Current cultural affairs | Tables

Tables related to current cultural affairs are divided among the topics diversity and employment. Within diversity, tables show which measures are in place to support specific emancipation goals, but also how diversity and intercultural dialogue are handled in general. The employment section (further below) features tables on cultural employment compared to total employment per European country, the share of self-employed in cultural and total employment, and the share of women in selected fields of employment.

Diversity

Cultural policies for gender equality

For more information, see individual Compendium country profiles chapter 2.5.5 Gender and an information document prepared 2017 by the CoE Gender Equality Unit: “Gender Mainstreaming Activities at the Council of Europe”.

Legend:

√ = Yes GE = Gender equality
x = No ( ) = Older studies/measures
MC = Ministry in charge of culture
CountryStudies/data on women working in the cultural sectorPublic measures* promoting women for Government body/WG addressing equality in the cultural sectorNotes / Highlights (based mostly on the texts of the Compendium authors)
Albaniaxxx
ArmeniaxNew gender policy of MC (2011)
Austria'Gender-budgeting' data in nat. Arts Report
Azerbaijan(√)Culture is "traditionally a female sphere"
Belgium (FL)x(√)xOnly a maximum of two thirds of the members of advisory bodies can be of the same sex (all three Communities)
Belgium (FR)xxOnly a maximum of two thirds of the members of advisory bodies can be of the same sex (all three Communities)
Belgium (GE)xxOnly a maximum of two thirds of the members of advisory bodies can be of the same sex (all three Communities)
BulgariaxxxGE mainly an issue of NGOs
Canada(√)
CroatiaxFocus on women film directors
CyprusxCyprus GE Observatory (2003)
Czech RepublicxGE important issue especially for NGOs
DenmarkMC contributes to GE projects
EstoniaxxMost civil servants in the MC are women
FinlandEquality Act obliges public agencies and private enterprises to present equality plans
FranceMC observatory on GE in arts & media 2013
Georgiaxxx
GermanyLänder MC support artistic GE programmes
GreecexxNo evidence of GE "mainstreaming" effects
Holy Seexx"Feminine values" important in the Church
Hungaryxxx
Irelandxx40% quota of each gender on state boards
ItalyxRAI to monitor female representation in TV
LatviaxxEU: Highest rate of women employed in arts
Liechtensteinx"Traditional gender roles remain strong"
LithuaniaxxW. direct main Lithuanian arts institutions
FYR of MacedoniaxReport on gender equality in MC (2012)
MaltaxxxDance and literature: Strong presence of W.
MoldovaxGE mainly an issue of NGOs
Monacoxxx"Coeducation is applied in… art academies"
NetherlandsShare of W. in top functions is "high" (35%)
Norwayx33% of leaders in the culture sector are W.
Polandx√**High degree of feminisation in public sector
PortugalxGE working group of MC bodies
RomaniaxxLower level posts are generally "feminised"
RussiaxxDecision-makers principally male (ca. 80%)
San MarinoxFocus: Combat violence against women
Serbiaxx30% of managerial posts are held by W., but they are first dismissed in times of crisis
Slovakia(√)(√)x
Sloveniax"City of Women" (International arts festival)
SpainInstitute for Women (2011) and other bodies promoting GE in the arts and culture
Sweden'Gender mainstreaming' is the main strategy
Switzerland(√)xCurrent GE issues without cultural focus
UkrainexxxJobs in the public sector not very attractive and often feminised, but the emerging cultural industries market dominated by men
United KingdomEfforts to increase the diversity of boards

Notes:

* Of relevance for the arts, heritage and/or media.
** There is a post of government plenipotentiary for equal legal status, however the responsibilities of the plenipotentiary are not restricted to the culture sector only.
Intercultural dialogue: actors in European states

Legend:

Ministries: CU = Culture JUS = Justice
ED = Education LA-SOC = Labour & Social Affairs
FOR = Foreign Affairs MIN = Minorities
HEA = Health OTH = Other Ministries, e.g. for Population issues, European affairs
HR = Human Rights SPO = Sport
IM = Immigration YOU = Youth
INT = Interior SPO = Sport
Other bodies: AGEN = (Public) Agencies GOV = Government together (different Ministries)
ART = Arts institutions PRM = Offices of the Prime Minister or President
COM = Special Commissions or Boards REG = Regional authorities/states

Connected responsibilities are marked by hyphon (ED-CU), different bodies separated by / (ED/CU).

 GeneralSector Specific
CountryMain ICD competencyGeneral legal / political documentsCultureEducationYouthSport
AustriaINT / PRM / CU-ED / JUSn.a.CU-ED / REGCU-ED / REGOTH-YOUOTH-SPO
AzerbaijanED/CU/SPO-YOU+CUEDSPO-YOUSPO-YOU
BelgiumREG/AGENn.a.REGREGREGREG
BulgariaPRM++CUEDUAGENAGEN
CroatiaGOV+CUEDEDED
CyprusLA-SOC+CU-EDCU-EDAGENNGO
Czech RepublicLA-SOC / HR-MIN+CUED-YOU-SPOED-YOU-SPOED-YOU-SPO
DenmarkIM-INT+CUEDIM-INTCU
EstoniaOTH+CUEDEDCU
FinlandGOV (INT)+EDEDEDED
Francen.a.-CUEDYOU-SPOYOU-SPO
GermanyINT/PRM+REG/PRMREG/EDYOU/REGINT/NGO
GreeceINTn.a.CUEDEDCU
HungaryPRM-CU-EDED-CULA-SOCOTH
IcelandJUS/AGEN+ED-CUED-CUAGENAGEN
IrelandJUS/PRMn.a.CU-SPOEDEDCU-SPO
ItalyINT/SOC+CUEDYOU-SPOYOU-SPO
LatviaJUS+CUEDOTHED
LiechtensteinGOV+GOVGOVGOVGOV
LithuaniaMIN+CUEDLA-SOCSPO
LuxembourgCOM/NGO+CUEDFAM-INTED
FYR of MacedoniaGOV/LA-SOC++CUEDAGENAGEN
Maltan.a.-CUEDEDED
NetherlandsPRM+CU-EDCU-EDYOUHEA-SPO
NorwayLA-SOC/CU++CU/COMEDYOUCU
PolandINT+CUEDED/CUSPO
PortugalPRM-AGEN+CUED-AGENPRM-YOUPRM-YOU
RomaniaOTHn.a.CUED-YOUED-YOUn.a.
SlovakiaOTH+CUEDEDED
SloveniaMIN+CUED-SPOED-SPOED-SPO
SpainCU/REG+CU/NGO/REGED/REGAGEN/ REGAGEN
SwedenOTH++CU-AGENEDOTH/COMCU/NGO
Switzerland-+CU-AGENREGAGENAGEN
TurkeyPRM/COMn.a.CUEDPRMPRM
UkraineGOV+CU/EDEDYOUYOU
United KingdomGOVn.a.CU/REGFAMAGENCU-SPO
Intercultural education: organisation and main goals

Legend for column 2:

ARTS – introducing artistic experiences from other parts of the world MIN – learning about the contribution of minorities living in one’s own country
DIV – learning about other world cultures / cultural diversity REL – learning about world or minority religions
LING – multilingual / minority language education OTH – other goals (which?)
COUNTRIES12345
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLSHigher Education
ICE Part of general curriculum?Main goals of ICE activitiesComments / ExamplesSpecial pro-grammes or ICE experiences?Comments / Examples
AlbaniaNO_Except for Roma Programme (integration)NO"Totally unknown concept in Albanian academic institutions"
ArmeniaNO_Exception: Schools of nat. minoritiesPARTLY (since 2007 at Yerevan State University)"Linguistics and Intercultural Relations" Dept.
AustriaYES (Competence divided between Federation/Bund and States/Länder)DIV, LING, MINe.g. via the Action "Interculturality and Multilingualism – a Chance!"YES (workshops on interculturality and multilingualism for teachers, etc.)cf. www.projekte-interkulturell.at/
AzerbaijanYESARTS, DIV, MIN, RELAlso at music, art & painting schoolsYES_
BelgiumYES (Flemish Community)ARTS, DIV, MIN, RELDifferent school levels and subjectsPARTLYe.g. at "College of Europe" (Bruges)
BulgariaYESARTS, DIV, MIN, RELDifferent school levels and subjectsYES (e.g. annual seminars to train teaching staff)With focus on Roma history and culture
CanadaYES (provincial responsibility)DIV, ARTSFocus: Aboriginal and multiethnic groups and citizensYESTeachers' courses and guides for all educational levels
CroatiaYES (especially in East Slavonija and Krajina region)ARTS, DIV, MINNat. curriculum for "democratic society and human rights" includes ICEYESSpecial educational programmes for teachers of the Agency for Education (AZOO)
Czech RepublicYESLING, MIN, ARTSICE part of all strategic materials of the Ministry of Education, Youth and SportsPARTLY (courses and seminars of the "Varianty" programme)For students & primary/secondary school teachers
DenmarkYES (with special rules in Faeroe Islands, Greenland)DIV, MINFocus on adult learning /N/AFocus on internat. cultural relations (e.g. bilateral scholarships)
EstoniaPARTLY (part of the civic education course from 4th grade upwards)LING, MIN, ARTSFocus on language education and integration; role of Russian still debatedN/A_
FinlandPARTLY (in the broader context of "internationalisation" and tolerance education)LING, DIV, MIN, ARTSCampaigns against ethnic discrimination in most educational institutions / Internat.  youth contactsYES (multicultural teachers' training)University education is "international" (content, internat. contacts); issue of the role of Swedish language
FrancePARTLY (integrated in different curricula)DIV, LING, ARTSGrowing interest in the context of the 2005 UNESCO ConventionYES (at different universities)Research efforts (e.g. "Cultures, villes et dynamiques sociales")
GeorgiaYES (in principle, Law on Secondary Education, 2005)ARTS, LING, MIN, RELNational goals for education (2004)N/A_
GermanyPARTLY (broader context of civic education; Länder responsibility)DIV, LING, RELIssues around Islam faith education start to be settled in some of the Länder (2012)YES (e.g. teachers' training; further education workshops)Recommendations of ICE Round Table of German Arts Council (all education levels)
(ARTS in art or music schools)
GreecePARTLY (mainly under responsibility of local government)LING, MIN, REL (Muslim minority of Thrace)Focus on integration/ social inclusion of children of migrant familiesYES (teachers' training)Concrete action regarding e.g. ethnic traditions not yet consolidated
HungaryPARTLY (in the broader context of civic education)DIV, LING, RELFocus: "National values"; Roma integrationPARTLYe.g. at Central European University
IrelandPARTLY (focus on "participative citizenship", combating racism)DIV, MIN, OTH e.g. with regard to "Traveller education" and recent immigrationYESIrish Nat. Teachers Organisation (INTO) published Intercultural Guidelines
ItalyYES (Ministry of Education guidelines 1994 and 2007, but inconsistent implementation)DIV, ARTS, OTH"Intercultural inter-action" (interpersonal relations, anti- discrimination, ICE in all disciplines, skills)PARTLY (e.g. the "Migropolis" project at Università IUAV di Venezia)Note: Resources (e.g. "learning facilitators", "tutors" and mediators) cut down due to financial constraints
LatviaNO_Major debate on bilingual education in Russian schoolsPARTLY"Intercult. Relations" at Latvian Academy of Culture
LiechtensteinPARTLY (individual schools)DIV, REL, LINGSimplified integration of foreign-language residents (Ass. for Intercult. Education)PARTLY (e.g. at Liechtenstein Music School)Students frequently attend foreign institutions (e.g. in Switzerland, Austria)
LithuaniaPARTLY (especially in south-east regions)MIN, LINGInter-ministerial guidelines (2006)N/A_
FYR of MacedoniaYESMIN, REL, DIV, LINGDispute on religious education in elementary schoolsYESICE based on the Ohrid Framework Agreement (2007)
MaltaYES (Ministerial Policy Paper 2004)DIV, ARTS, LINGSubject "Systems of Knowledge"; ICE "School Activity Pack"N/A_
MoldovaPARTLY (elements of the general school curricula and in minority regions)MIN, DIV, LINGManuals of the "Independent Society for Human Rights Education" (NGO)PARTLY, but lack of experienced staff and other resourcesTraining of teachers/trainers (e.g. by NGO "Orhei")
The NetherlandsYES (in addition to general and decentralized activityMIN, ARTS, OTH (heritage education)Focus on educative cultural/arts projects; "Kosmopolis" platformYESCourses at different universities/academies; summer schools etc.
NorwayPARTLY (inclusion and "mainstreaming" approaches)DIV, MIN; ARTS, RELCultural diversity relevant in grants allocationN/A_
PolandNOT OFFICIALLYARTS, DIV, MINSmall-scale initiatives (e.g. of NGOs)PARTLYGrowing popularity of intercultural activities
PortugalYES (ICE efforts at nat. and local levels)ARTS, DIVe.g. "Mus-e Project" of PT Menuhin Assoc.N/A_
RomaniaPARTLY (especially with regard to minorities)MIN, LINGICE optional class in secondary schools (2008)PARTLY (e.g. Hungarian sections of universities)NGO Education 2000+ Centre organises teachers training
RussiaYES (focus on ethnic or national diversity and identity)MIN, LING, RELIssues of "ethnic" vs. "integrated" schools, inter-religious dialoguePARTLY (e.g. "culturology" courses)Individual initiatives to foster inter-ethnic knowledge, tolerance
San MarinoYES ("mainstreaming" approach)ARTS, DIV, RELSchools to strike balance between local and global dimensionYESFocus on active and democratic citizenship, inclusion
SerbiaPARTLY (integrated in different curricula)MIN, LING, REL, ARTSJoint courses of civic & religious educationPARTLYMA in Intercultural Mediation at U of Arts
SlovakiaPARTLYDIV, MIN, LINGNational Strategy in the EYID 2008 contextN/A_
SloveniaYES (inclusion and "mainstreaming" approach)ARTS, DIV, LINGActive citizenship education and civic culture (since 2000)YES (training of teachers, other professionals)Nat. Education Institute "Catalogue of Counselling Services"
SpainYES (national and regional activities, competencies)DIV, LING, REL, ARTS2007: "Education for citizenship and human rights" in curriculumYES (including traditional arts, e.g. Flamenco)"Resource Centre for Attention to Cultural Diversity in Education"
SwedenYES (integrated in different curricula)DIV, MIN, LING, ARTSDIV "one of the main objectives of Swedish cultural policy"N/A_
SwitzerlandYES (regional/local responsibility)DIV, LING, ARTSPopularity of language courses (e.g. Chinese)YESICE teachers' training (Regio Basiliensis)
United KingdomYES (part of the national curriculum + cultural projects)DIV, LING, MIN, ARTSStudying a foreign language at secondary level is only optionalYES (at many universities)Worldwide outreach activities (e.g. London Goldsmiths U in Asia)
UkraineYES (national and local responsibility)DIV, MIN, ARTS"Special hours dedicated to peace and tolerance"PARTLYOften with support from foreign cult. institutes or European bodies

Note:
This overview has been drafted by Andreas Wiesand (ERICarts Institute). It will be updated by the Compendium community of practice, including by members of the Expert Groups on “Cultural Education” and “Intercultural Dialogue”.

Laws and policies to support main national cultural minority groups

Information and data presented in this table is derived from individual Compendium country profiles, chapter 2.6 Culture and social inclusion.

Country (YEAR)Total Population% of all National MinoritiesMain National Minority Groups Main Law Providing Civic and Cultural Rights to National MinoritiesMain Cultural Policy Document Addressing National Minority Groups
Albania - 20063 581 6550.05Greeks, Mace-donians, Vlachs and Roma. Efforts being made to add Roma to this list.Article 20, Albanian Constitution (1998)There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups.
Armenia3 213 0112.2%Yazidis, Russians, Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks, KurdsLaw on Fundamentals of Cultural Legislation (2002)There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups.
Austria (2001 Census; *Test Census 2006; next Census 2011)8 100 000 *8 281 295less than 1%Slovenes, Croats, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, RomaEthnic Groups Act (1976) Article 8, para. 2 Austrian Constitution (2000)The promotion of (ethnic) cultural diversity is one of the new government's proposals. According to the second Austrian report on migration and integration (2007), there are too few integration measures and the existing ones are not sufficiently coordinated.
Azerbaijan - 20088 629 9009.4%Lezghins, Russians, Armenians, Talishians, Avars, Akhiska Turks, Tatars, Ukranians, Tsakhurians, Georgians, Kurds, Tats, Jews, Udins, and othersConstitution of Azerbaijan (1995) Article 8, Law on Culture (1998)Ministry of Culture and Tourism to establish a Coordinating Council on Cultural Diversity to focus on programmes to preserve and develop existing traditions of ethnic cultural communities.
Belgium - 200610 379 067-There are no officially recognised minority groups in Belgium.1998 Flemish Parliament Decree to establish a policy on ethnic cultural minorities (=allochthonous people)2006 Flemish Community Action Plan on Cultural Diversity covering the sectors of youth, culture and sports. Focus on culture includes not only support for creative works of ethnic cultural minorities but also for the production process (organisational structures, audiences, etc.)
Bulgaria (2001 Census)7 929 00016.1%Turkish, Roma (9.4% Turkish; and 4.7% Roma, the remaining made up of Armenians, Greeks, Russians etc.)Bulgarian ConstitutionThere is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups. The Ministry of Culture does provide support to projects of minority groups. It has also set up a Public Council on Cultural Diversity.
Canada33 000 000Aboriginals 3.2%
Official Language minorities
6.4%
Visible minorities
13.4%
(73% live in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver)
Aboriginals Official Language Minorities: Anglophones in Quebec and Francophones outside of Quebec. Visible minorities: Individuals who are non-white in color and non-Aboriginal or non-Caucasian by race (Employment Equity Act) The three largest visible minority groups are: Chinese, South Asian and Black. Aboriginals: Section 35, Constitution Act (1982) Official Language minorities: Official Languages Act Visible minorities: Canadian Multiculturalism Act, Employment Equity Act, Canadian Human Rights Act, Section 27 of the Charter of Rights and FreedomsCanada's Aboriginal Action Plan (1998)
Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government (1995)
Comprehensive Claims Policy (1986)
Official Languages Action Plan 2002-05
Canadian Diversity: Respecting our Differences (2004)
Official languages Act - Part VII (Advancement of French and English) - Guide for Federal Institutions (2007)
Croatia (2001 Census)4 430 0007.47%Austrians, Albanians, Bosniacs, Czechs, Germans, Hungarians, Italians, Jews, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Roma, Ruthenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenians and Ukrainians.Constitution (1990, rev. 2001); Constitutional Law on the Rights of National Minorities (2002); The Law on the use of language and script of national minorities in the Republic of Croatia (2000)There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups. The Ministry of Culture does provide support to projects of minority groups in the form of grants to preserve traditional cultural expressions. Government Council on National Minorities also provides support to their cultural activities.
Denmark - 20045 404 000-GermansIntegration Act (1999)The Danish Arts Agency is responsibile for the implementation of cultural policy and cultural projects for cultural minorities, groups and communities.
Estonia - 20061 345 0000.32Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusian, Finns, Swedes, Jews, Germans, Tatars, RomaLaw on the Cultural Autonomy of National Minorities (1993)Listed as a policy priority in the government's current list of cultural policy priorities. New action plan has been developed on Integration in Estonian Society 2008-2013.
Finland5 200 0000.06Swedish-speaking Finns, Sami, RomaNon-Discrimin-ation Act, 2004 (following EU Directive); Language Law (2004); Sami Language Law (2003).Mainstreaming approach, where support activities are part of government programme. National minorities have their own associations/institutions and are funded within the framework of part of the overall cultural funding system. Special funding programme for immigrant groups.
France - 200460 380 000-In France there are no officially recognised minority groups.--
Georgia (2002 Official Statistics)4 371 53516.2%Abkhazians, Ossetians, Armenians, Russians, Azerbaijanis, Greeks, Jews, Ukrainians, KurdsArticle 38 Constitution of Georgia (1995)The Ministry of Culture, Protection of Monuments and Sports developed a programme for the cultural development of ethnic minorities. Ministry of Culture, Protection of Monuments and Sports Strategy (2007). In conformity with strategy IV - Development of Culture of National Minorities.
Germany - 200582 460 000-Danes, North Frisians, Sater Frisians, Sorbs, German Sinti and Roma-No programme based cultural policy for ethnic minorities. Current discussions on the need for cultural policy to address cultural interests and rights of participation and self-organisation of ethnic minorities. Federal Commissioner for Cultural and Media Affairs, made contribution to the new "National Plan for Integration"
Greece - 200411 057 000-In Greece there are no officially recognised national minority groups. A Muslim religious minority is recognised in the region of Thrace.--
Hungary (2002 Census)10 020 0003-5%Armenians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Roma, Romanians, Ruthenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes and Ukrainians.Act on National and Ethnic Minorities (1993) defining collective and individual rightsThere is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups.
Ireland4 200 000-There are no officially recognised minority groups in Ireland.-There is no main cultural policy document
Italy (2005 ISTAT)58 462 375-Germans, Ladins, Slovenians, Croatians, Greeks, Albanians, CatalansArticle 6 Constitution of Italy (1947)and Law 482/99 providing civic and cultural rights with a focus on language.There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups.
Latvia - 20062 261 30040.7%Russians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Estonians, Jews, othersConstitution of the Republic of Latvia; Law on Free Development and Rights for Cultural Autonomy of National and Ethnic Groups (1991)Policy guidelines Social integration policy (adopted 2001); National Programme for Promoting Tolerance 2006-2010; National Programme Roma (Gypsies) in Latvia 2007-2009; National Long-term Special-Purpose Programme The Livonians (the Livs) in Latvia (1999).
Lithuania (2001 Census)3 445 00016.6%Poles, Russians, Belorussians, Ukrainians, OtherLaw on National Minorities (1991)2004 Programme of Integration of National Minorities into Society for the years 2005 - 2010.
FYR of Macedonia (2002 Census)2 022 54735.8%Albanians, Turks, Serbs, Romanies, Vlachs, Bosniaks, OtherConstitution of the Republic of MacedoniaThe National Program for Culture 2004-2008 and Strategic Plan 2009-2011 identifies support for the projects of cultural minorities and emphasises their involvement in the entire range of cultural institutions.
Moldova - 20043 388 00021.8%Ukrainians, Russians, Bulgarians, Gagauz.Constitution of the Republic of Moldova (1994); The Law on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National Minorities and the Legal status of their Organisations of 19 August 2001.There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups
Netherlands - 200616 300 000-FrisansCovenant on the Frisian Language and Culture (2005)While there is no main cultural policy document addressing the Frisan community, there are two important documents addressing diversity: 2001-2004 policy plan "Make Way for Cultural Diversity" and the cultural policy paper 2003 "More than the Sum".
Norway - 20054 600 000-Jews, Kvens, Roma, Romani People an SkogfinsArticle 110a of the Constitution (1814); Act on the Sàmi People (1987).White Paper on Cultural Minorities (2000). 2008 declared by the parliament as the Year of Cultural Diversity.
Poland (2002 Census)38 600 0003.5%National minorities: Germans, Ukrainians, Armenians, Belarussians, Lithuanians, Slovaks, Czechs, Russians, Jews; ethnic minorities: Karaites, Lemkos, Roma, Tatars and one regional group: KashubesArticle 35, Polish Constitution (1997); National and Ethnic Minorities and Regional Languages Act (2005)There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups.
Portugal10 356 1172.1%From Portuguese-speaking countries, e.g. Cape-verde, Angola and Brasil and also from Eastern Europe.Article 78 , Portuguese Constitution (1976).There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups.
Russia (2002 Census)145 000 00020.2%More than 180 different ethnic communities.Articles 26, and 69, Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993), Law on National Cultural Autonomy (1996); Law on Languages of the Peoples of the RSFSR (amended in 1998), Law on the Rights Guaranteed for Indigenous Peoples (1999); the Law on General Principles of Organising Communes among the Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and of the Far East of the RF (2000).There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups. The Concept of State National ( ethnic ) Policy (1996) is currently being revised. According to proposals by the Public Chamber (2007), this concept is to be based on contemporary notions of ethnic and cultural diversity, and human rights thus laying new principles for managing a diverse society.
San Marino - 2009San Marino has a total of 39 533 inhabitants, out of whom 26 885 reside within the territory and 12 648 reside abroad, scattered all over the worldless than 1%Italians, Romanians, Argentineans, Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, French and AlbaniansDeclaration on Citizen's Rights (1974)There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups as minorities are few
Serbia (2002 Official Statistics)7 498 00117.1%Montenegrins, Yugoslavs, Albanians, Bosnians, Bulgarians, Bunjevtsi, Vlachs, Gorani, Hungarians, Macedonians, Muslims, Germans, Roma, Romanians, Russians, Ruthenians, Slovaks, Slovenians, Ukrainians, Croatians, CzechsArticle 14 Constitution (2006) ; Law on the Protections of the Rights and Freedoms of National Minorities (2002)The Ministry of Culture supports a number of cultural projects and programmes by ethnic communities from all over Serbia; Since 2009 all these programmes are "monitored" by the National councils representing ethnic minorities and first minority cultural institutes had been created in Novi Sad (Slovak and Ruthenes).
Slovakia (December 31, 2007)5 400 99814.57 %Hungarians (9.51%), Roma (1.89%), Czech (0.88%), Ruthenian (0.44%), Ukrainian (0.21%)Chapter 4 Constitution of the Slovak Republic (1992); Act on Application of Languages of National Minorities (1999) Act on Designation of Communities in Languages of National Minorities (1994)Policy Statement of the Government of the Slovak Republic (2006 -2010)
Slovenia (2002 Census estimate)1 978 8526.1%Hungarians, Italians, Roma (three officially recognised minorities) and others ethnic groups: Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Macedonians, Albanians, MontenegrinsArticle 64, Constitution of Slovenia (1991) ; Self-Governing Ethnic Communities Act (1994) Article 65Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act (2002) The Roma Community Act (2007) defines the scope of special rights of the Roma Community, the jurisdiction of state authorities and the local community authorities in exercising those rights, and the organisation of the Roma community in order to implement their rights and obligations as set out by the Act. Self-Governing Ethnic Communities Act defining the special rights of Italian and Hungarian minorities was adopted in 1994 already.National Programme for Culture (2008-2011); The Resolution for Italian and Hungarian minorities started parliamentarian procedure in 2007.
Spain -200846 063 5119.7% are immigrantsRoma (1.5%), Jewish (0.1%), Romanians (1.56%), Moroccan (1.55%), Ecuadorians (0.91%).Article 14, Spanish Constitution (1978). Article 70, Organic Act 4/2000 on the rights and liberties of foreign nationals in Spain and their social integration.There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Culture has supported the creation of the " Roma Cultural Institute Foundation " (2007). In February 2007 the government approved the Strategic Plan on Citizenship and Integration (2007-2010) which recognizes equal rights and duties for everyone, equality of opportunities and respect for diversity. On the other hand, the National Action Plan on Social Inclusion (2008-2010) stresses the need to aid the socio-professional integration of immigrant groups.
Sweden -20069 040 000*Swedish Finns, Tornedalers, Roma and JewsGovernment Bill 1998/99:143 Nationella minoriteter i Sverige (National Minorities in Sweden)2006 declared the Year of Cultural Diversity. First evaluation of its activities published in 2007.
Switzerland8 100 00020.5%87% Europeans, half of them from Germany (190 000), Serbia (190 000), Portugal (180 000) and Italy (290 000).--
Ukraine (2007 Official Statistics)45 963 47120.73%Russians, Byelorussians, Moldavians, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Romanians, Poles, Jews, Armenians, Greeks, Tatars, Roma, Azerbaijanis, Georgians, GermansArticle 11 Constitution of Ukraine (1996) ; Declaration of Rights of Nationalities in the Ukraine (1991); Fundamentals of the Legislation on Culture (1992)Presidential Edict on Measures Supporting the Activity of National and Cultural Societies (2001).
United Kingdom (2001 Census*)54 154 0007.9% (non-white ethnic minority groups)Indigenous: Roma, Welsh, Cornish, Celtic Other: South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis), Afro-Caribbean, Jews, Black Africans, Chinese, Turkish groups, Irish, VietnameseRace Relations Act (1976), Human Rights Act (1998), Northern Ireland Equality Act (1998), Race Relations Amendment Act (2000), Racial and Religious Hatred Act (2006, England & Wales)There is no main cultural policy document, but Black and Minority Ethnic groups are defined as a priority group by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and are included in Public Service Agreement Targets, set by the Treasury.

Country Notes:

* Sweden: The share of “minority groups” is extremely small. The largest one, the Sami group, consists of approx. 20.000 persons. The main focus of attention in Sweden is on the “new minorities” or immigrants coming mainly from South East Europe or from outside of Europe. They are not officially recognised “minority groups”. Official population statistics show that, in 2006, the number of persons with a “foreign background” i.e., persons born in other countries and persons with both parents born in foreign countries, was 1.46 million or 16,2% of total population.
UK: UK census 2001 available at statistics.gov.uk
Selected cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue policies in different sectors
Challenges to cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue policies
Intercultural dialogue: examples of policies and programmes
Linguistic diversity and media programming
CountryOfficial Language(s)Legally Recognised Languages of Minority Cultural GroupsLegal Provisions to Promote the use of Languages of Minority Cultural Groups in Radio/TV Programming
AlbaniaAlbanianTosk, Gheg (both dialect)NO
ArmeniaArmenianRussian, Yazidi and AssyrianYES
AustriaGermanCroatian, Hungarian and SloveneYES
AzerbaijanAzerbaijaniAll languages including those of minoritiesYES
(more than 15)
Belgium Flemish, French and GermanNONO
BulgariaBulgarianTurkish, RomaniYES
Canada*English and FrenchNOYES
CroatiaCroatianCzech, German, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian, Slovenian and Ukrainian.YES
DenmarkDanishGermanYES
EstoniaEstonianNONO
FinlandFinnish and SwedishSami, Roma, Sign languageYES
FranceFrenchNONO
GeorgiaGeorgian and AbkhazianNONO
GermanyGermanSorbian, DanishYES
GreeceGreekNONO
Holy SeeLatinNONO
HungaryHungarianCroatian, German, Romanian, Romani, Ruthenian, Polish, Serbian, Slovakian, Bulgarian, Greek, Armenian, Ukrainian and SlovenianYES
IrelandIrish and EnglishNONO
ItalyItalianGerman, Ladin, French and Slovenian, Albanian, Catalans, Greeks, Croatians, Friulan, Occitan and SardinianYES
LatviaLatvianLivonian languageYES
LiechtensteinGermanNONO
LithuaniaLithuanianNOYES
FYR ofMacedonianAlbanian, Turkish, Serbian, Romani, VlachYES
Macedonia
MaltaMaltese and EnglishNONO
MoldovaRomanian and RussianRussianYES
MonacoFrenchNONO
NetherlandsDutchFriesianYES
NorwayNorwegian with two forms, Bokmål and NynorskSàmi, Kvensk, Romanes and RomaniNO
PolandPolishNational minorities' languages: German, Ukrainian, Armenian, Belarussian, Lithuanian, Slovak, Czech, Russian, Hebrew/Yiddish; Ethnic minorities' languages: Karaitic, Lemkos, Romani, Tatarian and one regional language: KashubianNO
PortugalPortugueseNONO
RomaniaRomanian19 minority languages are recognised by lawYES
RussiaRussian for the Russian Federation, respective languages for the Republics of the FederationAll languages including those of minorities (more than 150)YES
San MarinoItalianNONO
SerbiaSerbianIn those areas where significant numbers of ethnic minorities live, the minority languages are in official use concurrently with the Serbian language.YES
SlovakiaSlovakHungarian, Roma, Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Polish, German, Croatian, BulgarianYES
SloveniaSlovenianHungarian, Italian and RomaniNO
SpainCastilian
Basque: co-official in the Basque Country and in some areas of Navarre.
Catalan: co-official in Catalonia and Balearic Islands.
Occitan, called Aranes in the Aran Valley: co-official in Catalonia. **
Galician: co-official in Galicia.
Valencian: co-official in Valencia
Catalan and Aragonese are recognised minority languages in Aragon.
Bable in Asturias.
YES
SwedenSwedishSami (all forms), Finnish, Meänkieli (Tornedal Finnish), Romani Chib (all forms) and YiddishNO***
SwitzerlandGerman, French, Italian, Rhaeto-romanicNONO
UkraineUkranianYESYES
United KingdomEnglishGaelic, Welsh, Ulster Scots, Manx, Cornish, Irish, ScotsYES

Notes:

* (Canada) No laws but CRTC Regulations in effect regarding licensed non-official language services over radio and television.
** (Spain) This is according to the new regional law, which is being examined by the Constitutional Court. In the previous regional law the aranes
was recognised as a minority language in Catalonia, subject to special protection.
*** (Sweden) No laws – but rules and contracts with media and minority cultural groups/communities.

Source:
Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 20th edition, 2018.

Employment

Total cultural employment (2011-2017)
Country / Year2011201220132014201520162017
Austria155.1164.3173.9163.8164.3171174.7
Belgium169.4182.6169.9183.8181.5179.4197.8
Bulgaria75.176.878.278.283.884.385.1
Croatia58.157.652.359.353.748.757.5
Cyprus11.511.511.911.112.112.613.4
Czechia176.9184.2191.4191.2187210.2204.3
Denmark123.1125.9125123.5126.1125.6122
Estonia30.535.534.728.933.734.235.9
Finland128.9124.8118.9118.5123.3116.8115.5
France884.8863.2894.9884.6848.5889.1939.4
Germany1573.11689.516601642.21643.51656.51663.7
Greece126.8128.5121.8112.9103.9118.2120.5
Hungary139.9143.1151.2149.9155.5157.1147.1
Ireland6765.771.674.774.679.676.5
Iceland99.11010.11111.911.2
Italy783.1812.7784.3781.3785.6765.8825.5
Latvia29.131.634.734.736.240.136
Lithuania45.647.549.153.153.348.949.8
Luxembourg11.812.612.414.712.913.212.4
FYROM24.926.1232221.122.923.9
Malta6.56.77.48889.9
Montenegro7.97.29.38.97.37.38.2
Netherlands366.1376.1386.1381.2382.6378.3390.2
Norway113.1119.3113.9105.5102.5102.5102.2
Poland493.1497.6492.6508.2530.5544.4569.2
Portugal133.7128.8127.6135.8142.2139.4145.6
Romania117.2131.9116.3130.5126.1133.7141.1
Spain563.3551.5552.5583.4607.3634.2671.6
Sweden219.6223225224.5229.6243.1242.5
Switzerland207.2212.8210.9210.1224.5221220
Slovenia40.642.844.942.841.642.345.4
Slovakia60.459.452.36260.962.172.6
Turkey522.2517.5566591.2591.7607.2644.7
United Kingdom1261.213381354.61381.11448.11467.31491.9

Source:
Eurostat database (cult_emp_sex) 2018.

Cultural employment as share of total employment (2011-2017)
Country/Year2011201220132014201520162017
Austria3.84.04.24.04.04.14.1
Belgium3.84.03.84.04.03.94.3
Bulgaria2.52.62.72.62.82.82.7
Croatia3.63.73.43.83.43.13.5
Cyprus2.93.03.33.13.43.53.5
Czechia3.63.83.93.83.74.13.9
Denmark4.64.74.74.54.64.44.3
Estonia5.15.85.64.65.35.35.5
Finland5.25.04.84.85.14.84.7
France3.43.33.53.43.23.33.5
Germany4.14.34.24.14.14.04.0
Greece3.13.53.53.22.93.23.2
Hungary3.73.73.93.73.73.63.3
Ireland3.53.53.73.83.63.73.5
Iceland5.45.45.85.76.06.25.8
Italy3.53.63.53.53.53.43.6
Latvia3.43.63.93.94.04.54.0
Lithuania3.63.73.84.04.03.63.7
Luxembourg5.25.35.26.05.05.14.6
FYROM3.94.03.43.23.03.23.2
Malta3.93.94.24.44.34.24.7
Montenegro4.13.64.64.13.33.33.6
Netherlands4.44.54.74.64.64.54.5
Norway4.54.64.44.03.93.93.9
Poland3.23.23.23.23.33.43.5
Portugal2.82.82.93.03.13.03.1
Romania1.41.51.41.51.51.61.6
Spain3.13.13.23.43.43.53.6
Sweden4.74.84.84.74.75.04.8
Switzerland4.84.94.84.74.94.84.7
Slovenia4.34.65.04.74.54.64.7
Slovakia2.62.62.22.62.52.52.9
Turkey2.22.12.22.32.22.22.3
United Kingdom4.34.54.54.54.64.64.7

Source:
Eurostat database (cult_emp_sex) 2018.

Share of self-employed in cultural and total employment (2005, 2009, 2017)
CountryShare of cultural workers in total employmentShare of self-employed in cultural employmentShare of self-employed in total employment
Austria4.10%44.00%11.00%
Belgium4.30%29.00%14.00%
Bulgaria2.70%33.00%11.00%
Croatia3.50%15.00%11.00%
Cyprus3.50%31.00%12.00%
Czech Republic3.90%52.00%17.00%
Denmark4.30%29.00%8.00%
Estonia5.50%26.00%10.00%
Finland4.70%48.00%13.00%
France3.50%39.00%11.00%
Germany4.00%52.00%10.00%
Greece3.20%22.00%30.00%
Hungary3.30%32.00%10.00%
Iceland5.80%25.00% 12.00% 
Ireland3.50% 56.00% 15.00% 
Italy3.60%63.00%22.00%
Latvia4.00%51.00%12.00%
Lithuania3.70%N/A11.00%
Luxembourg4.60%19.00%9.00% 
Malta4.70%50.00%15.00%
The Netherlands4.50%64.00%16.00%
North Macedonia3.20%N/A17.00%
Norway3.90%38.00%6.00%
Poland3.50%33.00%18.00%
Portugal3.10%46.00%17.00%
Romania1.60%23.00%18.00%
Slovakia2.90%48.00%15.00%
Slovenia4.70%39.00%12.00%
Spain3.60%39.00%16.00%
Sweden4.80%34.00%10.00%
Switzerland4.70%33.00%13.00%
United Kingdom4.70%60.00%15.00%
CountryShare of cultural workers in total employmentShare of self-employed in cultural employmentShare of self-employed in total employment
Austria4.10%44.00%11.00%
Belgium4.30%29.00%14.00%
Bulgaria2.70%33.00%11.00%
Croatia3.50%15.00%11.00%
Cyprus3.50%31.00%12.00%
Czech Republic3.90%52.00%17.00%
Denmark4.30%29.00%8.00%
Estonia5.50%26.00%10.00%
Finland4.70%48.00%13.00%
France3.50%39.00%11.00%
Germany4.00%52.00%10.00%
Greece3.20%22.00%30.00%
Hungary3.30%32.00%10.00%
Iceland5.80%25.00% 12.00% 
Ireland3.50% 56.00% 15.00% 
Italy3.60%63.00%22.00%
Latvia4.00%51.00%12.00%
Lithuania3.70%N/A11.00%
Luxembourg4.60%19.00%9.00% 
Malta4.70%50.00%15.00%
The Netherlands4.50%64.00%16.00%
North Macedonia3.20%N/A17.00%
Norway3.90%38.00%6.00%
Poland3.50%33.00%18.00%
Portugal3.10%46.00%17.00%
Romania1.60%23.00%18.00%
Slovakia2.90%48.00%15.00%
Slovenia4.70%39.00%12.00%
Spain3.60%39.00%16.00%
Sweden4.80%34.00%10.00%
Switzerland4.70%33.00%13.00%
United Kingdom4.70%60.00%15.00%
CountryShare of cultural workers in total employmentShare of self-empoyed in cultural employmentShare of self-empoyed in total employment
Albania---
Armenia---
Austria2.40%29.80%9.20%
Azerbaijan---
Belgium2.10%26.60%13.90%
Bulgaria1.80%12.20%9.80%
Canada---
Croatia2.00%25.00%12.60%
Denmark3.00%16.50%7.80%
Estonia3.20%7.00%6.30%
Finland3.30%20.00%9.70%
France2.00%20.10%9.00%
Georgia---
Germany2.80%32.70%11.40%
Greece2.10%35.00%28.90%
Holy See---
Hungary2.10%23.20%13.10%
Ireland2.50%27.80%13.50%
Italy2.10%53.40%26.20%
Latvia2.70%12.90%6.70%
Liechtenstein---
Lithuania2.50%3.50%6.40%
FYR of Macedonia---
Malta2.30%10.70%13.00%
Moldova---
Monaco---
Netherlands3.80%35.10%10.90%
Norway2.20%23.50%5.90%
Poland1.70%19.10%12.20%
Portugal1.40%22.30%18.00%
Romania1.10%7.80%7.30%
Russia---
San Marino---
Serbia---
Slovakia1.80%24.20%12.90%
Slovenia2.30%7.40%8.00%
Spain2.10%21.70%16.60%
Sweden3.50%27.10%9.60%
Switzerland2.70%25.90%12.30%
Ukraine---
United Kingdom3.10%29.70%12.50%
Share of women in selected fields of employment (2005, 2009, 2017)
CountryCultural employmentHigh-tech industry & Knowledge-intensive services
Austria44.53%47.14%
Belgium45.20%46.21%
Bulgaria55.23%46.60%
Croatia45.04%45.78%
Cyprus47.76%47.96%
Czech Republic49.19%44.17%
Denmark50.08%47.20%
Estonia63.23%48.71%
Finland51.00%48.16%
France46.32%48.11%
Germany47.30%46.56%
Greece43.57%41.90%
Hungary50.78%45.33%
Iceland50.00%46.47%
Ireland46.41%46.03%
Italy43.85%42.09%
Latvia64.44%50.73%
Lithuania61.85%51.34%
Luxembourg53.23%46.32%
Malta38.38%39.96%
The Netherlands44.59%46.41%
North Macedonia50.21%39.21%
Norway49.32%47.36%
Poland53.07%44.81%
Portugal43.89%48.87%
Romania51.52%43.56%
Slovakia49.17%45.27%
Slovenia48.68%46.27%
Spain42.47%45.47%
Sweden50.97%47.65%
Switzerland48.73%46.45%
United Kingdom42.63%47.01%
Countrycultural employmentHigh tech servicesKnowledge intensive services
Austria45%30.1%57.5%
Belgium44%28.5%59.0%
Bulgaria52%42.9%58.6%
Croatia45%35.9%60.5%
Cyprus43%31.7%54.8%
Czech Republic47%28.3%59.5%
Denmark51%28.5%62.0%
Estonia58%43.4%68.9%
Finland58%37.2%66.4%
France43%31.6%60.6%
Germany46%31.2%59.0%
Greece39%30.0%49.7%
Hungary47%32.1%61.9%
Iceland39%30.3%61.6%
Ireland45%30.3%59.9%
Italy44%31.7%52.5%
Latvia68%29.2%64.9%
Lithuania64%40.7%69.4%
Luxembourg30%29.0%47.8%
Malta--45.7%
The Netherlands48%23.6%58.0%
Norway48%29.0%62.1%
Poland53%33.1%62.9%
Portugal51%32.6%59.6%
Romania48%36.7%56.5%
Slovakia54%28.2%62.5%
Slovenia51%29.8%60.3%
Spain42%34.6%53.7%
Sweden45%30.4%62.9%
United Kingdom45%28.3%59.5%

Sources:
Cultural employment data: Eurostat Pocketbook: Cultural Statistics, 2011.
High Tech and Knowledge Intensive Services data for 2009: EUROSTAT, database on Science and Technology.

Notes:
High Tech Services include post and telecommunications; computer and related activities; research and development (EUROSTAT NACE codes 64, 72, 73).
Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS) include water transport; air transport; post and telecommunications; financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities; education; health and social work; recreational, cultural and sporting activities (EUROSTAT NACE codes 61, 62, 64 to 67, 70 to 74, 80, 85 and 92).

Countrycultural employmentHigh tech servicesKnowledge intensive services
Austria46%29.8%59.3%
Belgium40%28.6%58.9%
Bulgaria50%52.2%64.4%
Croatia54%33.1%61.2%
Cyprus44%39.2%59.1%
Czech Republic46%46.3%64.4%
Denmark45%35.2%62.6%
Estonia66%46.8%68.0%
Finland53%36.8%65.8%
France47%38.2%61.1%
Germany44%32.9%60.8%
Greece42%30.1%52.5%
Hungary54%40.3%64.8%
Iceland49%39.6%64.2%
Ireland50%30.5%61.3%
Italy40%32.2%55.7%
Latvia63%58.3%69.6%
Lithuania65%53.8%69.9%
Luxembourg38%28.8%52.7%
Malta32%-46.4%
The Netherlands43%24.7%58.5%
Norway45%33.8%62.9%
Poland57%40.9%65.4%
Portugal42%36.5%63.7%
Romania54%48.4%63.7%
Slovakia44%44.8%65.3%
Slovenia54%32.1%63.9%
Spain44%32.6%56.4%
Sweden47%32.4%63.0%
United Kingdom48%24.6%59.8%

Sources:
Cultural employment data: EUROSTAT, EU Labour force survey 2005.
High Tech and Knowledge Intensive Services data for 2005: EUROSTAT, database on Science and Technology.

Notes:
High Tech Services include post and telecommunications; computer and related activities; research and development (EUROSTAT NACE codes 64, 72, 73).
Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS) include water transport; air transport; post and telecommunications; financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities; education; health and social work; recreational, cultural and sporting activities (EUROSTAT NACE codes 61, 62, 64 to 67, 70 to 74, 80, 85 and 92).