Film, video and photography
Except for the general stipulations in the Law on Culture, there are no laws on photography in the Republic of Moldova.
The Law on Cinematography No. 116 of July 3, 2014 governs the conduct of activities in the field of cinematography (creation, production, financing, distribution and promotion of films), support for the development of the film industry and also management of the national cinematography heritage.
This Law aims at: developing the cinematography field as part of the national culture by providing financial, technical and legal support from the state; supporting the development of the film industry in the Republic of Moldova through training and retraining of specialists in the field; defining formation and use of financial resources necessary for the production, distribution, exploitation and archiving of national films; organizing and functioning of the National Cinematography Centre as a public institution with responsibilities in the field; affirming the national cultural identity and that of the national minorities in the Republic of Moldova through film production and their promotion in the world-wide values circuit; protection, development and promoting the national cinematographic heritage; promotion of a fair and transparent competitive system of access to public financial resources envisaged for cinematography; encouraging private initiatives in the field of cinematography; regulating the activity of the economic agents in the field of cinematography; fostering cinematographic cooperation at European and international level.
Article 3 of the Law defines state policy in the field of cinematography and the principles of its implementation by the National Centre of Cinematography, as a public institution empowered to implement state policies in the field of cinematography.
Articles 10-17 of the Law refer to the financing of cinematographic activities from the state budget and also from the activities of the National Centre of Cinematography. As for the financing of cinematographic production, the share of the state in national film production may not exceed 50% of the film’s production estimate. Financial support for the international co-productions is at least 20% from the Moldovan side for bilateral co-productions and at least 10% for multilateral productions, complying with the conditions stipulated in the Regulation on financing cinematography.
The new Law on Cinematography aimed at updating legislative norms, introducing certain provisions that harmonise with the new policies in the field, substituting ambiguous, outdated notions and formulations, liquidation of tax evasion and piracy in cinematography. At the same time, the Law also changes the system of financing and management of cinematography from the state command model (full funding from the budget) to partial financing at the maximum rate of 50% from the budget, which lays the foundation for a self-sufficient cinematographic industry, as compared to cinematography 100% subsidised by the state.
The Audiovisual Broadcasting Law (1995) sets out the criteria for granting broadcasting licenses, and the regulations governing satellite and cable broadcasting. It provides for the rights and obligations of audiovisual institutions and their staff, and contains regulations concerning responsibility for broadcast contents and international co-operation in the field of audiovisual communication. Section 13 of the Law on Audiovisual Broadcasting stipulates that each channel must broadcast at least 65% of its programmes in the official language of the Republic of Moldova. However, this obligation is rarely fulfilled primarily due to the ambiguities in the Law (see chapter 2.5.4). This language quota does not apply to foreign broadcasters in the Republic.
Section 31 of the Law concerns the activities of the Audiovisual Co-ordination Board, consisting of 15 members. They are appointed by the Parliament, by the President of the Republic of Moldova and by the government department responsible for broadcasting. Their term of office is 5 years and the Board is the “guarantor” of public interests.