COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Cultural Policies for Gender Equality

For more information, see individual Compendium country profiles: Chapter 4.2.10 "Gender Equality and Cultural Policies" and an information document prepared 2017 by the CoE Gender Equality Unit: "Gender  Mainstreaming Activities at the Council of Europe".

Trends (partly in comparison with the last decade):

  • In most countries, gender equality is addressed as a general concern, not specifically for culture;
  • "Gender Mainstreaming" is not uniformly applied in Europe, its effects are sometimes disputed (cf. GR);
  • "Feminisation" in the cultural sector to be found mostly in East/Central Europe (with lower pay levels);
  • While promotional measures gain ground, empirical data and regular monitoring are frequently missing.

Legend: √ = Yes; x = No / ( ) = Older studies/measures / GE = Gender equality / MC = Ministry in charge of culture

 

 

 

Studies/data on women
working in the
cultural sector

Public measures* promoting women for
key positions

Government body/WG addressing equality in the cultural sector

Notes / Highlights
(based mostly on the texts of the Compendium authors)

Albania

x

x

x

 

Armenia

x

New gender policy of MC (2011)

Austria

'Gender-budgeting' data in nat. Arts Report

Azerbaijan

(√)

Culture is "traditionally a female sphere"

Belgium (FL)

x

(√)

x

Only a maximum of two thirds of the members of advisory bodies can be of the same sex (all three Communities)

Belgium (FR)

x

x

Belgium (GE)

x

x

Bulgaria

x

x

x

GE mainly an issue of NGOs

Canada

(√)

 

Croatia

x

Focus on women film directors

Cyprus

x

Cyprus GE Observatory (2003)

Czech Republic

x

GE important issue especially for NGOs

Denmark

MC contributes to GE projects

Estonia

x

x

Most civil servants in the MC are women

Finland

Equality Act obliges public agencies and private enterprises to present equality plans

France

MC observatory on GE in arts & media 2013

Georgia

x

x

x

 

Germany

Länder MC support artistic GE programmes

Greece

x

x

No evidence of GE "mainstreaming" effects

Holy See

x

x

"Feminine values" important in the Church

Hungary

x

x

x

 

Ireland

x

x

40% quota of each gender on state boards

Italy

x

RAI to monitor female representation in TV

Latvia

x

x

EU: Highest rate of women employed in arts

Liechtenstein

x

"Traditional gender roles remain strong"

Lithuania

x

x

W. direct main Lithuanian arts institutions

FYR of Macedonia

x

Report on gender equality in MC (2012)

Malta

x

x

x

Dance and literature: Strong presence of W.

Moldova

x

GE mainly an issue of NGOs

Monaco

x

x

x

"Coeducation is applied in… art academies"

Netherlands

Share of W. in top functions is "high" (35%)

Norway

x

33% of leaders in the culture sector are W.

Poland

x

√**

High degree of feminisation in public sector

Portugal

x

GE working group of MC bodies

Romania

x

x

Lower level posts are generally "feminised"

Russia

x

x

Decision-makers principally male (ca. 80%)

San Marino

x

Focus: Combat violence against women

Serbia

x

x

30% of managerial posts are held by W., but they are first dismissed in times of crisis

Slovakia

(√)

(√)

x

 

Slovenia

x

"City of Women" (International arts festival)

Spain

Institute for Women (2011) and other bodies promoting GE in the arts and culture

Sweden

'Gender mainstreaming' is the main strategy

Switzerland

(√)

x

Current GE issues without cultural focus

Ukraine

x

x

x

Jobs in the public sector not very attractive and often feminised, but the emerging cultural industries market dominated by men

United Kingdom

Efforts to increase the diversity of boards

Source: Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends in Europe, 20th edition, 2018.
*   of relevance for the arts, heritage and/or media.
** There is a post of government plenipotentiary for equal legal status, however the responsibilities of the plenipotentiary are not restricted to the culture sector only.