The Belgian Constitution guarantees a number of fundamental rights for Belgian citizens, some of which are relevant in the light of the discussions in the following sections (see also 4.1.1). These include:
- All citizens are equal, which comprises the equality between men and women (art. 10). Discrimination is prohibited (art. 11).
- The freedom of expression (art. 19) and the freedom of press. Censorship is prohibited (art. 25).
- The right to an existence worthy of human dignity (art. 23), which explicitly includes the right to fair working conditions (1°) and the right to cultural development (5°).
- The freedom of education (art. 24).
- The freedom of language use (art. 30).
Cultural policy (see 1.1 and 4.2) and educational policy (see 2.5.1 and 5.1) are in the first place competences of the Communities (see also art. 127 and 130 of the Constitution). Language policies have been subject to a long history of reform, which has led to separate language areas with separate regulations that further stipulate language usage (see 2.5.4 and 4.1.8). Equal opportunities policies are devised on different government levels (see 2.5.1, 2.5.5, 2.5.6, and 2.6). The article of the Constitution on non-discrimination (art. 11) is the basis of the Culture Pact (see 4.1.2).