The arts education system in Russia (and the Soviet Union) used to be academic in the best sense of the word. The network of state music, ballet and fine arts higher education institutions, conservatories and academies has been preserved despite a scarcity of budget resources and low salaries for educators. Actually, there is ageing and a partial “brain drain” due to high demand abroad, especially for music and ballet teachers. Yet in 2002, the number of graduates from state higher education institutions in culture and arts surpassed that of 1990 and the competition for those who would like to enter is higher than the average.
Table 14: Number of graduates from public and private educational institutions in culture and arts
|18 900||17 800||18 000||17 900||18 700||18 600|
Source: Gosudarstvenny komitet RF po statistike: Rossijsky statistichesky yyezhegodnik, 2009. (State Committee of the RF for Statistics: Russian Statistical Yearbook, 2009, Moscow, 2010). Moskva, 2010, p. 244, 256.
New courses and specialisations are being introduced into professional training, e.g. to include mastering new media and audio-visual technologies, management and production. Private initiatives have made artistic education both diverse and accessible not only for the most talented students; however, this education is expensive.
The aims to develop various cognitive skills, raise personal self-assessment, achieve creative self-expression and unite individuals into communities are implemented in activities of the State Specialised Institute of Arts in Moscow, which is the unique higher educational institution established for professional training in the arts of physically disabled young people. There is a variety of arts disciplines at the Institute and its students and graduates participate in many internal and foreign festivals and events, in particular those organised within the international “Very special Arts” Programme.
As for the secondary and higher vocational education other than in the arts or humanities, general training in culture (a course in “Culturology”) is compulsory and optional in the arts. Arts training can be introduced into curricula in the form of various voluntary courses e.g. Arts & Culture History or Contemporary Arts and Design, etc.