In 2005, the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation was established to fill the gap between government, local self-governments, public associations, etc. and to involve them in the decision-making process. Its work is organised within specialised Committees and Commissions, some of which concern cultural matters, namely cultural policies, communication, freedom of speech, cultural and spiritual heritage, inter-ethnic relations, etc. The most effective instruments of its influence are the ability to intervene directly in conflict situations and to advise when developing legislation. Public Chambers were also established in the regions.