Intercultural education is part of the civic education course (“individual and society”) in Estonian schools, and is aimed at promoting the understanding of cultural differences. The course is obligatory from the 4th grade upwards. The actual content of the course is dependent on the teaching materials, upon which each school makes its own decision, and on the teacher. A 2006 Government Decree on Educational Standards is aimed, partially, at furthering and supporting the participation in education of pupils with different mother tongues and cultural backgrounds, and urges schools to create possibilities for the study of their mother tongue. Some cultural institutions, like the Art Museum of Estonia and the Museum of History, have created special units for working on public integration programmes and tackle related issues in heritage interpretation.
Primary education is available in Estonian and Russian. The Law on Education states that Estonian is the language of tuition in publicly run secondary schools, and this prescription has been implemented from the year 2012. Some subjects may be continuously taught in Russian (see chapter 2.5.1).