Georgia is a democratic republic divided into 9 regions, 65 territories, 2 autonomous republics – Abkhazia and Ajaria, and 5 cities. The official language is Georgian, except in the territory of Abkhazia where both Georgian and Abkhazian languages are official. The capital city of Georgia is Tbilisi with a population of 1 253 000.
On October 15th 2010, a new Constitution of Georgia was adopted, which changed the system from a presidential state model to a mixed parliamentary-presidential model. Consequently, the powers of the prime minister and the Parliament are strengthened and the presidential functions are diminished. The Constitution takes effect step by step: the section regarding judicial power has been put into force already, while the section regarding the functions of the prime minister, parliament and president will take effect after the next parliamentary and presidential elections.
The system of administration includes the following branches of authority:
Parliament– holding legislative powers; the parliamentary committee for education, science, culture and sports is responsible for legislation and supervision of the executive power (the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia).
President of Georgia – is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the government of Georgia. Executive power is split between the President and the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The President’s Administration includes the Internal Policy Service. The Service for Culture, Science and Youth Affairs which existed at the State Chancellery before the Rose Revolution has been dismantled; only one unit in the newly formed Internal Policy Service represents Culture, Science, Social and Religious Affairs.
Cabinet of Ministers and its head – the Prime Minister – form the executive power. In line with the amendments made to the Constitution since 2004, the role of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers has been strengthened. The Prime Minister holds the central place in the hierarchy of the executive power.
The institutional division of authority among various levels of power in culture is as follows:
National government: the Ministry of Culture, Monument Protection and Sports was changed in 2010 into two separate ministries – the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection and Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs.
A new structure, the National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia (http://heritagesites.ge/) was created in 2008 at the Ministry of Culture of Culture and Monument Protection.
There are Reserve Funds of the President of Georgia and government of Georgia that finance emergency programmes, including those in the cultural sphere. Such programmes are implemented together with the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection and promote more centralisation of the state policy for culture (see chapter 1.4.1).
National institutions and organisations of culture are subordinate to the Agency for Administration at the Ministry of Economic Development. The Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia is responsible for the development of cultural policy.
Advisory bodies or councils: In the Georgian system of cultural administration there is no institute or independent arts council. Advisory bodies – branch committees – were established at the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection. These committees are composed of freelance experts but remain largely inactive. Small grants are made available to ensure public participation in the implementation of cultural policy.
There are no special bodies such as councils, committees or working groups which facilitate the representation and participation of national and cultural minorities or groups of immigrants in the cultural processes. The only authority which indirectly addresses these issues (in the context of the protection of the general rights of minorities) is the Centre for Tolerance at the Office of the Ombudsman of Georgia.
Following parliamentary elections (21.05.2008), a new position was created – the State Minister for Georgian Diasporas – with a budget of 888 400 GEL.
Local authorities:In line with Georgian legislation, the governments of Abkhazia and Ajaria Autonomous Republics have their own Ministries of Culture which are responsible for programmes within their respective administrative borders.
The local authorities of administration (municipalities) and self-government (sakrebulo – city or village councils) bear responsibility for cultural activity in the regions.
The structural units of local authorities are the departments of culture, cultural heritage and protection of monuments at the local governmental level.
Most of the institutions of culture (theatres, clubs, museums, libraries, centres and house of culture, art and music schools) responsible to the local bodies of administration and self-government have legal NGO-statuses although they receive state-municipal financing.
Presidential power in the regions is realised through the institute of presidential “rtsmunebuli” (the governor / president’s attorney). There are 10 rtsmunebulis throughout Georgia. The Governor’s Office includes the committee for culture (institutions and programmes of regional importance. The Rtsmunebuli Office is financed from the central budget (the role of the rtsmunebuli – governor (the president’s confidant in each region) is defined in the new Constitution of Georgia of 15 October 2010). In many respects, the President’s institutes -“rtsmunebuli”- duplicate the functions of the bodies of local administration and self-government and due to a trend of centralisation in recent years the powers of the rtsmunebuli have been further reinforced.
In some cases there are conflicting priorities and approaches taken by the national cultural policy and by the policies of local self-government which can result in the lack of a coherent system for cultural support.
Due to the political and economic interests of the central authorities listed above, as well as demands from both local authorities and the public, the problems of delimitation of powers and reinforcement of centralisation have become very acute.
Following the amended Constitution of Georgia, the institute of presidential “rtsmunebuli” (plenipotentiary) has been changed and turned into the institute of governmental “rtsmunebuli”. Now it is subordinate to the Government and not the President but maintains the same function of the centralised administration. Presidential power in the regions, realised through the institute of presidential “rtsmunebuli, is now being subsumed under government control in changes to the Constitution.
Since June 2014, for the first time in the history of existence of the Ministry of Culture and Monuments Protection of Georgia, the Ministry commenced cooperation with USAID with a view to improving institutional effectiveness. Under the recommendation of USAID’s contractor organisation TBSC CONSULTING, a reorganisation plan has been developed, with new structural units established (e.g. the Cultural Policy Division of the Department of International Relations, the Department of Review and Monitoring of Projects). In February 2015 the contest for new vacancies in the ministry was announced.
- In the 2016 Cultural Policy Division and the Division for Integration with the EU, relations with international organizations and foundations have been established in the International Relations Department.
The International Relations Department will develop the Ministry’s policy, which covers the following areas:
a) the Ministry’s international policy and strategy determination and coordination;
b) development of the cultural policy short- and long-term plans;
c) coordination of the processes of the integration in Europe in the field of culture;
d) providing performance of the obligations undertaken by the Association Agreement and Association Agenda within its
e) promotion of participation of Georgia in the cultural programs of the European Union;
f) establishment of relations with the the relevant authorities of foreign countries, international and donor organizations;
g) participation in drafting of the international agreements within the competence, coordination of the obligations under the
h) promotion of the Ministry activities related to the international relations and project management;
i) development of international strategic documents of the Ministry, development and implementation of the sector
j) active cooperation with the embassies of Georgia abroad and foreign embassies accredited in Georgia;
k) providing participation of the Ministry in international forums and arrangement of similar events in Georgia;
l) drafting cooperation agreements and contracts with foreign countries in the field of culture;
m) promotion of the educational programs to rise the public awareness in the culture sphere.
Two Creative Europe desks – culture and media – were established at the Ministry, which conducted 6 informational meetings and 77 individual consultations during 2016. http://creativeeurope.ge/
Creative Georgia is a LEPL (Legal Entity of Public Law) created under the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia, that focusses on commercialisation of the creative industries sector and supporting its sustainable development.
The aims of Creative Georgia
- Raising awareness about CCIs;
- Capacity building of creative entrepreneurs;
- Establishing networking platforms;
- Creating funding opportunities and spreading information about existing funding opportunities;
- Supporting the export of creative goods and the general internationalization of the sector;
- Implementing the Creative Europe programme at national level;
- Supporting research in the CCI sector.
Creative Europe culture and media desks joined Creative Georgia.
At the end of 2017, structural changes were implemented – the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia was given the sport section of the cancelled Ministry of Sport and Youth Affairs. As a result, in early 2018 the Ministry of Culture and Sport was created. Structural changes in the Georgian Government are still being processed.