Several institutions connected with the Holy See have created training activities, especially in the field of archives. Although the Vatican Secret Archives first and foremost serve the Holy See, its resources have been open to researchers since the pontificate of Benedict XV. A Vatican School of Palæography, Diplomacy and Archivistry has been in operation since the early 20th century and has offered an annual course for archivists since 1923. It offers a diploma in Paleography, Diplomacy, and Archivstry.
Since 1934, the Apostolic Library has had a School of Library Science, which organises annual courses, awarding the diploma in Librarianship.
The Pontifical Institute for Sacred Music founded by Pius X in 1911 is a centre of excellence offering a distinctively Roman education in the art of sacred music: Gregorian chant, sacred composition, choral direction, organ playing, musicology. It offers the academic grades of baccalaureate, licence, masters and doctorate. It organises musical schools and policy in dioceses across the world.