Cultural Conventions

Which countries ratified the key Cultural Conventions introduced in Europe over the past 60 years? What have they done to implement these Conventions? The Compendium presents these developments in the tables below.

2005 UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions

Ratification / Lead Ministry / Current Plans / Networks

Monitoring the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
The table below was devised following a decision at the 5th Compendium Authors meeting held in Budapest, Spring 2006, to begin monitoring the UNESCO Convention among Compendium countries, going beyond the information published on the relevant UNESCO website.

Information responding to the following questions is updated on a regular basis:

  • Which countries have ratified the Convention?
  • Who is responsible for its implementation?
  • Are there civil society organisations involved in the process?
CountryRatification/ Accession* by National Governments or ParliamentsDeposit* at UNESCOMain Ministry Responsible for ImplementationMember of the Intergov. Committee**Other Active Bodies (e.g. NGO's; national Coalitions for Diversity)Important Debates, Studies and Political Action regarding the Implementation of the Convention
AlbaniaSeptember 24, 2006November 17, 2006Ministry of Tourism and Culture2009-2013----
ArmeniaN/A27 February 2007Ministry of Culture------
AustriaAugust 8, 2006December 18, 2006Austrian Federal Chancellery Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture Ministry for Foreign Affairs2007-2009Austrian Commission for UNESCO: Working Group "Cultural Diversity"  established in 2004, followed, in March 2010, by a National Cultural Diversity Contact Point. Publication of a brochure focussing on economic implications of the Convention ("Culture for Sale?")Some NGO's, such as the IG Kultur, try to reanimate public debate about this "Magna Charta of international cultural policy". In 2009/10, the österreichische kulturdokumentation prepared a catalogue of measures for the implementation of the UNESCO Convention in Austrian cultural policy.
AzerbaijanGovernment has initiated procedures to ratify the Convention.15 February 2010Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs--National Commission for UNESCOEU-Azerbaijan Action Plan involves exchanging views on the implementation of the UNESCO Convention
BelgiumGovernment has not yet ratified the Convention.--Involvement of all concerned governments and ministries of the regional and federal level.--Coalition belge francophone pour la diversité culturelle Flemish Commission for UNESCOApproval between the Federal and the Flemish Government regarding the ratification of the Convention expected in 2012
Bosnia and Herzegovina--27 January 2009--------
BulgariaDecember 18, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski"2009-2013Bulgarian National UNESCO CommissionPromotion of original publication "Right of Cultural Diversity" by Ivan Kabakov (University Ed. "St. Kliment Ohridski" 2007) Publication "Fragments from the Future. The Impact of cultural diversity and globalization on policies for culture" - collection of articles from BG and foreign authors
Canada23 November 2005 ***November 25, 2005Department of Canadian Heritage Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade2007 - 2013 (Committee held its first session in December 2007 in Ottawa)Canadian Coalition for Cultural Diversity The Canadian Commission for UNESCO International Federation of Coalitions for Cultural Diversity (Headquarters in Canada)The Department of Canadian Heritage is working closely with the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, with the provinces and territories, and with Canada's arts and cultural community to play an active role in the implementation of the Convention. It also continues to advocate for the widespread ratification of the Convention as this will strengthen its effectiveness.
CroatiaRatified by the Croatian Parliament on 12 May 2006 (being the first European parliament to do so)August 31, 2006Ministry of Culture2007-2011Croatian membership in INCD and contacts with professionals in the CCD. National Commission for UNESCO.In 2006, Culturelink published a book on the UNESCO Convention: ("Making it WorkMaking it Work"). In 2009, Culturelink/IMO team prepared a paper on Article 19 based on Culturelink Network's Twenty Years of Experience Every year Croatian Commission for UNESCO and Ministry of Culture mark the international "Day of Cultural Diversity" with a number of events.
CyprusDecember 19, 2006December 19, 2006--------
Czech RepublicAugust 12, 2010Ministry of Culture----The Ministry is working on the implementation of the Convention
DenmarkDecember 18, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture--National Commission for UNESCOOn 10 January  2007, the Ministry of Culture organised a first meeting of members of the Cultural Committee of the Parliament (Folketingets Kulturudvalg) and representatives from the culture sector to discuss the implications of the convention. It was decided to organise follow- up meetings every year with the purpose  to discuss experiences and challenges and to consult the cultural sector on initiatives taken by the Ministry in order to meet its requirements under the  Convention.
EstoniaNovember 23, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture--Estonian National UNESCO CommissionAn Estonian translation of the Convention has been prepared. The Convention is implemented and monitored by the Cultural Heritage Department of the Tallinn City Government.
Finland29 June 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Education and Culture2007-2009Finnish National Commission for UNESCONo decision yet on who is responsible for implementing the information and monitoring functions stipulated in Article  9 of the Convention
France5 July 2006December 18, 2006Ministère de la culture et de la communication2009 - 2013Coalition française pour la diversité culturelleIn February 2007, a joint French-German parliamentary committee published a ReReportport on the Convention and Cultural Diversity in Europe.
Georgia14 May 20081 July 2008Ministry of Culture, Monuments Protection and Sport; Ministry of Foreign Affairs--Georgian National Commission for UNESCO (Convention monitoring)Work related to the implementation of the Convention is in progress. Establishment of an expert group for the implementation of the Convention is envisaged.
Germany7 March 200712 March 2007German Foreign Office2007-2011German Commission for UNESCO Bundesweite Koalition für KulturBundesweite Koalition für Kulturelle Vielfaltelle Vielfalt Deutscher Kulturat Joint French-German parliamentary committee RepReportort on the Convention and Cultural Diversity in Europe (February 2007)U-U-4040 Capacity Building Programme "Cultural Diversity 2030" (2008-2010). 7th consulation of Bundesweite Koalition für Kulturelle Vielfalt (May 2009). Preparation of a White Paper (2009-2010) White Paper (2005) Kulturelle Vielfalt gestalten. Weißbuch der Zivilgesellschaft zur Umsetzung des UNESCO-àœbereinkommens zur Vielfalt kultureller Ausdrucksformen. EU-Presidency Conference (April 2007): Cultural Diversity- Europe's Wealth: Bringing the UNESCO ConveCultural Diversity- Europe's Wealth: Bringing the UNESCO Convention to Lifention to Life Seminar (November 2007): PoliciePolicies and Best Practices for Cultural Diversity and Capacity Buildings and Best Practices for Cultural Diversity and Capacity Building (publication: Cultural Diversity - Our Common Wealth. The Essen/RUHR.2010 Bellini Manual On Prospects of Cultural Diversity)
Greece3 January 20073 January 2007Hellenic Ministry of Culture2007-2011--Ministry responsible for the implementation and monitoring of the Convention
Holy See--------Pontifical Council for Culture (PCC)While not a Member State of UNESCO, the PCC sees a responsibility for "the Catholic Church's global pastoral adoption and implementation" of the Convention.
Hungary25 February 20089 May 2008Ministry of Education and Culture--Coalition hongroise pour la diversité culturelleThe UNESCO Convention is not yet a key issue among key actors including the administration, civil society or culture professionals.
Iceland--1 February 2007--------
IrelandDecember 19, 2006December 22, 2006Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht--Irish Coalition for Cultural DiversityAt the moment, there is no debate about the Convention, its articles or how it will be implemented in practice.
ItalyInternal ratification process by the Senate was finalised on Nov 14, 2006 and ratified  by the   Parliament on 31 January 200719 February 2007Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (first report on the implementation of the Convention in Italy to be available at the end of 2012)--Commissione Italiana Nazionale per l'UNESCO Coalizione Italiana per la Diversità  CulturaleSince ratification, several conferences and seminars have been organised by the Ministry for Heritage and/or the Italian Coalition for Cultural Diversity, with a view to promoting and discussing the Convention's contents. A special issue of the journal "Economia della cultura" on the Convention, jointly edited by the Italian Association for Cultural Economics and the Italian Coalition for Cultural Diversity was published.
LatviaJune 20076 July 2007Ministry of Culture--National Commission for UNESCOPublic discussions
Liechtenstein----------Liechtenstein's government policy does not foresee a membership in UNESCO, at the present time
LithuaniaDecember 14, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture2007-2011----
LuxembourgDecember 18, 2006December 18, 2006--2007 - 2011----
FYR of Macedonia22 May 200722 May 2007Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture--National Commission for UNESCO (depends on the field of interest)The 2nd World Conference on Inter-Religious and Inter-Civilisation Dialogue, Religions and Cultures - Strengthening Links among Nations , was held from 6-8 May 2010 in Ohrid
MaltaDecember 5, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry for Tourism and Culture and Ministry for Education, sometimes also the Ministry for Justice and Home Affairs----Discussions are being held between the responsible ministries to set up a National Observatory on cultural diversity as well as a National Coalition to support the implementation of the Convention as proposed by the German Commission for UNESCO and the U40 working group it has set up for this purpose. However no time-frame has been set.
Moldova5 October 20065 October 2006Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Education and the State Department for Inter-Ethnic Relations--Moldovan National Commission for UNESCO. Several ngos on human rights and minority issues.Some of the most important centres and associations for human rights and minority issues are involved in the implementation and monitoring of the Convention (seminars, other information events, etc.)
Monaco28 March 200731 July 2006Government (Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs)--National Commission for UNESCO--
Montenegro24 June 200824 June 2008--------
The NetherlandsSeptember 1, 20099 October 2009Ministry of Education, Culture and Science--Dutch National Commission for UNESCO There is no National Coalition in the NetherlandsThe Ministry of Education, Culture and Science commissioned the Netherlands National Commission for UNESCO to undertake a study of the possible implications of ratification on Dutch legislation. This study was realised in cooperation with a group of experts. In depth interviews were conducted with key actors operating in both subsidised and private institutions. ****
Norway17 January 200717 January 2007Ministry of Culture----Active role of universities or research bodies in the debate of cultural rights and diversity issues
PolandAugust 17, 2007August 17, 2007Ministry of Culture and National Heritage--Polish Committee for UNESCO, "Coalition" has not yet been set upWork related to the implementation of the Convention is in progress
Portugal11 January 200716 March 2007Ministry of  Foreign Affairs--Portuguese Commission for UNESCOWork related to the implementation of the Convention is in progress.
Romania20 June 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, Ministry of Foreign Affairs--National Committee for UNESCO--
Russia----Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Connectivity and Mass Communication----The Ministry of Culture is preparing a ratification of the Convention
San Marino----Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Political Affairs and Economic Planning and the Ministry of Education and Culture--National Committee for UNESCOIn 2006 the Government decided to adopt the Convention. Currently, the Ministries concerned are working on the ratification of this Convention., after carrying out an analysis with the competent bodies
Serbia29 May 20092 July 2009Ministry of Culture, Office for Ethnic Minorities----The State Secretary for Legal Affairs made some critical comments prior to ratification. A working group for the implementation of the Convention has been set up.
SlovakiaDecember 12, 2006December 12, 2006Ministry of Culture in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs--National Coalition for Cultural Diversity (October 2012: Host of the III. Congress of the Int. Federation of Coalitions for Cult. Diversity - IFCCD)Creation of a working group to promote the Convention and develop activities regarding its implementation.
SloveniaNovember 30, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture2007-2009Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO--
Spain25 October 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Culture--Coaliciõn Española para la Diversidad CulturalOne of the first consequences of this ratification has been the creation of a National Commission on Intercultural Dialogue and the application of the recently approved Latin American Cultural Letter. On May 2007, Spain celebrated the "World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development". The National Plan for the Alliance of Civilizations, adopted in 2008 by the Council of Ministers, provides links with the Convention.
SwedenNovember 9, 2006December 18, 2006Ministry of Education and Research------
Switzerland20 March 200816 July 2008Federal Ministry of the Interior FedFederal Office of Culture (FOC)eral Office of Culture (FOC)--Schweizer Koalition für die kulturellSchweizer Koalition für die kulturelle Vielfalt Swiss National Commission for UNESCOe Vielfalt Swiss National Commission for UNESCOIn 2009, eight groups of experts representing different sectors of cultural life (music, cinema, visual arts and heritage preservation, literature, dance and theatre, education, media and international cooperation) drew up proposals for a Swiss cultural diversity policy in order to promote the implementation of the UNESCO Convention on diversity of cultural expressions. The final report was presented on Friday the 16 th of October, 2009. Download: http://www.di
Ukraine20 January 201010 March 2010Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs--Ukrainian National Committee for UNESCO, Forum of Associations of National Cultures in UkrainePresentation of White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue, Speak-out against Racism Campaign, round tables and seminars
United KingdomJuly 2007December 7, 2007Department of Culture, Media and Sport--UNESUNESCO UK National Committee

CO UK National Committee NatioCO UK National Committee National Coalition for   Cultural Diversitynal Coalition for   Cultural Diversity
ExteExtensive consultation process held in 2004nsive consultation process held in 2004 and prior to the ratification


* In accordance with its Article 29, the Convention has entered into force on 18 March 2007, three months after the date of deposit of the 30th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with respect to those States or regional economic integration organisations that have deposited their respective instruments on or before that date. With respect to any other Party, it enters into force three months after the deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Ratification by national governments which are members of the EU will be part of the EU deposition of the relevant instruments to UNESCO HQs.
** Intergovernmental Committee to promote and monitor the objectives of the Convention (set up by UNESCO in 2007)
*** The Convention was rapidly ratified by Canada in November 2005, in part due to the fact that they did not have to go through a Parliamentary process in order to adopt the Convention. A simple decision was taken by the cabinet. However, the Canadian province of Québec, through its National Assembly, did decide to ratify the Convention on 10 November 2005.
**** A set of 12 closed questions posed in the context of the study commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science dealt, inter alia, with international trade relations; the “monopoly position of multinationals”; opportunities for cultural initiatives; “intrinsic cultural values” that cannot be expressed in money; implications for cultural policies; “free market” issues; different strategies to safeguard “cultural diversity”; co-existence between public cultural institutions and commercial market forces.

Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 2018.

2001 European Convention for the Protection of the Audiovisual Heritage

Year of Adoption / AV-Heritage Policy Focus / Frequent Public Screening of works of the AV-Heritage / Deposit Regulation / Deposit or Collecting Institution / Other Information

Monitoring the CoE European Convention for the Protection of the Audiovisual Heritage (AVHC) and Related Policies in Europe

CountryYear of AVHC Adoption / Entry into force AV-Heritage Policy[1] Focus: Access to the public (A); Collection / Preservation (C); Directory (D, D-O = Online catalogue); Edu-cation / Training (E); Restoration (R, R-D = digital R.); Other (O)Frequent Public Screening of works of the AV-HeritageDeposit Regulation[2]Name of main Deposit or Collecting Institution(s)Access to the collection for: Consultation (C); Education (E); Re-use (R)[3]; Other (O)Other Information / Comments
Type: Law (L); Other (O)Obligatory? (Y/N); Only funded works (F)Comprehensive? (Y/N)
FilmOther AV works
Austria2002A, C, R-D (D-O planned)YOY (F)NNAustrian Film Archive and Austrian Film MuseumC, E, R (DVD)Austrian Digital Heritage Initiative supports digitalisation of the Österreichische Mediathek (
Bosnia & Hercegovina2010 / 2012N/AN/ALN/AYN/ANational Film Archive of BiHN/A2010: SEEDI Conference: Digitizat. of cult. & scient. heritage, Sarajevo
Bulgaria2001C, D (not yet online for financial reasons)N/ALYYNBulgarian National Film ArchiveC, E, O (non-commercial)
Croatia2007 / 2008C, E, D, RNOY (F)YYCroatian Film ArchiveC, E(e.g. Croatian Film Clubs Association )Law on AV Activities (2007); Law on Archive Material and Archives (1999/2009) ;
France2002 / 2010A, C, D-O, E, R-DLYYYCentre national du cinéma et de l’image animéeC, EE-programmes ( Ecole et Cinéma );  Plans to host Internet works online
Georgia2010 / 2011C, DN/ALN/ANational Archives of Georgia (Archive of AV Documents)CLaw on the National Archival Fund and the National Archives (2007)
Germany2008 / 2014A, C, D-O, R-DYLY (F) N (other)NNFederal Archives (Bundesarchiv) and different Länder archive bodiesC, E, R (DVD, audio-CDs and TV)Most screenings take place in public TV and arthouse cinemas (Programmkinos = 10% of all theatres / ca. 7.5% of all visitors) 
Greece2001A, C, D-OYOY (F) N (other)NNGreek Film Centre and Greek Film ArchiveE, R (e.g. DVD, festivals)Distribution/screening of quality films in countrywide network of municipal cinemas supported by the Domain of Culture programme
Hungary2003 / 2008A, C, D-O, E, R-DN/ALYYNHung. National Film Archive ; National Audiovisual ArchiveC, EA new Film Law is in preparation for 2011
Iceland2001CN/AONNNArchive of the National Broadcasting ServiceN/A10 collections of AV material exist, but lack official (legal) recognition
Lithuania2002 / 2008C, R-D, (D-O planned)N/AOY (F)YYLithuanian Central State ArchivesC (limited)Deposit only mandatory for works considered part of the national audio-visual heritage
Luxembourg2012 / 2018A, C, D, E, RN/ALY (F)YYCentre national de l'audiovisuel – CNAE, R, O (research)
Monaco2003 / 2008A, EYLYYYMonaco National Film ArchivesCMedia Library combines book, sound and video libraries and Audiovisual Archives
Portugal2001C, D (D-O planned), EYOY (F) N (other)NNCinemateca Portuguesa / Museu do CinemaC (limited), E, R (festivals, more is planned)Cinemateca Júnior project (2007) run by Ministry of Education and Portuguese Film Archive/Museum
Romania2002A, C, D-O, E, (R-D)YLYYYNational Centre of Cinema / National Film ArchiveC, E, RRomania Cinemathegue
Serbia2015 / 2015A, C, D, RN/AN/AYYFilm Centre of SerbiaR, O
Slovakia2003 / 2008A, C, D (D-O test version / project proposal), E, R, R-DYLYYYSlovak Film Institute RTVS Slovak Radio and Television (sound recordings)C, E, R (DVD), O (sales)Project of Systematic Renewal of the Audiovisual Heritage of the Slovak Republic (2006-20); Obligatory deposit for documents related to AV works (e.g. scripts, stills, posters, prints etc.)
Turkey2004A, CYON/ATurkish Radio and TV Service (115,000 hrs AV collection)N/ATRT archives with news and programs available to the general public on a fee basis
Ukraine2006A, CN/ALN/AYYUkrainian State Film AgencyR-OLaw on Cinematography amended (2010 – amendment 2017)

[1] In all of the countries subscribing to the Convention, the national Ministry in charge of culture and the heritage has also the competence for the audiovisual heritage.
[2] In many cases, only films/AV productions receiving public funding need to be deposited which may affect the comprehensiveness of the collection. In some countries (e.g. Germany) also major foreign works are collected.
[3] Re-use, e.g. in new productions, is usually subject to special conditions (e.g. copyright clearance, fees).

Extra note:
More details and examples are available in some of the Compendium country profiles, e.g. as regards digitisation (Chapter 4.2.11), legislation (Chapter 5.3.6), access to / promotion of the audiovisual heritage (Chapter 8.2.2) or cinema education (Chapter 8.3.1). See also Reports of EU-Member States with further information, e.g. on digital restoration or training and for details of general heritage legislation and policies.

Y = Yes
N = No
N/A = Information is currently not available.

Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 19th edition, 2018 (based on country-profiles and complementary research of the authors). Additional information: Council of Europe Treaty Series (CETS).

1992 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Ratification / Officially Recognised Languages / Programmes

Monitoring the Implementation of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

For more information see individual country profiles:

  • Chapter 4.2.4 “Cultural diversity and inclusion policies”
  • Chapter 4.2.5 “Language Issues and Policies”
  • Chapter 4.2.6 “Media pluralism and content diversity”

* National language may have been or is under threat or has recently been re-established as the national official language

CountrySignatory of European CharterOfficial Language(s)Legally Recognised Languages of National Minorities Examples of Government Measures to Support Languages of National Minorities (which reflect provisions outlined in the ECRML)Special Government Support given to the Development and Protection of the National Language *
SigningEntry into ForceMother-Tongue Teaching (Article 8)Cultural Activities and Facilities (Article 12)Mass Media (TV, Radio, Press) (Article 11)
Austria19922001GermanCroatian, Hungarian and Slovene.“Minority Education Right” for Slovenes living in Carinthia. For other linguistic minorities, language of instruction in a school depends on the number of students.No2001 Broadcasting Act obliges ORF to broadcast programmes in languages of minority groups; small (non-commercial) free radio stations primarily aimed at minorities and immigrants are supported by the government (2007)-
Azerbaijan2001ExpectedAzerbaijaniAll languages including those of minorities (more than 15)The language of instruction for more than 6.7% pupils is Russian and 0.1% is Georgian, in the 2004-2005 school year.The Ministry of Culture and Tourism carries out a concrete programme of activities connected with safeguarding and development of cultural values of national minorities and ethnic groups.There are no official language quotas in the mass media.YES
Belgium Not signedFlemish, French and German.NONOIn 2000, Flemish Minister instructed new Literature Fund to fund works by immigrants.NOYES
BulgariaNot signedBulgarianTurkish and Romani.Educational Bill stating that mother tongue learning is a "compulsory optional subject"; state obliged to pay for students who want to study their mother tongue.Government provides funding to cultural projects such as theatre productions and festivals for minority cultural groups. Support for periodicals, media events and live performances of various cultural groups given by NGOs such as Open Society Institute.-
CanadaNot signedEnglish and French are national official languages. Quebec has one official language (French) New Brunswick has two official languages (English and French). All other provinces unilingual EnglishIn context of Official Languages, Anglophones in Quebec and Francophone outside Quebec are regarded as official language minorities Seven Aboriginal languages in the Territories Section 23 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms includes Aboriginal languages Enhancement of Official Languages Program in Department of Canadian Heritage: 2nd Language LearningAboriginal Friendship Centres Multicultural Support ProgramsAboriginal radio and television stations/networks Cultural minorities are served by 4 licensed conventional TV stations, and 21 analog and digital specialty TV services which broadcast in “third languages” 15 third language radio stationsYES: See Action Plan for Official Languages (2003) at
Croatia19971998CroatianCzech, German, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian, Slovenian and Ukrainian.Supplementary minority language classes in schools. Optional programmes for mother tongue learning at various summer schools.YESCroatian Radio and Television have special and regular news programmes in several minority languages. Local radio stations also have special programmes in minority languages.YES
EstoniaNot signedEstonianNOPrimary and secondary educations are available in both Estonian and Russian. Universities have special language support schemes for students from Russian secondary schools. Russian Drama Theatre located in Tallinn. Community centres in municipalities host activities of minority cultural organizations.Public radio channel in Russian. Private radio channels and private press operate in minority languages (mainly Russian). YES
Finland19921998Finnish and SwedishSami languages, Roma and Sign LanguageYES Sami language is also provided as teaching language in Sami homeland municipalities for comprehensive (basic) education. Sami, Sign and Roma language can be taught as mother tongue instead of Finnish/Swedish or foreign languages; they are also legitimate teaching languages YESThe Finnish Broadcasting Company is supposed to "…serve Finnish and Swedish speaking populations on equal terms and provide services in Sami, Roma and Sign languages". This legal obligation is fulfilled by the Sami Radio, Romano Mirits radio programme and television news and documentary programmes in Sami and Sign languages. YES, in terms of language research and development support by the Research Institute for the Languages in Finland. In addition to Finnish and Swedish, these activities cover also Sami, Roma and Sign languages
GeorgiaNot signedGeorgian and AbkhazianLaw on Secondary Education(2005) The state support: languages of minorities in the educational system. In Georgia, there are public primary and secondary schools for minorities (Azeri, Armenian, Russian). The publication of textbooks for minorities is provided by state procurement.Law on Culture (1997) The state support: maintenance of minority cultures and development of their creative activitiesLaw on Broadcasting (2004) Under the Law on Broadcasting (Article 16, paragraph l), public broadcasting shall "place programmes in the languages of minorities, about minorities and prepared by minorities in accordance with their share in the total population". Accordingly, Georgian radio and TV have special news programmes in some languages (Abkhaz, Azeri, Armenian, Russian and Ossetian). In addition, there is special public broadcasting in Abkhaz and Ossetian languages, which covers a part of Abkhazia and the total region of "South Ossetia". YES-
Hungary19921998HungarianArmenian, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Polish, Romanian, Romani, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovakian, Slovenian and Ukranian.1993 Act on National and Ethnic Minorities. Official efforts to encourage minorities to retain their linguistic identity. Support is given for mother tongue teaching.1997 Act to support museums, libraries and art institutions for minority groups. 2000 National and Ethnic Minorities Foundation established to allocate funds for cultural activities and projects of minority groups.Public Foundation for Minorities subsidises periodicals, gives grants to local television stations for programmes in minority languages and funds publication of books in minority languages. Regular TV and radio broadcasts in minority languages.YES
IrelandNot signedIrish & EnglishNONONONOYES
Italy2000ExpectedItalianGerman, Ladin, French and Slovenian.-Slovenian Theatre in Trieste created by the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia and subsidised by the Italian State.--
LatviaNot signedLatvianLivonian languagePrimary and secondary education available in Latvian and there are also about 200 minority / bilingual schools in Latvia; public support is available for education programmes in Russian, Byelorussian, Polish, Ukrainian, Jewish, Estonian, Lithuanian and Roma languages.More than 200 cultural NGOs of minorities registered in Latvia and supported by public financing both on regular and project competition basis; Russian language theatres; Municipalities are implement-ting their own integration programmes.Public radio channel in Russian; Commercial radio and TV channels and private press – mostly in Russian but available also in other languages (e.g. Polish, Ukrainian).YES
LithuaniaNot signedLithuanianRussian, Polish, Jewish, Tatars, Ukrainian and Belorussian.Law of Education (2003) guarantees the right of national minorities to have access to pre-and post-grade schools funded by the state, including lessons in their own language.Law on National Minorities (1991) guarantees the right of national minorities to receive state support to foster their national culture and to support cultural organisations (e.g. the state provides financial support for institutions such as the Russian Drama Theatre of Lithuania).Law on National Minorities (1991) guarantees the right of national minorities to have access to information and press in their native language. Lithuanian state TV and radio broadcast programmes in minority languages. Books and newspapers are available in the languages of national minorities. -
FYR of Macedonia1996ExpectedMacedonianAlbanian, Serbien, Turkish, Romani and Vlach.YESGovernment provides funding to cultural projects such as book publishing, theatre productions, exhibitions, festivals etc., for minority cultural groups. National TV and radio provide special programmes in languages of national minorities.YES
Moldova2002ExpectedRomanianRussian (special status)N/ALocal level organisations created to protect and develop cultural traditions of minority communities including mother tongue language.Sub-system of cultural institutions for ethnic minorities based in the state library, museum and theater network. "Teleradio-Moldova”, Department "Comunitate" to broadcast in the languages spoken by ethnic minorities. -
Netherlands19921998DutchFrisian2005 Covenant on the Frisian Language and Culture includes articles on education in the Frisian language. 2005 Covenant on the Frisian Language and Culture includes articles on the promotion of Frisian language in cultural activities and amenities.2005 Covenant on the Frisian Language and Culture includes articles on the promotion of Frisian language in the media.YES
Norway19921998Norwegian with two forms, Bokmål and NynorskSàmi, Kvensk, Romanes and RomaniA funding scheme earmarked specifically for Sami child-care facilities. Several study programmes in Sami language, literature and culture.administration of the Ministry’s various grant schemes for Sami cultural is delegated to the SámediggiThe Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) has to safeguard and develop Sami language, culture and civic society. The licensing terms of the commercial Norwegian public service broadcasters also includes such an obligation.YES
Poland20032009PolishNational minorities’ languages: German, Ukrainian, Armenian, Belarussian, Lithuanian, Slovak, Czech, Russian, Hebrew/Yiddish; Ethnic minorities’ languages: Karaitic, Lemkos, Romani, Tatarian and one regional language: KashubianPublic schools are obliged to enable ethnic and national minorities to sustain national, ethnic, religious and language identity and to learn mother tongue, history and culture.Local and state authorities provide fnding lines for projects sustaining and developing cultural identity of minorities.Government support for publishing activities of minority groups and for commercial media, which emit programs on national and ethnic minorities (such as "Racja" Radio, and Kaszebe Radio). -
Russia2001ExpectedRussian for the Russian Federation, title languages for national Republics. All languages including those of minority groups.Article 26 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation ( 1993) establishes the right to use mother tongue languages and the freedom to choose the language of communication, education, learning and creativity.The legal instrument for cultural self-organisations is the Law on National Cultural Autonomy introduced in 1996. It produced 662 bodies (01.01.2007). Law on the Rights Guaranteed for Indigenous Peoples (1999); the Law on General Principles of Organising Com-munes among the Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and of the Far East of the RF (2000)Governmental bodies fund related broadcasting programmes. State support for publishing in minority languages is not sufficient to create a viable industry.YES The "Russian Language" Federal Target Programme (2006-2010) is aimed at establishing Russian as the state language.
San MarinoNot signedItalianNoThe number of foreigners is limited. The minorities which have established cultural associations enjoy, like all those participating in the Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives, special benefits, also of an economic nature. Moreover, the State periodically sponsors the organization of some events to highlight habits, traditions, cuisine, etc, of an ethnic or cultural group located in San MarinoNo -San Marino
Serbia20052006SerbianCroatian, Bosnian, Albanian, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovakian, Ruthen (Rusin), Ukrainian, BulgarianTeaching in mother tongue at primary school level for all recognized minorities and at secondary school level in mother tongue for hungarians, slovakians, romanians and albanians.Support to amateur cultural associations (choirs, folklore groups and amateur theaters) of all national minority groups, cultural centers and institutions (houses of culture)Obligation to broadcast in all languages of minority group including Romani. Support for political / information periodicals and special support for cultural periodicals.-
Slovakia20012002Slovak9 languages of national minorities – according to ECRML divided into 3 groups: 1 -Hungarian, 2 -Ruthenian and Ukrainian, 3 – others (Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, German, Polish, Roma)Teaching in mother tongue at primary school level and at secondary school level for Hungarians, Ukrainians, Ruthenians, Germans. Special education programmes for Roma minority. University with Slovak and Hungarian teaching language (Janos Selye University in Komarno).Support for cultural activities of national minorities (special grant programme as a part of Grant System, Ministry of Culture).Public TV and Radio - obligation to broadcast in languages of national minorities.YES
Slovenia19972001Slovenian Hungarian, ItalianRomaniPre-school, primary and secondary education for officially recognised minorities and study of their languages as university subjects.Cultural centres and special programmes of local cultural institutions for officially recognised minorities, public funding of cultural projects of other ethnic groups.TV and radio broadcasting for officially recognised minorities Print media for both, officially recognized minorities and other ethnic groups. YES
Spain19922001Castillian, Basque, Catalan, Galician, Occitan (called Aranes in the Aran Valley), Valencian.Basque, Catalan, Galician, Occitan and Valencian. It might be also considered regional or minority languages those protected by the regional laws in the territories where they are spoken (Catalan and Aragonese in Aragon and Bable in Asturias).Law of Education (2006) guarantees the use of minority languages in all educative levels in bilingual communities.National and region-nal governments provide funding to cultural projects (museums, archives, libraries, theatres cinema, festivals, popular culture, publishing, etc.) in regional or minority languages. According to the 2006 State Radio and Television Act, the Corporation of State Radio and Television (RTVE) must promote territorial cohesion and Spain's linguistic and cultural diversity; broadcast international radio and TV channels that disseminate the languages and cultures of Spain in other countries and promote the production of audiovisual contents in the languages of minority groups. National broadcasting coexists with regional and local state-funded radio and TV broadcasting in territories with own languages. Regions also support the publishing of periodicals in minority languages.YES
Sweden20002000SwedishSami (all forms), Finnish, Meänkieli (Tornedal Finnish), Romani Chib (all forms) and Yiddish.-Municipalities provide support to associations, theatre, music and festivals.State project funding available for publication of literature and periodicals. Radio and TV programmes in languages of ethnic minorities are sup-ported by the government.YES
Switzerland19931998German, French, Italian, Retromansh---New Law on radio and television to preserve minorities with official languages.Law on Radio and Television . It guarantees the independence and autonomy of radio and television as well as consideration for Switzerland's cultural communities
Ukraine19962006UkrainianRussian, Crimean Tatar, German, Greek, Bulgarian, Armenian, Hunga-rian, Romanian, other ethnic minority languagesThe Law on Education grants families the right to choose their native language for schools and studies.About 30% of periodicals aimed at national minorities are published in their mother tongue.National TV and radio provide special programmes in languages of national minorities. Language TV quotas.Government Programme “Securing Development and Use of the Ukrainian Language”.
UK20002001EnglishWelsh (Wales), Scots and Gaelic (Scotland), Ulster Scots and Irish (Northern Ireland) Manx Gaelic (Isle of Man - Crown Dependency), Cornish, British Sign Language, Irish Sign Language, ethnic minority languages. National Gaelic Language Plan – incl. national education strategy, Gaelic Secondary ICT Implementation Group, Guidance on Gaelic Education, Gaelic-medium Education Short-life Action Group; Cornish Language Strategy; Irish : Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement, Ulster-Scots Academy; Isle of Man Government Plan - extend Manx language teaching in schools; Welsh Assembly - Iaith Pawb (Everyone's Language) National Action Plan for a Bilingual Wales. Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 - establishment of the Gaelic development agency, Bòrd na Gàidhlig, and Gaelic Arts Agency, Book Council and festivals; Lá - Arts Council NI Irish language magazine; Welsh Mercator - Literature Abroad project.Irish : Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement - fund for Irish film and TV (GBP12m '05-09), increase TG4 reception; Isle of Man Government Plan - support the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee, Communications Act 2003 - Gaelic Media Service (GBP8.7m funding '05-06); Welsh radio stations and TV channel (S4C), Sgrin - Media Agency for Wales.-

Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 19thedition, 2018.

1955 European Cultural Convention

Ratification / Government bodies responsible for supporting cultural cooperation / Membership in bodies to promote regional cultural cooperation / Reports on recent trends.

European Cultural Convention: Promoting Cultural Cooperation in Europe

The European Cultural Convention was signed in Paris in December 1954. One of the main aims of the Convention was to facilitate cultural cooperation in Europe by promoting the mobility and exchange of people as well as cultural goods (Article 4).

Country specific information on cultural cooperation is presented in the country profiles in chapters 3.4.1 –3.4.6.

The Table below presents information on when each country signed the European Cultural Convention, government bodies responsible for supporting cultural cooperation, their membership bodies to promote regional cultural cooperation and reports on some recent trends.

Alps-Adria = Alps-Adriatic Working Community; BR = Branch institutes; BSEC = Black Sea Economic Co-operation; CEI = Central European Initiative; CF = Countries in focus; CoM-SEE = Council of Ministers of Culture in South East Europe; CoM-N = (Nordic) Council of Ministers; ICC = International cultural co-operation; Min. = Ministry; Platform CCE = Platform “Culture –Central Europe”; SR = Shared responsibility

CountryDate of ratification of the European Cultural ConventionLead Ministry / Ministries in charge of cultural cooperation* Bodies / agencies charged with promoting cultural relations Membership in regional co-operation bodies relevant for culture Recent priorities and trends
AlbaniaJune 25, 1992Ministry of Tourism and Culture Embassies BSEC; CEI; Francophonie Focus on cultural heritage and film production. CF: Neighbours (Greece, FYROM, Kosovo), France, Italy, Switzerland
ArmeniaApril 25, 1997SR Min. of Culture and Min. of Foreign Affairs Embassies BSEC, CIS, INCP One of the priority directions of Armenia's cul-tural policy is the preservation and development of relations with Diaspora, which is carried out through cultural unions, NGOs and centers operating in Diaspora
AustriaMarch 4, 1958SR Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs + Department of Culture and Arts of the Austrian Chancellery30 "Culture Fora" (Kulturforen) in 27 countries; KulturKontakt Austria Platform CCE; CEI; Alps-Adria, Francophonie (observer status), EUNIC, International Network on Cultural Policy (INCP) ICC influenced by debates about Europe and "European Values, intercultural dialogue and regional security issues." Regional Focus: Central / Eastern Europe, incl. Balkans. Cultural cooperation agreements with 25 countries.
AzerbaijanApril 25, 1997Ministry of CultureMin. of Foreign Affairs, State Committee on Work with Azerbaijanis Living Abroad; Embassies BSEC; GUAM (Georgia, UKR, AZ, MOL); TURKSOY; ISESCO (Islamic countries), CIS Aims: To foster relations based on "mutual understanding and trust with other countries, work with them on the basis of mutual benefit and equal rights, and to give to the world a clear, objective picture" of Azerbaijan.
BelgiumMay 11, 1955SR Flemish Min. of Culture and Min. of Foreign Affairs; General Commission for the International Relations of the French Community; Government of the German Speaking Community Diplomatic representations of the Communities; some individual institutions, e.g. Academia Belgica (Rome); Wallonia-Brussels Centre; Flemish-Dutch and Flemish-Moroccan Houses (Brussels) or the Belgisches Haus (Cologne) Taalunie (Flanders); Francophonie (Wallonie); Euregio Maas-Rhein; Grossregion Saar-Lor-Lux ICC in Belgium has been transferred to regional Governments, which rotate in their participation in European/international bodies. Flanders: general application of envelope funding system (international budget embedded in general multi-annual grants); special focus on intercultural dialogue. CF: South Africa, Morocco, China and the French Community in Belgium. French Community: Key diplomatic representations in Paris, Geneva, Brussels and other cities. German-speaking Community: Focus on neighbouring countries/regions.
BulgariaSeptember 2, 1991Min. of Culture (International Cultural Policy Directorate) Bulgarian Cultural Institutes (BR: 10 countries); Embassies BSEC; CEI; CoM-SEE;Francophonie Main goal: Integration with the European Union. Regional focus: SE and Central Europe (incl. special activities for Bulgarian diaspora). 79 bilateral agreements / protocols.
CanadaObserver statusSR Departments of: Foreign Affairs and International Trade; Canadian Heritage Embassies Arctic Council; Francophonie Development of international strategic framework to develop and implement thematic or geographic-based strategies in key action areas: addressing the cultural trade deficit by increasing exports; using new technology to ensure better visibility for Canadian content; strengthening relations with the United States; increasing focus on G8 and emerging global powers; and more coherence with overall Government international priorities.
CroatiaJanuary 27, 1993Min. of Culture Cultural Council for International Relations and European Integration; Embassies CEI, Alps-Adria; COM-SEE, INCP, Quadrilateral (Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary) Focus on ICC within the region of South Eastern Europe (based mainly on direct contacts between artists and arts and cultural organizations).
DenmarkMay 7, 1955SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Cultural Affairs The Danish Cultural Institute (BR: 10 countries); Danish Arts; Danish Center for Culture and Development; Embassies Nordic CoM; Baltic Cooperation CF: Asia (Bangladesh, China, Vietnam); Baltic States; Benelux; Germany; Hungary; Poland; Russia; UK
EstoniaMay 7, 1992SR Min. of Culture; Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Education and ResearchEstonian Institute (BR: 4 countries); Tuglas Society; Embassies Baltic Cooperation CF: Finland and Scandinavian countries; the other Baltic states; Hungary.
FinlandJanuary 23, 1970SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Education and Culture Finish Cultural Centres (in 16 countries); Embassies Nordic CoM; the Barents Regional Council; the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) Cultural exports have become a major ICC policy issue. Nordic and Nordic-Baltic -cooperation is being renovated. Enhanced efforts for cultural co-operation with China and countries of South-East Asia.
FranceMay 5, 1955Min. of Foreign Affairs (Directorate General for International Cooperation and Development - DGCID); in some fields SR with Min. of Culture Embassies and French Cultural Centres of DGCID; Alliance Française (BR in 131 countries – 2003); Association Française d'action artistique (AFAA) Francophonie; Mediterranean Forum; Grande Region Saar-Lor-Lux Advocacy role for cultural pluralism and diversity (incl. issues that are influenced by WTO, the EU and other bodies). The world-wide promotion of French language and culture and language training is seen as a contribution towards these goals. Important role of culture industries (e.g. cinema, music) and heritage.
GeorgiaApril 25, 1997Min. of Culture, Monuments Protection and Sports International agreements between cities, regions and institutions (e.g. archeological sites)BSEC; GUAM International events, e.g. festivals. CF: Baltic states, GUAM Countries, Armenia, Russia, Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, France, Romania, Italy, Israel, UK, Poland, Bulgaria. Asia (Turkey, Japan, China, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan ) USA
GermanyNovember 17, 1955Federal Foreign Office; in some fields, e.g. European co-operation, SR with Länder Governments; Fed. Chancellor's Office etc. Goethe Institute (BR: 81 countries + additional information and learning centres, reading rooms etc.); Institut f. Auslandsbeziehungen (Ifa); Embassies; Local / Regional Bodies and NGOs Baltic Cooperation, Alps-Adria Major conferences were held to highlight a new political importance attributed to ICC (incl. language teaching) and to discuss future developments. The now higher place on political agendas was underlined by increases in the federal budget. Regional focus: EU countries; Asia (China, India); Eastern and Central Europe; Middle East
GreeceJanuary 10, 1962Ministry of Culture Hellenic Foundation for Culture (BR in 4 countries, inc. Egypt); Embassies BSEC; Mediterranean Forum; Francophonie Emergence of new forms of ICC, e.g. the gradual devolution of responsibilities from the state to arms-length organisations and an increased diversity of co-operation or funding opportunities (notably from the EU). Focus on heritage.
HungaryNovember 16, 1989SR Min. of Education and Culture; Min. of Foreign Affairs Hungarian Cultural Centres (BR in 18 countries); Embassies; Balassi Institute CEI; Platform CCE; Alps-Adria; Višegrad Group; Quadrilateral Organising Hungarian seasons – artistic events abroad is a priority. Hungary has bilateral agreements with 105 countries, 50 of which are active.
IrelandMay 5, 1955Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA), with some influences of other Ministries Culture Ireland; Arts Council Ireland; Embassies; Centre Culturel Irlandais (Paris) Anglo-Irish co-operation treaties Strategic objective of DFA: "to promote Ireland through culture, with a view to the enhancement of Ireland's image and reputation abroad". Establishment in 2005 of Culture Ireland, the national agency to promote Irish arts and artists overseas.
ItalyMay 16, 1957SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. for Heritage and Cultural Activities; regional bodies Istituto Italiano di Cultura (BR in 60 countries); Società Dante Alighieri (3.300 BR); Embassies Mediterranean Forum; CEI; Alps-Adria; Quadrilateral Since the early 2000's, trend towards a "fragmentation into a variety of institutional actors" in ICC, including the Regions. Shift of balance from Europe to other world regions and away from bilateral agreements to direct co-operation. Among the priorities: Heritage and cultural tourism; "Italian Years"; language training.
LatviaMay 7, 1992Min. of Culture Embassies, The Latvian Institute Baltic Assembly, Baltic Council of Ministers, Union of the Baltic Cities Council of the Baltic Sea States, cooperation of Baltic and Nordic states. "The Cultural Policy Guidelines 2006 – 2015" set the vision for the development of Latvian international co-operation as being: 1) sustainable cultural exchange, based on co-operation projects and co-productions, thus furthering the professionalism of cultural operators, and encouraging creativity and excellence in all cultural branches; 2) increasing recognition and competitiveness of Latvian cultural products; 3) Latvia actively participating in and contributing to the cultural processes in the EU and the wider international community. In order to achieve a better coordination of international cultural cooperation on the state level interministerial council of foreign cultural policy was established.
LiechtensteinJune 13, 1979Government (Department of Culture) -Regional Conferences with A, CH, D CF: Austria; Switzerland, Germany
LithuaniaMay 7, 1992SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Culture The Lithuanian Institute; Embassies Baltic Cooperation CF: Baltic sea countries; Russia (Kaliningrad region). Important émigré centres in the West.
North Macedonia November 24, 1995SR Min. of Culture; Min. of Foreign Affairs EmbassiesCEI; Francophonie Bilateral cultural co-operation agreements are still a major instrument for ICC. The appointment of recognised artists, writers etc., as "cultural ambassadors" abroad is announced by the government. "Macedonian Diaspora" as a new priority.
MaltaDecember 12, 1966SR Min. of Education; Min. of Tourism and Culture Malta Council for Culture and the Arts; Heritage Malta Mediterranean Forum Main ICC developments and strategies, attached to EU programmes. Important cultural tourism. CF: Italy; anglophone countries (large diaspora!); Lybia.
MoldovaApril 25, 1994Min. of Culture and Tourism (Directorate of International Relations and European Harmonisation); Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min of Education and Youth Embassies, Cultural Institute “Dimitrie Cantemir”, State Company “Impresarios Agency” BSEC; CEI; Francophonie; GUAM Main priorities in the field of ICC: 1) developing Moldovan involvement in international projects, initiated by the Council of Europe, European Union and UNESCO; 2) promoting the cultural image of the country through participation of artistic groups at cultural events abroad; and 3) promoting cultural tourism at the international level. CF: Romania; other Black Sea countries
MonacoJuly 6, 1994Direction des Affaires Culturelles of MonacoEmbassies / Consulates Francophonie Support of tours of arts institutions (ballet; orchestra). CF: France; Russia; Panama
NetherlandsFebruary 8, 1956SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Education, Culture and Science Service Centre for International Cultural Activities (SICA); Netherlands Culture Fund; Embassies; Institut Néerlandais (Paris); the Flemish-Dutch House (Brussels) etc. Taalunie; co-operation in border regions State documents and policies suggest a "return to the notion of the importance of profiling Dutch culture abroad" (in addition to dialogue-oriented goals). CF: EU member states, Russia, the USA, Canada, Japan, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, Surinam, South Africa, Indonesia. NL as an ICC "hub" for the whole of Europe (NGO, Europ. Cultural Foundation etc.)
NorwayJanuary 24, 1956SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Culture and Church Affairs Embassies; Office for Contemporary Art Norway (OCA); Music Information Centre Norway (MIC); NORLA – Norwegian Literature Abroad; Norwegian Film Institute (NFI); etc.Nordic CoM; Barents Regional Council; Baltic Cooperation Main fields: Artistic exchanges and promotion of Norwegian artists and works of art; Culture as a core component of intra-Nordic cooperation; Cultural diversity and globalisation issues
PolandNovember 16, 1989SR Min. of Culture and National Heritage; Min. of Foreign Affairs Instytut Polski (BR: 16 countries); Adam Mickiewicz Institute; International Cultural Centre; Embassies; Polish Information and Foreign Investments Agency; The Permanent Conference of Museums, Archives and Polish Libraries in the West; Gaude Polonia; Borderland Foundation... CEI; Baltic Cooperation; Platform CCE; Višegrad Group Polish ICC is shaped by its specific geographical location, by economic and political interests as well as by the role of a large "Polish Diaspora". CF: Belgium, Austria, France, Germany and other member states of the EU; USA; Israel ("Jewish Diaspora"); the Baltic Region and countries on Polands Eastern border (Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, the latter via non-governmental bodies), despite "a visible set-back in former East-East relations". State bilateral cooperation is gradually replaced by activities of European institutions and artistic or NGO initiatives.
PortugalFebruary 16, 1976Min. of Foreign Affairs Office of International Cultural Relations; Instituto Camões (BR in 17 countries); Embassies Mediterranean Forum; Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries – CPLP; OEI (see Spain) Main focus: 1) co-operation with communities and countries whose official language is Portuguese; 2) dissemination of the Portuguese language, also via media programmes and Internet; 3) dissemination of Portuguese works of creative art abroad; 4) organisation of major cultural events.
RomaniaDecember 19, 1991SR Min. of Culture and Religious Affairs; Romanian Cultural Institutes BSEC; CEI; Francophonie Romania's "Brand Image" and the development of "Creative Industries" are in the focus of ICC. CF: European Union member states and the neighbouring countries of SEE and the Black Sea Region. Special attention for the needs and expectations of Romanian communities living abroad
RussiaFebruary 21, 1991SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Culture and Mass Communications Russian Centre for International Scientific and Cultural Cooperation; Russian Cultural Institutes, Embassies Baltic Cooperation; Barents Regional Cooperation; BSEC; Nordic Council; Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation and other Strengthening the cultural component in international relations; Bilateral exchange agreements with many countries all over the world; Development of cultural relations in the CIS member states; Strengthening heritage policies and traditions of intercultural dialogue in cross-border co-operation: Deeper involvement into cultural collaboration within the regional cooperation bodies.
San MarinoFebruary 13, 1986Congress of State (Government) with SR of different Ministries -Embassies and Consulates ; -Dante Alighieri Association -Alliance Française Institute -Nua Association (New Contemporary Art and Research) -Communities of San Marino Citizens abroad -Emphasis on heritage issues. CF: Mainly Italy, but also France, Russia, China, Romania, and others.
SerbiaFebruary 28, 2001Min. of Culture Cities (e.g. Belgrade; Novi Sad) BSEC; CEIEuropean integration as the ultimate political goal influences ICC, with increased role of local authorities and NGO. Regional partnerships and Serbian diaspora activities gain importance, while other ICC policy instruments are still in a development stage.
SlovakiaJanuary 1, 1993Min. of Culture (cooperation with Min. of Foreign Affairs) Embassies, Slovak Institutes CEI, Visegrad Group International presentation of Slovak culture, European Capital of Culture 2013 (Košice - regional capital of Eastern Slovakia), European Year of Intercultural Dialogue 2008, diversity of cultural expressions (UNESCO Convention), EU cultural programmes (Culture 2000, MEDIA), financial support of international cultural cooperation (projects and activities), protection, presentation and digitisation of cultural heritage, interoperability of cultural databases, connecting of Europeana and other data networks.
SloveniaJuly 2, 1992SR Min. of Foreign Affairs; Min. of Culture Embassies; Artists' Studios (Paris, N.Y., Berlin); Office for Slovenes Abroad CEI; Platform CCE; Alps-Adria; Quadrilateral Accession to the EU increasingly influences ICC in Slovenia. Official cooperation agreements mainly with non-European countries and those with "different political systems" (e.g. Russia; China). CF: Central European and Adriatic countries. Many theatre exchanges; important role of NGO.
SpainJuly 4, 1957SR Min. of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation; Min. of Culture Instituto Cervantes (BR in 45 countries); Embassies; State Corporation for Spanish Cultural Action Abroad (SEACEX), Carolina Foundation (Latin America) and other agencies; some bodies of the Regions Mediterranean Forum; Organisation of Iberoamerican States (OEI – with Conferences of the Ministers of Culture); Andrés Bello Agreement; Eurorégion Culturelle Bilateral exchange agreements still important basis for cultural exchanges. Focus on artistic exchanges, language teaching and co-operation programmes with countries in Latin America, the Arab countries (Morocco, in particular), Africa and some Asian countries. International promotion of trade, language and tourism, also by some of the Regions (e.g. COPEC in Catalonia).
SwedenJune 16, 1958Min. for Foreign Affairs Svenska Institutet (BR in Paris); Embassies; Nat. Council for Cultural Affairs; Swedish Internat. Development Authority (SIDA); Internat. Artists Studio Programme (IASPIS); other agencies Nordic CoM; Barents Regional Cooperation; Baltic Cooperation "Cultural Policies for Development" concepts, with close links to local life, culture, and the environment, shape ICC and lead to programmes e.g. in Africa, the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe. A strong tradition of Nordic cooperation is complemented by better relations with the whole Baltic region (e.g. in "Ars Baltica" exchanges).
SwitzerlandJuly 13, 1962SR Federal Department of Foreign Affairs; Federal Office of Cultural Affairs; regional bodies Pro Helvetia, Embassies (Kulturkompetenzzentrum CCC) Alps-Adria; Francophonie Pro Helvetia supports dialogue-oriented programmes (e.g. in the Balkans). Cantons are responsible for cross-border cooperation. Since 2006 partner in the MEDIA-programme of the EU and Interreg-Programs.
UkraineJune 13, 1994SR Min. of Culture and Tourism; Min. of Foreign Affairs Embassies, culture centres BSEC; CEI; GUAM Main goal is "to ensure Ukraine's proactive cultural representation in the international area", with emphasis on the Black sea area and the Balkans, active participation in CoE and EU culture programmes. Focus on festivals, large events, diaspora; increased NGO activities.
United KingdomMay 5, 1955SR Foreign & Commonwealth Office; Departments for Culture, Media and Sport and for International Development; regional bodies British Council (BR in 109 countries and territories); Arts Councils; BBC World Service, etc. Anglo-Irish co-operation treaties; Commonwealth (not active in ICC) Decentralisation of ICC (Scotland and Northern Ireland particularly active); increasing role for NGO and UK participation in international networks. "Increasing the Mobility of Collections" initiative (with EU); Cultural management training in many parts of Europe and the World; "Culture-in-development" programmes. Important role of culture industries.

Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 19thedition, 2018.