In 2005, the four Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Cultural Institutes, Territory and Environment, and Tourism worked together (with the support of an ad hoc working group) to submit the Republic’s candidature for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The cultural and natural property proposed for inclusion is Mount Titano and some of its surrounding areas. The aim is to present a new image of the entire country in the field of cultural tourism, in line with its specific features, as well as to preserve its urban development.
In 2006, the relevant dossier was finalised and submitted to the international experts for its consideration. In July 2008 the site “San Marino: Historic Centre and Mount Titano” was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List because of the outstanding value of the historical and institutional heritage of the Republic of San Marino. Indeed, the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value adopted by UNESCO reads: “San Marino is one of the world’s oldest republics and the only surviving Italian city-state, representing an important stage in the development of democratic models in Europe and worldwide. The tangible expressions of this long continuity as the capital of the Republic, its unchanged geo-political context and juridical and institutional functions, is found in the strategic position on the top of Mount Titano, the historic urban layout, urban spaces and many public monuments. San Marino has a widely recognised iconic status as a symbol of a free city-state, illustrated in political debate, literature and arts through the centuries […] San Marino and Mount Titano are an exceptional testimony of the establishment of a representative democracy based on civic autonomy and self-governance, with a unique, uninterrupted continuity as the capital of an independent republic since the 13th century. San Marino is an exceptional testimony to a living cultural tradition that has persisted over the last seven hundred years […]”.
The property inscribed on the World Heritage List represents, for its outstanding universal value, a point of excellence of the cultural, landscape and natural heritage of the territory of the Republic of San Marino and deserves protection for the benefit of all humanity. With a view to guaranteeing, also in the future, an effective enhancement and protection of the historical, architectural, landscape and cultural heritage, while respecting the values of authenticity and integrity recognised by UNESCO, Law n. 133 (Framework Law on the Protection, Management, Enhancement and Promotion of the Property “Historic Centre of San Marino and Mount Titano”) was passed in 2009 (see also chapter 7.2.3 for the initiatives developed following the inclusion of San Marino in the List).
The debate concerning the regulation of non-profit foundations, with a view to transposing Moneyval-mandated European directives into San Marino legislation, is among the issues on which the government has been strongly committed in 2009. By favouring and supporting the voluntary creation of solidarity bodies, San Marino intends to regulate the activity of non-profit associations connected with private individuals or less well identified clubs. These associations deserve, on the one hand, the utmost attention for their positive impact on the social and cultural sector, and, on the other hand, they need targeted and efficient regulation to protect the State and its citizens (see chapter 6.4).
Several legislative proposals have been developed over the years concerning the third sector in the Republic of San Marino, in order to differentiate it from purely economic activities. Indeed, the non-profit sector stimulates people’s participation in public life at local level and offers increasing job opportunities; it also significantly contributes to the management of public services and helps granting a high quality welfare state.
The proposals submitted to the Great and General Council regarding voluntary work, non-profit organisations and foundations testify to the interest of San Marino in this issue and offer several inputs to recognise and promote this sector. People working in this field have invited politicians to find proper solutions, even rules, to support the third sector and to strike a fair balance between incentives, benefits and control. Among the proposals, the launch of a working group composed of representatives of the San Marino non-profit sector and of politics, to deal with this issue in order to simplify and harmonise the existing laws.