The Lithuanian Ministry of Culture commissions representative surveys of Lithuanian population (15 years and over) about the participation in culture and satisfaction with cultural services since 2013. The survey is carried out each 4 years. Currently, data of the surveys of 2014 and 2017 are available. The questionnaire used in the surveys has been prepared within the full scope of the cultural participation questionnaire of the ESS-net Culture.
There are publicly available data of the survey Special Eurobarometer 278: European Cultural Values of 2007 and Special Eurobarometer 399: Cultural access and participation of 2013. The questionnaires of Lithuanian surveys of Participation of the Population in Culture and Satisfaction with Cultural Services of 2013 and 2017 involve questions about the causes of non-participation in culture from the questionnaire of Eurobarometer Survey 2007 with additional questions relevant for the Lithuanian Ministry of Culture.
According to the cultural consumption data of the surveys of 2014 and 2017, there were no significant changes in figures of both years while comparing data on the level of culture and arts branches. The biggest decrease in consumption (-4.6) was in the branch of artistic performances. However, the attendance at live performing events did not decrease, and the difference between the figures of both years was due to a decline in viewing or listening to recordings of artistic performances.
Table 32: Persons (≥15 years) who have consumed cultural products during the last 12 months in Lithuania in 2014 and 2017, pct.
|Persons (≥15 years) who in the last 12 months…, pct.||2014||2017||Difference|
|1. have visited, viewed or listened to artistic performances||89.7||85.0||-4.6|
|1.1. have visited artistic events||57.5||61.4||3.9|
|1.2. have viewed direct broadcast outside home of artistic performances (for example, outdoors, at a cinema, public library or any other place)||32.7||31.2||-1.4|
|1.3. have viewed or listened to recordings of artistic performances||79.3||70.0||-9.4|
|2. have consumed products of visual arts and crafts||47.9||50.4||2.5|
|3. have visited cultural heritage sites (museums, galleries, exhibitions, cultural monuments, archives)||72.6||71.0||-1.6|
|4. have read books and press||97.1||96.3||-0.9|
|5. have used library services||38.3||35.3||-2.9|
|6. have viewed films and videos||89.0||91.4||2.3|
|7. have listened to the radio, watched television or used the Internet||99.7||99.8||0.1|
The comparison of the data about the consumption of state founded cultural activities and activities without large public subsidies shows that the latter are more popular, and figures demonstrate a slight increase in their consumption in almost all categories except reading of periodic publications and watching TV. The biggest increase (by 3%) of the consumption in the group of state funded activities is in the categories of theatre attendance and monuments visiting.
Table 33: People who participated in or attended a certain cultural activity during the last 12 months in Lithuania (in % of the population, in 2007, 2014, 2017)
|Activities heavily subsidised by the state||2007||2014||2017|
|Dance (ballet or modern dance)||20.0||8.0||8.0|
|Concerts of classic music||–||12.0||14.0|
|Activities without large public subsidies|
|To read books not related to the profession or studies||64.0||63.1||66.3|
|In paper format (Usually use)||–||62.0||64.0|
|In digital format (Usually use)||–||15.0||21.0|
|Directly on the Internet (Usually use)||–||–||–|
|To listen to music (Usually listen)||–||–||–|
|In a computer or directly on the Internet||–||–||–|
|To read periodic publications (Usually read)||–||88.2||86.7|
|Directly on the Internet||–||37.0||39.0|
|To watch videos (Usually watch)||–||88.0||91.0|
|Directly on the Internet||–||45.9||49.5|
|To watch television (Usually watch)||–||97.7||96.6|
|Directly on the Internet||–||25.0||30.1|
|To listen to the radio (Usually watch)||–||80.4||81.3|
|Directly on the Internet||–||18.7||22.2|
|To play videogames (Usually play)||–||–||–|
|To use computer for entertainment or leisure (Usually use)||–||–||–|
|Internet for entertainment or leisure (Usually use)||–||62.9||71.1|
Sources: Participation of the Population in Culture and Satisfaction with Cultural Services (ESS-net Culture methodology), 2017 full survey, LT, Special Eurobarometer 278: European Cultural Values of 2007
Data about the participation of the population in cultural activities are available from the surveys commissioned by the Lithuanian Ministry of Culture in 2013 and 2017 and two special Eurobarometer Surveys of 2007 and 2013. However, questionnaires of the two Eurobarometer Surveys are slightly different, e.g. the questionnaire of 2007 did not include separate questions about the designing of webpages and playing an instrument, handicraft activities are put in one category with visual arts in the questionnaire of 2013 and distinguished in the one of 2007. Nevertheless, according to the data of 2013, 2014, and 2017, the most popular cultural activity in Lithuania was painting and drawing, and the percentage of people involved in this activity is close to the EU average of 2013.
Table 34: People who have carried out artistic activities in Lithuania in the last 12 months by type of activity, in % of total population, period 2007, 2013, 2014, 2017
|Type of activity||2007||2013||EU27 in 2013||2014||2017|
|Painting or drawing||8.0||7.0||10.0||8.0||10.0|
|Other visual arts||8.0||7.0||10.0||3.0||3.0|
|Designing web pages||–||2.0||8.0||3.0||4.0|
|Playing an instrument||–||4.0||8.0||6.0||6.0|
Sources: Participation of the Population in Culture and Satisfaction with Cultural Services (ESS-net Culture methodology), 2017 full survey, LT, Special Eurobarometer 278: European Cultural Values of 2007, Special Eurobarometer 399: Cultural access and participation of 2013
With regard to the causes preventing the population from participation in cultural life, the most common personal reasons mentioned are the lack of time (47% and 45% of the respondents in 2014 and 2017 respectively indicated this as an obstacle), lack of interest (25% and 28% of the respondents in 2014 and 2017 respectively) and poor health (20% and 17% of the respondents in 2014 and 2017 respectively).
More than a half of the population of Lithuania has mentioned at least one problem of the supply and accessibility of cultural services. The most common problems indicated include an overly high price (37% and 36% of the respondents in 2014 and 2017 respectively) and poor accessibility of such services (“difficult to arrive” mentioned 16% of population in 2014 and 2017). The third place took limited choice and lack of information that are mentioned by 10% of population in 2017. Only 6% of population blamed poor quality and 5% inconvenient opening hours of cultural institutions.
In general, the main reasons for not participating in cultural life are personal (lack of time and interest, poor health) and that they did not change over the last 10 years.
Table 35: Reasons of non-participation in culture in 2007, 2014 and 2017, pct.
|Lack of time||47.0||47.0||45.0|
|Lack of interest||24.0||25.0||28.0|
|Difficult to arrive||–||16.0||16.0|
|Lack of information||10.0||8.0||10.0|
|Poor quality of cultural activities in your area||17.0||6.0||6.0|
|Inconvenient opening hours of cultural institutions||–||4.0||5.0|
Sources: Participation of the Population in Culture and Satisfaction with Cultural Services (ESS-net Culture methodology), 2017 full survey, LT, Special Eurobarometer 278: European Cultural Values of 2007.