media 2030. At an operating level, since 2002 some instruments have been set up to foster multimedia and digital artistic creation: DICRéAM (Dispositif pour la Création Artistique Multimédia, system for multimedia artistic creation), New Media Projects Fund.
The question of digital transition entails two main issues:
(First issue) To regulate free access to creative works and protect copyright on the internet, a dedicated public body was created in 2009, the Haute Autorité pour la Diffusion des Œuvres et la Protection des droits sur Internet (HADOPI: High Authority for Transmission of Creative Works and Copyright Protection on the Internet). However, the regulation of the cultural economy in the digital era is a difficult and complex task for public authorities, as the rapid technological evolution constantly modifies the questions and the problems at stake. In this context, in 2012 the ministry set up the commission Culture-acte2 to renew the system of cultural policies in the era of digital technology (http://www.culture-acte2.fr). The report by this commission recommends, among others, to suppress the HADOPI and to transfer its missions to the CSA (French Broadcasting Authority, see chapter 2.5.3), and to create a tax of 1% on tablets and Smartphones to finance the development of the cultural and creative activities. Moreover, the departments of the ministry developed a "Guide for data on culture", which proposes to cultural actors and stakeholders simple and relevant legal tools to diffuse and re-use their digital public data.
After six years of legal battle, Google and the National Union of Publishers (Syndicat national des éditeurs) signed in 2012 an outline agreement on the digitalisation of the works free of rights, and on the referencing of the works. The Ministry of Culture encouraged the legal action of the SNE. Another conflict with Google had to do with the remuneration for referencing press articles and in February 2013, President Holland and Éric Schmidt, the executive chairman of Google, came to an agreement, unprecedented in the world, which plans a 60 million EUR fund to facilitate the digital transition of the press sector. Another agreement was signed in 2013 between Google and Sacem (which collects and redistributes the income from authors', composers' and music publishers' rights) about the platform YouTube. In 2016, French justice launched a judicial inquiry on Google France to investigate about tax fraud and money laundering.
(2nd issue) At the same time, the majority of cultural institutions set up digital devices to facilitate access to arts and culture and attract the largest audiences: on-line visits, digitalisation of heritage and library collections, museum collections, etc. The majority of these devices are available on the portal Culture.fr, which proposes a unique access point to more than 44 heritage databases, the annual schedules of more than 2 000 cultural sites and institutions and 900 festivals, articles and bibliographical resources, multimedia productions, interactive sites on French language, etc.
In September 2013 the Minister organised the first edition of the "Digital Autumn" (Automne numérique (http://automnenumerique.tumblr.com ): series of events to promote digital practices in artistic creation and education, opening of the "Silicon Valois" that is a co-working space at the Ministry (located rue de Valois in Paris), partnerships with Microsoft, Creative Commons, Open Knowledge Foundation or the national research centre on computational science (INRIA). The Ministry proposes a database on digitalised heritage, in collaboration with the European catalogue Michael. They also launched several call for projects to support the digitalisation of heritage and creation, or to develop innovative digital cultural services.
This information will be published as soon as possible.
This information will be published as soon as possible.
Last update: November, 2016
The development of digital technologies transformed information and communication devices, which impacts on many domains of cultural life: cultural consumption, participation and practices, creative processes, and protection of heritage. One of the recent steps in this evolution was the development of interactive sites (Web2.0) or smartphones. The digital world has created new professions such as web designers, internet writers, curators of on-line or virtual museums and galleries – and new markets. With the open data movement, public information must be freely accessible and available for use.
The cultural industries are confronted with digital technologies, which have modified the economy, distribution, diffusion, the collection of authors' and artistic copyright, and the profitability of the investments in production. This change takes place in a sharp competitive framework (internationalisation) open to sectors associated to the cultural industries (telecommunications, electronics, information technologies, and software design). It generates new behaviours and patterns of production and consumption. Such change requires public policy aand also has an impact on cultural employment.
These new developments have an impact on all of the sectors under the responsibility of the Ministry of Culture and its public partners (territorial authorities), including cultural heritage, audience policies, international cultural policies, etc.
From 2009 to 2011, the Statistics, Planning and Studies Department of the Ministry (DEPS) realised prospective studies on the future of cultural policies, to tackle the strategic questions of the future of culture and the media, and of State cultural policies, at a moment marked by the impact of the digital revolution on the offer, practices and participation, by a transition in the process of globalisation and by profound social transformations. These works allowed a diagnosis, scenarios of evolution and the definition of strategic orientations for cultural policies. They are presented in the reports Culture and media 2020 and Culture and media 2030.
During the French presidency of G8-G20 in 2011, the forum "e-G8" gathered for the first time in Paris the Heads of States of the G8 and the main world leaders of information technologies and the Internet - such as the executives and directors of Google, Wikipedia, Facebook, and Microsoft - to discuss the issues of this economy and advocate the vision of a "civilised Internet". In parallel, the Cultural Summit of G8-G20 organised by the Ministry of Culture in Avignon was dedicated to the issues of the future of creation in the digital era.
At the operating level, since 2002 there is a specific financing system to support the development, production and transmission of innovative or experimental works in the field of the multimedia and digital artistic creation: the DICRéAM Dispositif pour la Création Artistique Multimédia, (system for multimedia artistic creation). This fund is co-managed by the CNC, departments of the Ministry and the National Centre of Books and Literature. Since 2007 the CNC also has a special fund for new media projects, which supports innovative broadcasting and audiovisual works that integrate the specificities of the Internet and / or the mobile screens into their artistic approach and their transmission.
To regulate free access to creative works and protect copyright on the internet, a dedicated public body was created in 2009, the Haute Autorité pour la Diffusion des Œuvres et la Protection des droits sur Internet (HADOPI: High Authority for Transmission of Creative Works and Copyright Protection on the Internet). This creation results from a long legislative process (see chapter 4.1.6).
However, the regulation of the cultural economy in the digital era is a difficult and complex task for public authorities, which can bring debates and conflicts as, for example, between Google and the National Union of Publishers (Syndicat national des éditeurs) (see chapter 3.5.1). The ministry set up in 2012 the commission Culture-acte2 to renew the system of cultural policies in the era of digital technology (http://www.culture-acte2.fr). The report issued in May 2013 by this mission recommends, among others, to suppress the HADOPI and to transfer its missions to the CSA (French Broadcasting Authority, see chapter 2.5.3), and to create a tax of 1% on tablets and Smartphones to finance the development of cultural and creative activities.
At the same time, the majority of the cultural institutions set up digital devices to facilitate access to arts and culture and attract the largest audience: on-line visits, digitalisation of heritage and library collections, museum collections, etc.
From 1998 until 2008, the Ministry of Culture supported the implementation of Espaces culturels multimedia (multimedia cultural spots) in cultural institutions and establishments. Furthermore, the departments of the ministry developed a "Guide to data of culture", that proposes to cultural actors and stakeholders simple and relevant legal tools to diffuse and re-use their digital public data.
In 2011, Google opened at its European site in Paris a Cultural Institute, the mission of which is to protect and to promote culture online, with projects such as the digitalisation of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, the project of 3D visits of Versailles Palace, digital views of Paris in 2020, or La France en relief, detailed relief maps of XVIIth century French sites into 3D models.
Many cultural digital devices are available on the portal Culture.fr (http://www.culture.fr): access to databases, documents, articles and images, educational resources, cultural agendas and programming, linguistic corpus on French language, etc.
In September 2013 the Minister organised the first edition of the "Digital Autumn" (Automne numérique (http://automnenumerique.tumblr.com ): a series of events to promote digital practices in artistic creation and education, the opening of the "Silicon Valois" that is a co-working space at the Ministry (located rue de Valois in Paris), partnerships with Microsoft, Creative Commons, Open Knowledge Foundation or the national research centre on computational science (INRIA).
Last update: November, 2016
The European territorial authorities situated in border areas (cities, regions, provinces, intercommunalities, urban areas and conurbations, etc.) developed numerous networks and cooperative projects with their counterpart authorities located on the other side of the border, which led to the formation of groupings and organisations commonly named "euroregions". These dynamics were, on the one hand, encouraged by the policies of the Council of Europe in favour of cross-border cooperation (in particular the Madrid Convention in 1981 and its additional protocols) and, on the other hand, they were supported by the financing of the regional policy of the European Union (INTERREG programmes in particular).
In France, eleven regions, out of the twenty two mainland regions, share a border with a foreign country: Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco. The cross-border relations are thus numerous and are often linked to cultural, historic and linguistic reasons that illustrate the evolution of the frontiers between European States through history (Flanders, Alsace-Lorraine, Bavaria, Swiss and Italian Alps, Catalonia, Pyrenees…).
French overseas regions and départments are also involved in cross-border areas, as for example in the transnational programmes of the European Union for the Caribbean Area (French West Indies and Guiana) or for the Indian Ocean Area (Réunion and Mayotte). In 2011, an Inter-Guiana Cultural Festival was jointly organised by French Guiana, Suriname and Guyana, to celebrate the Inter-American year of Culture in Suriname (within the framework of the Organisation of American States).
According to a study on cross-border cultural cooperation (La coopération culturelle transfrontalière. Une étude sur les projets culturels transfrontaliers dans le programme Interreg III A, by Michael Stange, Relais Culture Europe and Mission Opérationnelle Transfrontalière: http://www.espaces-transfrontaliers.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Documents_MOT/Etudes_Publications_MOT/100.etu.coo.mot.etude_cooperation_culture.2005.pdf), in France cultural projects represented 17% of the budget and 15% of the projects within the cross-border programmes INTERREG for 2000-2006. More widely, one study commissioned by the European Commission (Study on the contribution of culture to local and regional development – Evidence from the Structural Funds: http://ec.europa.eu/culture/key-documents/contribution-of-culture-to-local-and-regional-development_en.htm) estimated that the cultural projects represent 6 billion EUR within the whole EU regional policy for 2007-2013, that is 1.7% of the funds allocated to this policy.
We can distinguish three main dimensions in the mobilisation of arts and culture euroregional organisations:
- Historic-heritage-dimension, which refers to common historical and heritage cultural features that can be different from the "national" ones of the State (for instance in the Basque Country, Catalonia, Savoy, Alsace and Lorraine, the Flemish North, County of Nice, etc): touring exhibitions and projects on the common heritage and history, promotion of regional languages and cultures that are shared on both sides of the border.
- Event-dimension, in the perspective of territorial marketing. The cross-border events can be diverse, with in particular festivals: literary festival along the Jura mountains border, festival of the Romantic routes and cross-border Paminale Festival in the Upper Rhine, dance festival in the Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastian, festival Transphotographiques on the French-Belgian border, and collaboration between festivals in Girona and Perpignan on the French-Spanish border. Other types of events are literary or artistic prizes, or occasional events: concerts, exhibitions, and all sorts of cultural operations that allow for the communication and promotion of the euroregional partnership.
- Networking-dimension, which refers both to the constitution of professional and sectorial networks strictly speaking and, more generally, to the networking between authorities, institutions and audiences: official cultural declaration and conferences in the euroregion of the Upper Rhine; artistic residences and tours; structures and places such as the cross-border park Pamina-Rhine, the cross-border École du spectateur between France and Belgium, the cross-border dance studio of Biarritz, the Orchestra of Grande Région, Youth Orchestra of the Catalan countries, and, also, cross-border cultural routes. Networking tools exist like cross-border passes for museums or libraries (Upper-Rhine museum pass for example), digital platforms and web sites (site LEAD-Linked Euroregion Arts Development between Kent, Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Belgian regions), and common cultural guides. There are also cross-border television programmes, such as those that were developed by France 3 since the 1980s in the regions Alsace and Lorraine, Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, Brittany and Pays de Loire, Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
For the period 2007-2013, territorial cooperation became a mainstream objective of EU regional policy and benefited from an increased budget. A legal status was created in 2006 in EU law to allow a better structuring of partnerships in a common and single entity, and a stabilisation of the cooperation: the status of European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC). The Council of Europe launched a similar instrument in 2009 in the third additional protocol of the Madrid Convention: the Euroregional Cooperation Grouping (ECG).
Several euroregions illustrate a certain impact of these evolutions on cross-border cultural cooperation. Since its creation in 2004, the euroregion Pyrenées-Méditerranée on the French-Spanish eastern border placed cultural and artistic initiatives in its main lines of action: launching of specific calls for projects, creation of an internet cultural portal, support to cultural networks and routes, adoption of the status of EGCT, which allowed for mutualisation of the budget of the cross-border cultural projects. The Grande Région (Greater Region), that comprises the great-duchy of Luxembourg, the French region Lorraine, the German Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saar, and the Belgian federal entities of Wallonia, was fully associated with the city of Luxembourg as European Capital of Culture in 2007. It became the first cross-border European cultural capital and in 2008, the members of the euroregion decided to create a specific and permanent body dedicated to cultural cooperation: the Espace culturel Grande Région. The emerging euroregions Alpes-Méditerranée (French-Italian border) and Aquitaine-Euskadi (Western French-Spanish borders), emphasise cultural policy in their projects of cooperation.
In the framework of the forthcoming EU programmes for 2014-2020, new initiatives are surely going to further advance the cultural and territorial construction of Europe.
Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes
The recognition of cultural identities and intercultural dialogue are major challenges for France and Europe.
While France was, since the middle of the XIXth century, one of the main immigration countries in Europe, it took time to include this fact in the national collective narrative. The mainly social approach to immigration identified it with the problems of the cities' disadvantaged districts and outskirts. However, identity thematics, based on ethnic or religious features, emerged and developed. Yet the religious dimension of intercultural dialogue is not relevant for French public authorities: since the separation of Church and State in France in 1905, the principle of secularism strictly conditions public action, and the religious affairs are limited to the private sphere. Following a series of attacks in France from 2015, which are claimed by the terrorist organisation ISIS, the State launched a training programme for the operators of urban, youth and sport policies on the theme “Republic Values and Secularism”.
Moreover, the specific regime of the concordat of 1801 between the State and the Roman Catholic Church, is always effective in the eastern départements of Haut-Rhin and Bas-Rhin. The State has some obligations in these territories concerning the recognition and organisation of the Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed and Jewish religions, the religious education at primary and middle school, the State remuneration of the clergy, the appointment of bishops, etc. Furthermore, Islam is today the second religion of the country, and the Conseil français du culte musulman (French Council of the Muslim Religion) was created in 2003, with the support of the government. This association represents the interests of the Muslims in France, in particular in their relations with public authorities. A specific foundation, the Fondation des œuvres de l’islam en France, was also created in 2005 to finance the CFCM. In 2016, to improve and organise with better transparency the financing of muslim cult in France, the State announced the relaunching of this Foundation after many years of inactivity. According to the new scheme, and as the law forbids any State funding for cult activities, the Foundation will focus on the dissemination of islam culture and literature (conferences, events, researches) and an independent and non public-funded association will finance cult related projects: building operations, religious training programmes, etc.
From the 1990s the interministerial programme "Cultures, villes et dynamiques sociales" (Cultures, cities and social dynamics) was implemented. It is summarised in two issues of the journal Culture et Recherche of the Ministry of Culture:
- "Démocratisation culturelle, diversité culturelle, cohésion sociale" (Cultural democratisation, cultural diversity, social cohesion”), n°106-107, December, 2005; and
- "De la diversité culturelle au dialogue interculturel" (From cultural diversity to intercultural dialogue), n°114-115, winter 2007-2008
The opening of the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration (National Centre of the History of Immigration) in 2007 aims at a better knowledge of the contributions of immigration to national culture, and at a wider access of the French population to this richness.
One of the challenges of intercultural dialogue is also, in the context of European construction, to strengthen a feeling of common European identity among the citizens, on the basis of shared values. The action of the European organisations contributed to enhance the issues of intercultural dialogue within French society: the European year of intercultural dialogue of the European Union in 2008, intercultural Dialogue programme of the Council of Europe, the White paper on intercultural dialogue "Live together as equals in dignity", produced in 2008, and the joint action of the Council of Europe and European Union for 2008-2013 "Intercultural cities: governance and policies for diverse communities".
During the year 2008 many events were organised in France, which involved many ministries, territorial authorities and non-governmental organisations:
- cultural and artistic events;
- colloquiums and conferences;
- research groups on intercultural practices; and
- a publication scheme (paper and online).
The launching conference was organised in March, 2008 in UNESCO in Paris by the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration, in partnership with the Ministry of Culture and Communication. The final conference took place in November, 2008 in the Centre Pompidou. From 1 July 2008, the European year of intercultural dialogue took place within the framework of the French Presidency of the Council of the European Union. A new cultural initiative was launched: the "European Cultural Season". France invited its partners in the European Union to present the best of their heritage and their creation, and to highlight the creative vitality of European cultures, as well as the identity strength of a largely common heritage. Hundreds of events and performances occurred everywhere in France.
In 2011, following the work of 2008, the research group "Institutions patrimoniales et pratiques interculturelles" (patrimonial institutions and intercultural practices and participation, IPAPIC http://www.ipapic.eu ) was set up under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture. This body works around two axes:
- recognition of the diversity of cultural forms of expression, the multiplication and diversification of exchanges in the contemporary world, the complexity of societies and the changes in cultural participation;
- the challenge of heritage and of the processes of "patrimonialisation" due to the extension of the notion of heritage, and to the demands of social and political recognition that it conveys; and
Calls for research projects were launched on these thematics in 2013 and 2014.
At the end of 2015 a State Senior Official for diversity is appointed to the Misnitry of Culture. She works for cultural diversity and against discrimination, regarding access to cultural practices, works and occupations. She manages a specific board “Collège de la diversité”, composed of administrative and professional cultural representatives and socio-economic stakeholders.
Government's overall approach to intercultural dialogue
Last update: November, 2016
Intercultural education does not exist as such in France. Nevertheless, cultural diversity is entirely present in all cultural training and schooling, and many institutions, bodies and programmes are specialised in the cultural and artistic expressions of the world (see chapter 1.4). Many associations promote the arts and cultures of the world, with the support of local, national and European public authorities.
Furthermore, different specific curricula, available in some public schools, encourage the reinforcing and deepening of knowledge and practice of foreign languages and cultures.
International sections (Sections internationales SI)
Since 1981, international sections (special sections within regular schools) welcome French and foreign pupils, in primary, middle and high school. They exist for the following languages: German, American, English, Arabic, Chinese, Danish, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian and Swedish. The foreign teachers, who are usually assigned by their home State authorities, work in their native language for specific courses: mainly history, geography and literature of the concerned country, but also in mathematics. The curricula are established in dialogue with the educational authorities of the concerned country. Diplomas (brevet at middle school and baccaulauréat at high school) bear the indication "international option". In the school year 2012, 88 international sections were opened in primary schools, 141 in middle schools and 139 in high schools.
Binational sections (Sections binationales)
It is possible to sit two high school diplomas simultaneously: Abibac (baccaulauréat and German "Abitur"), Bachibac (baccaulauréat and Spanish "Bachiller"), Esabac (baccaulauréat and Italian "Esame di Stato"). In these sections (available in some regular schools) the pupils have a specific curriculum that is developed with the partner country. In 2012-2013, 72 French schools and 68 German schools prepared students for the AbiBac. Besides, since the fortieth anniversary of the treaty of Élysée in 2003, 22nd January is celebrated as "French-German Day". Schools in France and Germany are invited to organise multidisciplinary activities around the language of the partner.
European sections or Oriental languages sections (Sections européennes ou de langues orientales, Selo)
The European and Oriental languages sections propose, in middle and high schools, a strengthened learning programme of a foreign language and culture. The European sections are proposed in 7 languages: German, English, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, and Russian. The Oriental languages sections exist in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese. About 5 800 sections are distributed all over the territory, representing 275 000 pupils in 2010-2011. The high school diploma baccaulauréat bears the indication "European section" or "section of oriental language".
Teaching of native languages and culture (Enseignements de langue et de culture d'origine Elco)
This programme is based on bilateral agreements with foreign countries, which proceed from a European directive of 25 July 1977 aimed at the schooling of children of migrant workers. The teaching of native languages and culture is provided between 6 and 18 years, three hours per week, to pupils on the request of their families. Algerian, Croatian, Spanish, Italian, Moroccan, Portuguese, Serbian, Tunisian or Turkish teachers can teach the courses and are assigned by their respective governments. In 2010-2011 this system involved more than 86 000 pupils.
Last update: November, 2016
In France there is public service of broadcasting as well as many private broadcasting companies.
The French television sector considerably expanded since the abolition of the State monopoly on TV channels in the 1980s, and the multiplication of thematic or local channels on the cable and satellite networks. There are more than 200 broadline and thematic channels today, compared to three public channels in 1980. The transition to digital terrestrial television, which was achieved at the end of 2011, did not notably increase the diversity of free-access media. Many new channels are subsidiaries of the main existing channels and broadcast a great number of reruns.
In the field of radio, the law of 29 July 1982 ended the public monopoly and allowed the multiplication of radio stations (the first ones were named "independent radio stations"). There are 1 200 radio operators in France today, including about 600 associative radios. A Fund of support for radio expression (Fonds de soutien à l'expression radiophonique, FSER), created in 1982 and allocated by the Ministry of Culture and Communication, helps these associative radios with installation, functioning and equipment.
The French Broadcasting Authority (Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel, CSA) is the independent authority in charge of regulating broadcasting (television and radio only). It is composed of nine members; three members are renewed every two years. In every renewal, one member is appointed by the President of the Republic (who also appoints, every six years, the member who chairs the CSA), another one by the President of the Senate and the third by the President of the National Assembly. The CSA is responsible for ensuring the quality and diversity of programming, the development of national television production and creation, and to defend and promote the French language and French culture. It can formulate proposals on the improvement of the quality of programmes, and manages the quotas on the distribution of French-speaking programmes and music, the quotas on the speech time during the elections, etc. In 2007, the CSA set up a working group on diversity and an Observatory of Diversity, which assist the CSA on all the questions relative to diversity in the media. Every year, the CSA reports to the Parliament on the representation of diversity of French on television. Besides, a committee Médias et Diversité worked within the framework of the Commissionership on diversity and equal opportunity that existed from 2008 to 2012 (see chapter 2.6), and produced a report in 2010, containing proposals and recommendations.
In 1997 media and entertainment professionals created Club Averroès to promote diversity in the media. This Club has 400 members. Since 2006, the Club publishes every year a report on ethnic diversity in the French media sector. The advocacy action of the Club contributed, for example, to the adoption in 2009 by the CSA of a measure for the inclusion of a compulsory clause on diversity in the specifications of television channels. In 2010, France Télévisions, the CNC (National Centre of Cinema) and the ACSÉ (Agence nationale pour la Cohésion sociale et l'Égalité des chances, which merged in 2014 with the CGET commissariat général à l’Égalité des territoires, commission for territorial equity) set up the France Télévisions Prize for Diversity, which rewards 3 television films on the theme of diversity, proposed by authors having already written or realised a work of fiction (short film, television fiction, full-length film): the first prize is endowed with 20 000 EUR; the second 15 000 EUR and the third 10 000 EUR.
Public service broadcasting
- France Télévisions: the group gathers 5 national channels (France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5 and France Ô) and an overseas network: the Network Outre-mer 1ère and a radio network. It is the first French broadcasting group;
- Radio France which manages radio stations (France Inter, France Info, France Culture, France Musiques, FIP, Mouv' and the France Bleu network of regional radios), and musical formations: the Orchestre national de France, Orchestre Philarmonique de Radio France, Chœur de Radio France and Maîtrise de Radio France;
- Arte France, which broadcasts, in association with the German company Arte Deutschland GmbH, the programmes of the French-German and European-oriented TV channel Arte;
- the society France Médias Monde, which federates Radio France Internationale (RFI) and its arabic-speaking branch Monte Carlo Doualiya, and France 24, a news TV station that is broadcasted on three different channels in French, English and Arabic;
- France Médias Monde is also a shareholder with 12.58% of TV5 Monde, a French-speaking multilateral world television channel (France Télévisions 49%, Arte France 3.29%, National Audiovisual Institute 1.74%), which is developed with Belgian, Swiss and Canadian partners. Broadcasted in more than 207 million homes and more than 200 countries, TV5 is one of the five bigger world TV networks; and
- the Institut national de l'audiovisuel, (INA, National Audiovisual Institute), which handles the conservation and promotion of the broadcasting and audiovisual archives;
- France Télévisions, Radio France, France Médias Monde and INA associated to create France Info, a public ongoing news channel.
The public licence fee on broadcasting (Contribution l'audiovisuel public) is the main resource of public service broadcasting. In 2011, it represents 84.4% of the public resources allocated to public broadcasting. The amount of this fee in 2016 is EUR 137 in mainland France and of EUR 87 in French overseas territories.
Generally speaking, public channels are responsible for broadcasting public cultural programmes (also with sponsorship), whereas private channels lean more towards entertainment (with naturally some cultural programmes as well). Attempts are made to ensure that public channels transmit their cultural programmes at prime times and all year round, rather than later at night and only in the summer.
A reform of the public broadcasting in 2008-2009, conducted by President Sarkozy, appeared to be quite controversial, in particular on two points:
- direct appointment of the directors of public broadcasting by the President of the Republic. This measure was deeply criticised with regard to the independence of the public service. The group of experts commissioned by the European Commission to analyse the pluralism of the media in Europe underlined in 2012 that such a decisional concentration "is not a good example for Europe". Following the election of President Holland in 2012, a new reform of public service broadcasting has been announced, with notably a return to the appointment of the directors by the CSA, and the suppression of the intervention of the President of the Republic in the appointment of members of the CSA; and
- suppression of advertising in the evening on public channels, and compensation of the loss of income with taxes on private operators. Yet the European Commission wants France to suppress these taxes because of a distortion of competition between private and public actors, and a legal process is ongoing. Moreover, actors of the public service denounced the fact that these taxes are insufficient to guarantee a balanced budget. In 2014, the CEO of France Télévisions evoked the re-establishment of advertising in the evening and the Minister Fleur Pellerin indicated in the press that this issue was not an "absolute taboo" and that her main concern is to ensure a continued financing of public broadcasting.
Content diversity and cultural globalisation
In 2001, Hollywood held 80% of the market share of film at international level, and 70% for TV programmes (Toby Miller (and al.), Global Hollywood, London, British Movie Institute, 2001, p.7). In 2011, American films represent 61.4% of the market in the European Union, European movies 28.5% and other countries 1.6% (source European Audiovisual Observatory). In 2014 in France, American movies share 46% of the cinema entrances, 45% are French.
In the field of music, after the merging at the end of 2004 of Sony Music Entertainment and BMG Entertainment, and the purchase of EMI Group by Universal Music Group in November 2011, three firms control the major part of the world market of music.
In the publishing field, even though French literary production is successful, among the ten novelists most translated in the world, nine are written originally in the English language. The transatlantic cultural flows are unbalanced and standardisation can be a threat. This issue is important not only for the cultural industries, but also for all creative activities, as standardisation of mass production has negative effects on artistic creation and diversity.
The DEPS published in 2012 the results of three studies on the measure of diversity and its evolution in the publishing, music and cinema industries (collection Culture Études, English version available online). These unprecedented studies bring results and elements of analysis on the relatively recent evolution of the diversity of the works that are produced and consumed in these industries, the existence of long tail effect, or a comparison of the diversity of films in theatres in different European countries. Moreover, these results contribute to the reflections, renewed recently by UNESCO, on the indicators of diversity in the cultural and media domains. A complex question is how to respond to the mass production of the cultural industries while preserving the possibility of distributing cultural and contemporary creativity? Culture and creation are factors of identity, but also of attractiveness. They allow advocating an identity in a standardised world.
At European level, France is actively involved in many initiatives aimed at a better advocacy of the diversity of identities and cultures in a constructive dialogue: the Europeana project of a European digital library; the programme "Heritage of Europe" (aids to surtitling, albums of architects and landscape painters, European bookshops, mutualisation of resources for musical industries); MINERVA project, (Ministerial Network for Valorising Digitisation Activities); MICHAEL project of a multilingual inventory of European cultural heritage, European Museum Information Institute - Distributed Content Framework, groups ESSnet-Culture for European cultural statistics , etc.
Last update: November, 2016
French is the only official, national, administrative and daily language of the French Republic, as stated in the article 2 of the Constitution. In 1994, the law n 94-665 relative to the use of the French language, the "Toubon Law", was promulgated to protect the French linguistic heritage, with three main objectives:
- enrichment of the language;
- obligation to use the French language; and
- advocacy of French as the language of the Republic.
French, the official language of the French Republic, acts as a cohesive element throughout France but is also an international communication language. In 2014, a report to the President of Republic (http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/rapports-publics/144000511/index.shtml) estimates that there are 211 million French-speaking people living in the countries where French is an official language and in the countries were at least 20% of the population can read, speak and write French. French-speaking people living in non French-speaking countries represent 16 million people. Thus, the French-speaking community (Francophonie) ranks as the 6th geopolitical space in terms of population and could become the 4th one around 2050. In total, French-speaking countries and Francophile countries represent 16% of world GDP with an average growth rate of 7%, and hold around 14% of the world mining and energy reserves. In the face of the mainly English-speaking globalisation, the advocacy of the French language and its on-going use as an international language, allows for the promotion of multilinguism and cultural diversity. Accordingly, the Toubon law advocates the use of French terms instead of English ones. Some French-speaking communities are particularly active in this domain, such as the Province of Quebec in Canada. A Semaine de la langue française et de la francophonie (Week of French language and Francophonie) takes place every year in France around 20th March, the International Day of the Francophonie. It gives the public the opportunity to celebrate the French language in its diversity and richness.
The place of regional and foreign languages has become an issue of cultural diversity, which is supported by France and OIF. This diversity is a fundamental rule of everyday life: diversity of current consumption goods (food, clothes, design), and diversity of populations and the public. The amount of foreign works and products is considerable - in music, cinema, visual arts, literature, etc. Diversity in the "atmosphere" (ambiance) of a district or a marketplace can also be an asset from which the whole city can benefit, in particular from a tourism point of view.
These social evolutions led France to reconsider a historically firm position on the exclusive place of French as the official language of the Republic, which originated with an edict of King François Ier in 1539, the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts. Today public authorities favour the learning of the regional languages (of mainland France and overseas territories), and of the foreign languages relative to immigration (Arabic, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, languages of Asia or Central Europe for example). These languages are taught in the various levels of education and can be programmed in the exams of the Baccalauréat (end of secondary education diploma) (see chapter 2.5.2). In spite of the rather supplementary role of these languages in the public primary and secondary education system, there is a dynamic in higher education (with specific academic chairs and research), in associative or private schools that can be subsidised, in the circles of scholars or specialists: regional channels, calendettes (Occitan schools), Corsican and Breton schools, teaching of overseas languages, etc.
The main body that conducts linguistic policy in France is, within the Ministry of Culture, the General Delegation for the French Language and Languages of France (DGLFLF). Its missions are to:
- guarantee French citizens the use of the French language;
- enable the French language to serve social unity;
- enrich and modernise the French language;
- promote linguistic diversity; and
- promote and enhance the languages of France.
The DGLFLF assists the Conseil supérieur de la langue française (CSLF, Supreme Council of the French Language) which, as in several French-speaking countries, is in charge of advising the government on the questions linked to the French language. The Council is chaired by the Prime Minister. The DGLFLF also supports and co-ordinates the various bodies that participate in the establishment of neologisms (Commission générale de terminologie et de néologie, Académie française, specialised committees, partner ministries, etc.) and is responsible for making them available to the public. It collaborates with the departments of the Ministry of Culture, in particular with the General Directorate of Media and Cultural Industries (DGMIC) that comprises the department of Books and Reading. The Regional Directorates of Cultural Affairs contribute to awareness-raising activities, in particular as regards multilingualism and the welcoming of foreign tourists.
The Public Information Library at the Georges Pompidou Centre, in Paris, proposes learning methods in more than 120 languages. Major media libraries in the regions also have such devices. Radio France Internationale (RFI) also proposes devices of French learning, in French and in the language of the learners.
A large number of festivals, meetings or forums of languages take place every year on the whole territory. Cultural feasts supported by the territorial authorities and the Regional Cultural Affairs Directorates, activities on literature, cinema and digital technology, live performances, exhibitions of visual arts and architecture, heritage exhibitions, allow a better encounter of cultures.
In 2011, the Ministry set up Wikilf: this web-device that can be accessed via the portal Culture.fr and allows any Internet user to participate in the enrichment of the French language.
Languages of France
Amongst the hundreds of languages present in France, the languages of France refer to those languages that have been spoken by French citizens on French soil for long enough to belong to the common heritage, and which are not the official language of any other State, including « regional » languages such as Flemish, Basque, Corsican, Creole and Tahitian, and non-territorial minority languages such as the Arabic dialects, Romany, Berber and Yiddish.
In this framework, one can distinguish between regional and non-territorial languages:
- regional languages are languages that have been spoken in some parts of the country longer than French; and
- non-territorial languages are languages associated with immigration, but have for a long time been in use by signiﬁcant numbers of French people. They include in particular dialects of Arabic, western Armenian, Berber, Judeo-Spanish, Romani and Yiddish. In addition to these, there is LSF or French sign language. To be recognised as "languages of France", these non-territorial languages must not have any official status in any other country.
According to the 1999 census, 26% of adults living in France learned a language other than French from their parents (often at the same time as French). In half of these cases, the languages concerned are regional; the other half is languages of immigrants. Scarcely 35% of these adults have passed this second language on to their own children: the languages of France are only rarely transmitted through families today. So their dynamism depends especially on their teaching and on their creativity in the artistic domain today.
In 1999, France signed 39 articles of the European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages, of the 98 of the text, but without ratifying them because the Constitutional Council considered that this charter contains incompatible clauses with the article 2 of the Constitution. Furthermore, France accompanied its signature of a Declaration that stipulates the obligatory use of the French language by all government departments, public services and users, that the teaching of regional and minority languages be optional, and that all official versions of legislative texts be published in French. However, the constitutional revision in 2008 added article 75-1 of the Constitution which recognises the patrimonial value of regional languages: "regional languages belong to the heritage of France".
In the optics of this article 75-1, General States on Multilingualism Overseas (États généraux du multilinguisme dans les outre-mer) was organised in Cayenne in December, 2011 on the initiative of the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry in charge of overseas territories. The Declaration of Cayenne that was adopted on this occasion aims at setting up a linguistic and training offer to meet the expectations of the populations and to value their cultural resources.
Last update: November, 2016
In 2005, male over-representation was a little more marked within the cultural occupations than in the whole of the occupied working population (58% against 54%).
However, the situation reveals greater disparities. Certain professions have a strong male domination: literary authors (73%), architects (76%) and photographers (74%). Others are mainly female dominated, such as technical management of documentation and conservation (87%), and arts professors (58%).
A similar situation is observed about salaried employees in the cultural sector: in 2009, women represent only 40% of salaried employees in the performing arts sector, but they are particularly present in the press where they represent 53% of employees, and also in book publishing (63%). On the contrary, broadcasting remains male dominated (42% of women).
Gender equality is one of the priorities of the current French government formed in 2012: for the first time in the history of the Fifth Republic, of 34 government members, half are women. A Haut Conseil à l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes (High Council for equality between women and men) was set up in 2013, to take back the missions of the Observatory of Parity created in 1995 by Jacques Chirac, and of the Commission nationale contre les violences envers les femmes and the Commission sur l'image des femmes dans les médias. The High Council is attached to the Prime Minister, to follow up and dynamise the policies on women's rights and on the disparities between women and men in political, economic, cultural and social domains. In 2013 the Ministry of Culture installed an observatory on gender equality in culture and communication, which produces an annual report on the matter http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/Politiques-ministerielles/Egalite-entre-femmes-et-hommes/L-Observatoire. A specific taskforce also prepares the application of the Ministry to the national label Diversité et Égalité that is assigned by the national organisation for standardisation (AFNOR).
This information will be published as soon as possible.
Last update: November, 2016
One of the major debates of French cultural policy concerns the question of cultural minorities, national or foreign, present on its territory. The notion of foreigner is based on the criterion of nationality: any person is foreign who does not have French nationality. Certain persons can acquire French nationality during their life. They become then "French by acquisition" (Français par acquisition) as opposed to "French by birth" (Français de naissance). The definition of an immigrant was established by the Haut Conseil de l'intégration in 1992. An immigrant is a foreign born person, born in another country, but who lives in France. Thus the study of the immigrant population is based on two criteria: the place of birth and the nationality at birth. An immigrant can become French or remain foreign according to his aspiration and to the available possibilities.
The Constitution declares in Article 1 that "France shall be an indivisible, secular, democratic and social Republic. It shall ensure the equality of all citizens before the law, without distinction of origin, race or religion. It shall respect all beliefs. It shall be organised on a decentralised basis". Therefore minorities in France do not have any particular cultural status (or other: legal, pertaining to worship, economic...) and all citizens have equal rights. French law cannot accord specific rights to given “groups” defined by their community of origin, culture, beliefs, language or ethnicity. The French Republic does not recognise the notions of cultural “community” or “minority”. It only considers citizens (indivuals) or associations (of citizens). In this way, in 2007 the Constitutional Council rejected a government bill relative to the control of immigration, the integration and right of asylum, which planned measures allowing the enumeration of groups based on ethnic and racial origins. Nonetheless, non-compulsory surveys can still collect ethnic or religious information. Furthermore, many works that are realised by national bodies, in particular the censuses of population by INSEE, allow a rather precise vision of the diversity of composition of the French population.
Table n°1: foreign and immigrant population by sex and age in 2013 (en %)
|Less than 15 y.o.||16,8||4,8|
|55 y.o or more||25,0||32,3|
|Number (thousands)||4 084||5 835|
|Share in the overall population||6,2||8,9|
Source : Insee, recensement de la population : http://www.insee.fr
Legal immigrants have the same rights as the French, with regard to education, health and social security. As foreigners they cannot vote (except EU citizens at local elections). However, they profit from cultural rights within the framework of the Law on Associations (1901) which was open to all residents in October 1981: this law allows any foreigner or immigrant living in France, under certain conditions, to create associations, including religious organisations, with the proviso of respecting the Constitution (secularity, equality, freedom of conscience, etc.).
The principal responsibility for immigration in France lies traditionally with the Ministry of the Interior. The ministerial policies are assisted and implemented by the Office français de l'immigration et de l'intégration (French Office of immigration and integration, OFII), which, since 2009, is the single State body in charge of the integration of migrants during the first five years of their stay in France. The OFII pilots the Observatory of Statistics of Immigration and Integration. There is also a French Office for protection of refugees and stateless: Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides OFPRA.
Table n°2: foreigners in France by nationality in 2013
|Europe||39,6||1 615 409|
|UE 27||34,8||1 420 399|
|Other UE 27 nationalities||10,6||431 448|
|Other European nationalities||4,8||195 010|
|Africa||40,3||1 647 252|
|Other African nationalities||13,9||565 952|
|Cambodian, Laotian, Vietnamese||0,9||38 557|
|Autres pays d'Asie||7,6||311 626|
|American and Oceanian nationalities||6,2||254 590|
|Total||100,0||4 083 857|
Source : Insee, recensement de la population : http://www.insee.fr
For a long time, France has been a country of cultural diversity and lives in a time of globalisation. French culture is enriched by many origins and traditions, rooted in history: regional cultures, overseas territories, cultural interactions inherited from European history and from colonisation, from the French-speaking cultural area, etc. Public authorities thus attempt to promote cultural integration within the limits envisaged by its Republican laws. France's legal and administrative texts avoid naming populations according to their ethnic origin, but this does not exclude recognition of an individual's social activities or lifestyle. Several national, regional or local organisations and associations supervise and assist in the regulation of this policy, for example:
- the Défenseur des droits (Defender of Rights), which fights against discrimination and protects equality;
- national bureaus: agence nationale de Lutte contre l'Illettrisme (ANLCI, fight against illiteracy), commissariat général à l’Égalité des Territoires, (CGET, in charge of territorial equity), creation in 2017 of a national agency for French Language Bureau for Social Cohesion, agence de la Langue française pour la Cohésion sociale ;
- the Commissions départementales d'accès à la citoyenneté (CODAC, committee for access to citizenship in each département), the observatory of diversity and parity in the Ministry of Interior and the observatory of diversity in the Broadcasting Authority;
- the 2016 law on freedom of creation, architecture and heritage plans the creation of an observatory on artistic creation and cultural diversity;
- besides, a Commissariat à la diversité et à l'égalités des chances (Commission on diversity and equal opportunity) was appointed at the service of the Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. This body produced reports and recommendations.
Many non-governmental organisations complete the action of public authorities, among which: Observatoire des inégalités (Observatory on Disparities), Mouvement contre le racisme et pour l'amitié entre les peuples (MRAP, Movement against racism and for friendship between people), SOS Racisme (Anti-Racist Organisation), Agence de développement des relations interculturelles pour la citoyenneté (ADRIC, Agency for the development of intercultural relations for citizenship), Fondation Cultures et Diversité, observatory on discriminations (Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne), association République et Diversité, among others.
Numerous cultural actions provide support for immigrants, in particular concerning their knowledge of the French language. Courses are organised by associations to favour integration and naturalisation, and are assisted in this particular pedagogy by public bodies in charge of social action. One third of all immigrants have a poor command of spoken French and 46% cannot write well. In 2011, the label "Français langue d'intégration" (French language of integration, FLI) was created. This label is delivered by the State authorities to the training institutions that respect various criteria to guarantee the quality of the teaching of the French language, according to a specific framework of reference (référentiel). In parallel, a series of official diplomas validate a French language proficiency at different levels: Diplôme initial de langue française (Initial Diploma in the French Language, DILF), Diplôme d'études en langue française (Diploma of Studies in the French Language, several levels, DELF), Diplôme approfondi de langue française (Superior Diploma of French Language, DALF). Since 1 January 2012, the language prerequisite to acquire French nationality is the level B1 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: for example, a labelled certificate FLI, or the DELF, can attest this level.
The General Delegation (Division) of the French Language and Languages of France (DGLFLF) of the Ministry of Culture contributes to diversity and inclusion policies and advocates cultural and artistic knowledge of the French language. In partnership with academic actors, the DGLFLF publishes lexicons, glossaries and dictionaries in various languages (French, English, German, Spanish...) for foreigners in different fields such as audio-visual, music, cinema, economy and finance, history of art, data processing and the Internet, etc. The Delegation organises exhibitions and performances that promote the Francophone artistic expressions (which concern approximately 60 countries or regions in the world). Many municipal libraries or media libraries have books in the native languages of the immigrant population (Arabic, Portuguese, Asian languages, languages of Central Europe, Gypsy and Roma languages, etc.).
The Maison des Cultures du Monde (World Cultures Institute) was established in 1982 in Paris with the support of the Ministries of Culture and Foreign Affairs, to welcome, host and promote all sorts of foreign cultural events and performances. Public authorities decided in 1990 to dedicate the National Theatre of the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe to the promotion and circulation of European theatre (see chapter 1.4.1).
Many festivals and events celebrate foreign cultures everywhere in France: Banlieues bleues for jazz and Afro-American music, festival Rio Loco in Toulouse, Festival d'Automne in Paris, thematic film festivals (African, Asian, Iranian), surtitled theatre plays, exhibitions, and music concerts. It is estimated that 5 000 festivities and events relate to the issue of immigration, but are systematically open to everyone, according to the French law and conception of citizenship. The Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration (national centre of the history of immigration), opened in 2007 in Paris, is the only national museum dedicated to the history and cultures of immigration in France. The Cité organises artistic and cultural programming in connection with its museological mission. Also in 2007, the Fund Images de la diversité was set up, jointly managed by the CNC and the CGET. This fund proposes complementary aid to films, broadcasting and multimedia works that contribute to a better representation of cultural diversity in France and to the promotion of equal opportunities.
More widely, beyond the diversity of the cultural communities that compose the French nation, public authorities consider the issue of diversity in its multiple dimensions: diversity of the cultural offer, of the cultural expressions and practices, and audience diversity. The Observatory of Disparities reminds us that social category and standard of living still impact on participation in cultural practices). In 2016, report from Fondation Jean-Jaurès also points the unequal access to culture between the different socio-professional categories (see chapter 6.2).
The Ministry created in 2004 a specific taskforce Mission Vivre ensemble, which gathers 32 cultural institutions to work for the inclusion and participation of unfamiliar audiences to culture (http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/Politiques-ministerielles/Developpement-culturel/Mission-Vivre-ensemble). In 2015 a State Senior Official fir diversity was appointed to the Ministry to foster a braoder access to cultural activies and practices, and also to cultural professions.
Following several attacks in France from 2015, which were claimed by the terrorist organisation ISIS, the Ministry of Culture launched a specific programme “Culture and Citizenship”, based on four axes: culture for citizenship, culture and youth education, access to culture for all, assertion of cultural diversity and plurality. In 2016 the State launched a national training programme “Republic Values and Secularism” for the operators of the urban, youth and sport policies.
Last update: November, 2016
The Ministère de la Ville was created in 1990 to deal with urban affairs and problems. It implements the "Politique de la ville" - which defines inter-ministerial projects to be carried out in the districts, the cities or the municipalities, or even in an entire département such as the Seine Saint-Denis (93). At the core of this policy is cultural development, which has been supported by the Ministry of Culture and Communication and its Regional Directorates. Since 2002 however, their interest has been decreasing with new emphasis placed on social assistance and social housing construction.
Yet, the role of culture as a factor of social cohesion is recognised as an essential fact in the cultural policies led in France at all territorial levels. For example in May, 2011 the Ministry of Culture launched a call for projects to accompany the development of new modes of artistic practices and expressions of the populations in particular when they contribute to strengthening social cohesion, and also to encourage innovation by mixing techniques of popular education, solidarity and amateur practice. This experiment supported 74 projects. We also find these concerns in the involvement of very many territorial authorities in the implementation of Agenda 21 for Culture (see chapter 2.9).
Through these policies, the social cohesion issue of culture is considered in urban areas ("intercultural cities") and in rural ones. More widely, these actions are very often linked to the advocacy of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue (see chapter 2.5.1).
This information will be published as soon as possible.
Last update: November, 2016
Tourism and culture
The development of international tourism is increasing. The total number of incoming international tourists in the world exceeded a billion in 2012, according to the Barometer of the World Tourism Organisation. It is a major issue for France because it is one of the first world tourist destinations, with 84.5 million incoming foreign tourists in 2015. Tourism represents 7% of the GDP, and 2 millions of direct and indirect employment. The cultural dimension of this tourism is essential: museums, monuments and sites, festivals and cultural events attract every year millions of French and foreign visitors.
In this context, the question of the interactions between tourism and culture is regularly discussed: not only issues of cultural tourism, but also the limits and the differences between tourism and cultural promotion. At a national level it requires inter-ministerial collaborations (see chapter 1.2.6) that are implemented by decentralised bodies (Regional Directorates of Cultural Affairs, tourism offices, etc.). Most of the territorial authorities also conduct actions in favour of cultural tourism: labelling of patrimonial sites, support to the collaboration between cultural operators and local tourism agencies, etc.
In 2010 the site, France.fr: http://www.france.fr was launched. It is a multilingual reference tool about France that targets the international public. It promotes France through three main contents: tourism, culture and the economy. In 2014, following the National Convention on Tourism organised by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, five poles of touristic excellences were identified to adapt and improve France touristic offer: pole “wine tourism”, pole “savoir-faire tourism”, pole “night tourism”, pole “ecotourism” and pole “summer mountain tourism”. An annual Conference of Tourism was also created to gather representatives and professionals, with the mission to follow up France touristic strategy, with the objective to reach 100 million international visitors in 2020.
These issues are all the more salient that the series of terrorist attacks in France from 2015, in particular in very emblematic touristic places like Paris or Nice, had bad consequences on the foreign touristic frequentation (-7% in 2016). In this evil context, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs launched an emergency economic committee on tourism to respond the difficulties of the tourism industry.
Culture and sustainable development
Sustainable development is an increasingly more important concern of cultural policies, following the recommendations of Agenda 21 for Culture that advocates the notions of cultural diversity, of crosscutting approaches to culture and participative democracy. A balance on the implementation of Agenda 21 on Culture in France was realised in 2008 (http://www.agenda21culture.net). This report indicates that in June 2007, 18 French territorial authorities were registered by CGLU as territorial authorities that use the Agenda in their urban policies. It also indicates that the public policies of French local governments should strengthen innovation and look for new initiatives adapted to the new paradigms of cultural policies.
In November 2012, the Ministries in charge of cultural affairs of France and Quebec co-organised in Paris an international colloquium "Culture and sustainable development", to advocate innovative practices, foster partnerships and reflect recognition and development strategies to reinforce the link between culture and sustainable development. This event responds to the Strategy of Sustainable Development that was adopted in 2011 by the Ministry of Culture within the framework of the National and Inter-ministerial Strategy of Sustainable Development 2010-2013. A State Senior Official (Haut fonctionnaire) for sustainable development was appointed in every ministry to encourage and follow up the implementation of this strategy.
Access for the Disabled
The Ministry of Culture favours better access to culture and to artistic practices, and to the devices of information and communication. A Culture-Disability committee was created in 2001 to be an authority on dialogue and consultation between the Ministries responsible for culture and for disabled people, the associations representing the disability community, disabled people themselves and the cultural and artistic sector. It must propose measures in all related domains, in particular access to cultural and artistic equipment, practice, training and occupations. In 2009, the European Heritage Days in France were organised on the theme "accessible heritage for all". In 2011 the prize "Heritage for all, heritage for each" was launched to distinguish patrimonial institutions that develop an excellent, global and long-lasting approach to generalised accessibility, whatever type of disability is concerned, physical or mental.