Current cultural affairs | Resources

Council of Europe

2017 catalogue of the “Cultural Routes” programme / Le 2017 programme des Itinéraires culturels (2017)
30 years ago, the Cultural Routes programme of the Council of Europe was launched; today, more than 30 Cultural Routes take part and demonstrate, by means of journey through space and time, how the heritage and cultures of different and distant regions of Europe contribute to a shared cultural heritage. Cultural Routes put into practice the fundamental principles promoted by the Council of Europe: human rights, democracy, participation, cultural diversity and identity.
Le programme des Itinéraires culturels du Conseil de l’Europe a été lancé en 1987 afin de démontrer comment les racines de l’identité européenne peuvent être le fondement d’une citoyenneté partagée. Les Itinéraires culturels démontrent, par le biais d’un voyage à travers l’espace et le temps, comment le patrimoine et les cultures de régions différentes et éloignées d’Europe contribuent à un patrimoine culturel partagé. Ils mettent en œuvre les principes fondamentaux promus par le Conseil de l’Europe : droits de l’homme, démocratie, participation, diversité culturelle et identité.

Competences for Democratic Culture: Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic Societies (2016)
This book presents a new conceptual model of the competences which citizens require to participate in democratic culture and live peacefully together with others in culturally diverse societies. The model is the product of intensive work over a two-year period, and has been strongly endorsed in an international consultation with leading educational experts. The book describes the competence model in detail, together with the methods used to develop it. The model provides a robust conceptual foundation for the future development of curricula, pedagogies and assessments in democratic citizenship and human rights education. Its application will enable educational systems to be harnessed effectively for the preparation of students for life as engaged and tolerant democratic citizens.

Action Plan on Building Inclusive Societies 2016-2019 (2016)
The Action Plan aims to assist member States in managing Europe’s diversity through smart policies fostering mutual understanding and respect. It is organised around activities in the fields of education, anti-discrimination and effective integration.

Human rights in culturally diverse societies (2016)
According to CoE Secretary General Thorbjørn Jagland in his Preface, terrorism, migration flows and economic constraints contributed to the rise of populism and xenophobia in Europe and “our commitment to tolerance and diversity is feeling the strain.” However, “diversity is an asset to our countries – economically, socially and politically” – and Europe has “always thrived on its mix of heritage and culture, which enriches our shared way of life whether it flows from communities who have lived here for generations, or from those who have arrived more recently.” Therefore, we should not ignore negative trends and rather find ways how to best address them. This publication includes guidelines and texts aimed at helping Council of Europe member States maintain and manage diversity by protecting the human rights which allow different faiths and cultures to live together.

Identities and diversity within intercultural societies (2014)
Cultural diversity has grown in European societies due inter alia to globalisation flows and migration. However, if not properly managed, “cultural differences can lead to radicalisation, paralysing forms of conflict and even violence”, argues Carlos Costa Neves in his Report to the Committee on Culture, Science, Education and Media of the CoE Parliamentary Assembly (PACE). Based also on evidence provided by the Compendium, he calls “for a radical change in political discourse and action so that new ways can be found to celebrate cultural diversity as a positive factor for innovation and development.” In its Resolution, PACE has confirmed this view and proposed different types of actions.

The Intercultural City Step by Step (2013)
It falls primarily upon cities to design and implement policies that foster community cohesion and turn cultural diversity into a factor of development rather than a threat. This practical guide for applying the urban model of intercultural integration is designed for city leaders and practitioners wishing to learn from the “Intercultural Cities” pilot project run by the Council of Europe and the European Commission in developing an intercultural approach to diversity management. The guide recommends steps and measures to help develop an intercultural strategy and monitor its implementation.

New Nationalism and Identity Politics in Europe (2011)
In his CulturewatchEurope (CWE) “Think Piece”, Peter Duelund, Director of the Nordic Cultural Institute in Copenhagen, deals with “The Impact of the New Nationalism and Identity Politics on Cultural Policy-making in Europe and Beyond”. Referring to examples in a number of European countries, he comes to the conclusion that particularly the revival of “primordial” and “ethno-symbolic” paradigms in the perception of the relationship between identity and nation challenge diversity-related or intercultural concepts that emerged during the past decades. Duelund recognises that evidence found in the Compendium country profiles does not yet provide a “clear-cut” trend towards the new forms of culturalist “identity politics” in Europe. However, the resurgence of populism and of right-wing or nationalist parties in many countries could indeed lead to the conclusion that there exists a difference between legally enshrined definitions of culture (to be found in Chapter 2.2 of the Compendium profiles), which still represent the previous mainstream approach, and the narratives or stereotypes that are now frequently used, mainly as a reflection of migration issues, in general political discourses. According to Duelund, these tendencies “directly contradict the vision of a people’s Europe in which the individual is at the centre of a multicultural society which respects not only fundamental rights and freedoms, but also the cultural and social identity of individuals”. Therefore, he argues, the Council of Europe and its member states should try to “rectify mistakes” and “minimise the unfortunate effects of the new nationalism on present-day policies in Europe.”

Living Together – combining diversity and freedom in 21st-century Europe (2011)
Report prepared by a group of nine “eminent persons” from all parts of Europe – see more under Cultural Rights & Ethics (below).

National Film Policies and the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2009)
As a consequence of the above mentioned review, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe issued, on 23 September 2009, the Recommendation CM/Rec(2009)7 to its Member States.

Review of National Film Policies for Diversity (2008)
In 2008-2009, the Council of Europe undertook a review of national film policies. Inter alia, the review was seen as a contribution to the implementation of the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. In this context, a multi-stakeholder Film Policy Forum “Shaping Policies for the Cinema of Tomorrow” was held in Krakow/Poland (September 2008).

Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2000)
Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 December 2000.

European Cultural Convention (1954)
Council of Europe Convention adopted in Paris 19 November 1954. It has been signed by 48 countries.

Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity Project
Overview of key project activities and publications

Council of Europe: National Studies on Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2004.

Bennett, Tony: Differing Diversities: Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity . Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2001.

Ellmeier, Andrea; Rà¡sky, Béla: Differing Diversities: Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity – Eastern European Perspectives. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2006.

Robins, Kevin: The Challenge of Transcultural Diversities – Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2006.

Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy
The Strategy was set up following the Rio Earth Summitt and the adoption of the United Nations “Convention on Biological Diversity”. The principal aim of the Strategy is to find a consistent response to the decline of biological and landscape diversity in Europe and to ensure the sustainability of the natural environment.

European Heritage Days
The EHD, a joint Council of Europe/European Union initiative, aims to promote the wealth of cultural diversity on the European continent.

European Audiovisual Observatory
Provides data and information on the landscape of audiovisual goods and services in Europe including reports on e.g. the share of domestic film production in comparison to the share of foreign imports.

UN – UNESCO

UNESCO Global Report 2018 – Re | Shaping Cultural Policies (2017)
The Global Report series has been designed to monitor the implementation of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005). It provides evidence of how this implementation process contributes to attaining the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and targets. The 2018 Global Report analyses progress achieved in implementing the 2005 Convention since the first Global Report was published in 2015. It produces new and valuable evidence to inform cultural policy making and advance creativity for development.

Globalisation of Cultural Trade: A Shift in Consumption (2016)
A new Report from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS) sheds light on the international flows of cultural goods and services during the 2004-2013 period.

Inclusive participation for Roma children in school and society (2014)
Inclusion from the Start – Guidelines on inclusive early childhood care and education for Roma children, has been published jointly by UNESCO and the Council of Europe in the context of the Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) strategy. These guidelines provide guidance on key themes in ECCE – such as the conceptualisation of services, agenda setting, curricular and pedagogical approaches, staff training and professional development, assessment and transition to primary education – and highlight examples of good practice. It is hoped that they will support the work of policy makers, early childhood educators and their trainers, Roma organisations, NGOs and international organisations and contribute to making a real change in the lives of young Roma children.

Mapping Cultural Diversity – Good Practices from Around the Globe (2010)
The German Commission for UNESCO and the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) launched this publicationat the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris on 29 November 2010. Mapping Cultural Diversity is a contribution to the debate on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions around the 2005 UNESCO Convention. The publication includes examples of 39 projects that are contributing to this goal in different parts of the world. Most contributions are by the Fellows of the U40 Network for “Cultural Diversity 2030”, a group of over 60 cultural policy experts under 40 years of age. The electronic version of the publication can be downloaded here.

Cultural Diversity Homepage
UNESCO’s main access point to information on its programmes and publications on cultural diversity.

Convention on the Protection and the Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)
Adopted in Paris on 20 October 2005 by the members of the UNESCO General Conference. Text of the Convention is available in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic.

States Parties to the Convention
Provides a list of all countries that have ratified the UNESCO Convention and the date of their ratification.

Draft Operational Guidelines Adopted by the Intergovernmental Committee
Provides links to operational gudelines adopted for specific Articles of the Convention.

Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001)
Adopted in Paris on 2 November 2001 by the UNESCO General Conference. Text of the Declaration is available in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic.

World Report on Cultural Diversity
Provides an overview of the goals, the proposed conceptual framework and the main activities leading to the realisation of the World Report. Members of the advisory committee of experts and board of governors responsible for the report are listed.

UNESCO Reflections on Cultural Diversity
Presents information on meetings, colloquia, research projects and publications on cultural diversity undertaken or supported by UNESCO.

What is UNESCO doing to promote Cultural Diversity?
A review of actions taken by UNESCO in different areas to promote cultural diversity such as the media, education, arts and language.

Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity
Established in 2002, the Global Alliance works to strengthen the cultural industries in developing countries by encouraging knowledge-sharing, capacity-building, good practice and mentoring between its members. It provides support to programmes and activities implemented within the framework of the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

European Union

Treaty of the European Union
Preservation and promotion of cultural diversity are among the founding principles of the European Union and are enshrined in a special clause of its Treaty.

European Commission and the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
Presents information on the EU’s role in the ratification and implementation of the UNESCO Convention.

European Agenda for Culture in a Globalising World
Commission’s new strategy for culture was published in May 2007. It  identifies cultural diversity among its main priorites; the others being intercultural dialogue, creativity and innovation and culture as a key element of the EU’s external relations activities. The strategy  proposes the creation on an EU-ACP Cultural Fund to support the distribution of cultural goods from ACP countries. This site also provides a link to the EC’s consultations which fed into the development of its agenda.

EU-ACP Support Programme to the Cultural Industries
In the context of the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, the programme was designed to promote an enabling environment for creativity, cooperation and exchanges, independence and viability of the cultural sector in the 79 ACP States, as well as the safeguarding of cultural diversity and fundamental cultural values. The site provides information on the ACP Cultural Observatory.

Networks on Cultural Diversity

International Network of Lawyers for  Cultural Diversity
Housed at the Faculté de droit, l’Université  Laval (Canada), this network was founded at a seminar organised in September 2008. Members are lawyers interested in the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

International Network for Cultural Diversity (INCD)
The INCD is a worldwide network of artists and cultural groups dedicated to countering the homogenizing effects of globalization on culture.

International Federation of Coalitions for  Cultural Diversity (IFCCD)
Established in September 2007, the IFCCD brings together over 40 national coalitions from around the world, representing more than 600 professional cultural organisations.

European Coalitions for Cultural Diversity

European Coalitions for Cultural Diversity: Final Declaration.
Adopted by representatives of the national coalitions in Brussels, January 2006.

Österreiches Koalition für die kulturelle Vielfalt (Austria)

Canadian Coalition for Cultural Diversity

Coalition française pour la diversité culturelle (France)

Bundesweite Koalition für Kulturelle Vielfalt (Germany)

Coaliciàon Espanola para la Diversidad Cultural (Spain)

Schweizer Koalition für die kulturelle Vielfalt (Switzeland)

Cultural Diversity Network of Broadcasters
A network of the UK’s leading broadcasting companies working together to promote diversity in programme making and decision-making.

Research/Debates

Pursuing Diversity: New Voices, New Sounds (2016) (Word document)
In his essay for http://www.newmusicbox.org/, Brian Chin concludes that, for a number of reasons, “pursuing diversity in music is a winning proposition, …important in growing new and good music.”

For a Diversified Networked Culture (2015)
This study, prepared by te Centre d’études sur l’intégration et la mondialisation (CEIM), affiliated to the Université du Québec in Montréal, investigates concrete challenges to the diversity of cultural expressions in the digital era, studies measures or policies aiming to implement the 2005 Convention principles in the digital environment and proposes new specific operational guidelines in order to transform the 2005 UNESCO Convention into “an important instrument of the global cultural governance in the digital era.”

“The Age of Culture” (2014) (Word document)
Based on his lifetime research and reflection on cultural issues, D. Paul Schafer argues that, in less than fifty years, culture has moved from being seen as a peripheral activity to being indispensable to the achievement of vital social and developmental goals. He is convinced that culture (in the broadest sense, as the sum of human experience and achievement) is connected to all the world’s most pressing problems, such as climate change, inequalities in the distribution of wealth and income, resource depletion, and conflicts between different nations, ethnic groups, and individuals. According to his book, none of these problems can be addressed effectively, much less resolved, without recourse to the holistic, all-encompassing perspective that culture provides. However, this would require “a paradigm shift from economics, economies, and economic growth to culture, cultures, and cultural development”.

“Funding for Inclusion – Women and Girls in the Equation” (2012)
Research commissioned by GrantCraft and the international women’s fund Mama Cash on the funding patterns of several foundations revealed that the European foundation community can play a much more central role in improving the position of women and girls worldwide. With the aim of inspiring and helping to tap this diversity potential by European foundations and to provide practical strategies, a guide has now been produced by Helen O’Connell, Andrea Lynch, Andrea Cornwall and Zsofia Lang. According to this guide, gender research as well as proper communication and media policies can be crucial points of departure for such strategies. GrantCraft is a joint project of the Foundation Center in New York and the European Foundation Centre (Brussels).

“Culture and Democracy” (2012)
In his comprehensive, new study (in German), Michael Wimmer claims that Austrian culture still “has its roots in the representation needs of the declining Habsburg Empire. The feudal investments in culture were not aimed at enabling the citizens to participate in public affairs; on the contrary: they were meant to keep them away from the political sphere by all cultural means, by offering them a splendid, but politically irrelevant alternative terrain.” In order to counterbalance this “gradual musealisation” and to open up to a more diverse, citizen-oriented understanding of cultural policy, the book proposes a number of reform steps with a focus on policies and administration, arts and educational institutions as well as the qualification of artists. Detailed summary in German.

Addressing tolerance and diversity discourses in Europe A Comparative Overview of 16 European Countries (2012)
This book of Ricard Zapata-Barrero and Anna Triandafyllidou seeks to offer a European view of diversity challenges and the ways in which they are dealt with. It highlights important similarities and differences and identifies the groups that are worse off in the countries studied. While it may be difficult to devise policy approaches that are responsive to the needs of all the 16 European countries studied here (let alone the 27 EU member states), it is however possible to develop policies that address a number of European countries that share common or parallel migration and ethnic minority experiences.

Culture and diversity in knowledge creation (2012)
Is the paradise of effortless communication the ideal environment for knowledge creation? Or, can the development of local culture in regions raise knowledge productivity compared to a single region with a unitary culture? In other words, can a real technological increase in the cost of collaboration and the cost of public knowledge flow between regions, resulting in cultural differentiation between regions, increase welfare? In this framework, a culture is a set of ideas held exclusively by residents of a location. In general in this model, the equilibrium path generates separate cultures in different regions. When we compare this to the situation where all workers are resident in one region, R & D workers become too homogeneous and there is only one culture. As a result, equilibrium productivity in the creation of new knowledge is lower relative to the situation when there are multiple cultures and workers are more diverse.

Split opinions about the causes for the Breivik attack in Norway (2011) (Word document)
According to the press review EUROTOPICS, first reactions of major European newspapers show a divide in the assessment of the causes of the attack on 22 July 2011: “The conservative media reject right-wing populism or Christian fundamentalism as motives for the attacks, which the liberal media regard as a hypocritical and dangerous stance.”

Breivik attack in Norway – saving “Western Culture” against Islam and “Cultural Marxists”? (2011) (Word document)
In the US “Talk to Action Blog” published on 24 July 2011,  Chip Berlet investigates some of the crude ideas in Anders Behring Breivik’s “Manifesto”: According to him, the manifesto states that “Political Correctness” should be called “Cultural Marxism” and is the reason for political leaders allowing mass Muslim migration into Europe. “Breivik thought Cultural Marxists = multiculturalists = Islamization of Europe. This racist right-wing conspiracy theory is tied to the Islamophobic ‘Demographic Winter’ thesis. In his online posts, Breivik considered himself a cultural conservative and condemned ‘Cultural Marxism’. The idea of ‘Cultural Marxism’ on the political right is an antisemitic conspiracy theory claiming that a small group of Marxist Jews formed the Frankfurt School and set out to destroy Western Culture through a conspiracy to promote multiculturalism and collectivist economic theories.”

U-40 World Forum (2009)
Initiated by the German Commission for UNESCO, the U40-Capacity Building Programme ‘Cultural Diversity 2030’ (2008- 2010) is going global. A meeting of selected U-40 young professionals took place prior to the Conference of States Parties to the UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (Paris, June 2009).

Fair Culture (2007)
Report  published by the Finnish Ministry of Education on the ethical dimension of cultural policy and cultural rights. Download Report.

Culturelink Special Issue on the UNESCO Convention
Obuljen, Nina; Smiers Joost (eds.): UNESCO’s Convention on the Protection and the Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Making it Work. Zagreb: Culturelink, December 2006.

Cultural Diversity – Europe’s Wealth: Bringing the UNESCO Convention to Life
International Conference organised by the German Commission for UNESCO within the framework of Germany’s EU Presidency, 26.-28. April 2007. Information on the results of the conference is available in English, French and German.

Policies and Best Practices for Cultural Diversity and Capacity Building
Seminar organised by the German Commission for UNESCO at UNESCO HQ in Paris, 26 November 2007.

Measuring the Elusive Diversity of Cultural Expressions: UNESCO’s experiences with cross-border trade data (Powerpoint document)
Presentation by Guiomar Alonso Cano (UNESCO) to the OECD workshop “International Measurement of Culture”, Paris, 4-5 December 2006.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics: International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods and Services, 1998-2003. Montreal, 2005.

The Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Implementation and Followup-The Challenge of Concerted Civil Society Action
Study prepared by Véronique Guèvremont as a background paper for the 1st session of the Intergovernmental Committee, December 2007.

Diversity of Cultural Expressions Newsletter
Monitors the ratification of the UNESCO Convention and reports on cultural policy measures and best practice around the world

Interarts Seminar Series on Cultural Diversity
In 2006, Interarts organised 5 seminars on cultural diversity focussing on the legal environments, media images of minorities and immigrants, life experiences, labour markets and business environments, cultural rights, conflicts resulting from cultural coexistene.

Cultural Diversity in Europe: report of the joint French-German parliamentary working  group
Published in February 2007, this report addresses a range of issues such as: linguistic diveristy, information society, film  funding, cultural cooperation in Europe. Download report in German.

Council of Europe

Improving the Situation of Roma (2012) (Word document)
The publication of Jean-Pierre Liégeois: “The Council of Europe and Roma: 40 years of action” is a reference work and an analysis intended to further knowledge and inspire reflection on Roma issues. It presents a summary of the relevant adopted texts and activities by placing them in a historical perspective, while aiming at “a long-term vision”. Devised to be useful to both political decision makers and to administrative representatives – at European, national and local levels – and to activists in non-governmental organisations, this work will interest everyone concerned by the situation of Roma in Europe.

Defamation and Freedom of Expression (2012) (Word document)
The purpose of provisions on defamation is to protect the reputation of individuals as well as specific state symbols (such as the national flag or anthem). The study, prepared by the secretariat of the Steering Committee on Media and Information Society (CDMSI), investigates the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights on freedom of expression in the context of defamation cases and reviews Council of Europe and other international standards as well as legal provisions on defamation in various Council of Europe member states. It also attempts to identify trends in the development of rules on defamation, both in national legal systems and in international law.

The right of everyone to take part in cultural life (2012) (Word document)
Report of the Committee on Culture, Science and Education of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe regarding the right of everyone to take part in cultural life.

Human rights apply online as well as offline (2011)
The Conference “Our Internet – Our rights, our freedoms. Towards the Council of Europe strategy on Internet Governance” was held in Vienna, 24-25 November 2011. In this context, the Council of Europe, together with several of its member states, highlighted its new strategy on Internet governance 2012-2015 which underlines, inter alia: “Human rights apply online as well as offline, with particular emphasis on the importance of access”; Data protection should be enhanced; “common minimum principles of understanding about the Internet” should be developed, addressing access, anonymity, transparency, empowerment – especially of children – and the importance of a “multi-stakeholder approach” to policy shaping and making.

Living Together – Combining diversity and freedom in 21stcentury Europe (2011)
This report has been prepared by a group of nine “eminent persons” from all parts of Europe, headed by the former German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer. The mission of the Group – which also shapes the content of its Report – was to assess “the seriousness of the risks to the Council of Europe values posed by rising intolerance and the spread of ‘communitarian’ approaches”, to identify the sources of these phenomena and to define of a new concept of “living together”. Among other strategic recommendations, the Report urges the Council of Europe (and also its Member States, local governments, the EU and civil society)

  • to assist Member States in the development of a modern citizenship law (that is based on civic rather than ethnic criteria) and in efforts to eliminate discrimination against Roma;
  • to cooperate closely with the EU in order to achieve “a comprehensive, coherent and transparent immigration policy” for the whole of Europe, and to develop guidelines addressing both rights and responsibilities of migrants and people of recent migrant origin;
  • to consider creating a prize to be awarded to education institutions for their work in intercultural dialogue;
  • to support (possibly in partnership with the United Nations ‘Alliance of Civilisations and the OSCE-ODIHR) the creation of an independent structure such as an observatory or a website which would monitor media coverage of discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance;
  • to offer “a special status” (going beyond the role of observers) to countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean littoral and in Central Asia which are willing to adhere to the European Convention on Human Rights; and to elaborate a “code of good practice” based on the Report as well as on existing CoE legal standards and other reference texts such as the White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue adopted in 2008.

FACEBOOK – a potential threat to human rights? (2011) (Word document)
Thomas Hammarberg, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, reflects in a commentary the pros and cons of Internet-based “social networks”. On the one hand, he acknowledges that “the popular uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt were to a large extent made possible by social networking, primarily on Facebook” and could be seen as “perhaps the most compelling example so far of how online connectivity can translate into real life, positive social change”. On the other hand, he reminds us of the fact that the huge amount of personal data collected by these networks is not only being used for commercial purposes, but could also fall into the hands of states or of political powers whose intentions may differ a lot from those seen in Cairo or Tripolis. In his view, the right to privacy of all individuals is at stake here, “which is an integral element of  Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights” and should, therefore, be reinforced by amending the Council of Europe Convention for Protection of Personal Data.

Cultural rights in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (2011)
This report was prepared by the Research Division of the European Court of Human Rights. It provides a selection of the Court’s main jurisprudence in the context of cultural rights. Although neither the Convention nor the Court explicitly recognise a “right to culture” or the right to take part in cultural life, unlike other international treaties, the Court’s case-law provides interesting examples of how some rights falling under the notion of “cultural rights” in a broad sense can be protected under core civil rights, such as the right to respect for private and family life (Article 8 of the Convention), the right to freedom of expression (Article 10) and the right to education (Article 2 of Protocol No. 1).

ECRI: Racist violence is growing in Europe (2010)
In its latest annual report, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) of the Council of Europe examines the main trends in the field of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance in Europe. It expresses its concern about the effects of the economic crisis on vulnerable groups – in particular the rise in unemployment and cuts to social services. The negative climate of public opinion, fuelled by increasingly xenophobic political speech, has led to immigrants being held responsible for unemployment and the deterioration of security. At the presentation of the Report, the Chair of ECRI, Nils Muiznieks, regretted that 29 Council of Europe member states have not yet ratified Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, which prohibits discrimination in general, and called on them to do so as soon as possible.

Intercultural Dialogue in the Framework of European Human Rights Protection (White Paper Series – Volume 1) (2010)
This report analyses the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in terms of the promotion of cultural diversity, as championed by the Council of Europe particularly through its “White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue” (2008). The Court’s views on the governance principles and preconditions of intercultural dialogue – and particularly the case law on freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of expression and freedom of association and assembly – provide guidelines for politicians, academics and practitioners alike

Jagland: The Council of Europe as a “Lighthouse” and Trusted Monitoring Organisation (2010) (Word document)
In his address to the Committee of Ministers on 20. January 2010, Secretary General Thorbjà¸rn Jagland underlined his view of the Council of Europe as “the only organisation which has the mandate and the necessary tools to effectively and comprehensively monitor the compliance with obligations related to the respect for human rights, democracy and the rule of law.”

The Council of Europe and human rights – An introduction to the European Convention on Human Rights (2010)
Just what are your human rights, and how does the Council of Europe protect them? This small book tells the story simply and clearly, making a complicated issue straightforward. It offers examples illustrating each right in the European Convention on Human Rights, and short explanations placing the European Court of Human Rights in the wider context of other Council of Europe activities that also promote the same ideals.

Manual on the wearing of religious symbols in public areas (2009)
This manual explores how the European Convention on Human Rights relates to the freedom of thought, conscience and religion. It identifies the key concepts which can be found in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and examines the role and responsibilities of both state and citizen.

State, Religion, Secularity and Human rights (2007)
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, in its Recommendation 1804 of 29 June 2007, reaffirmed “the principle of the independence of politics and law from religion”, considering”religious organisations as part of civil society”. In that spirit, it asked to “remove from legislation [in Member States]… elements likely to be discriminatory from the angle of democratic religious pluralism.”

Blasphemy, Religious Insults and Hate Speech Against Persons on Grounds of their Religion (2007)
Simultaneously, the Parliamentary Assembly, in its Recommendation 1805 (2007), underlined “that in a democratic society, religious groups must tolerate, as must other groups, critical public statements and debate about their activities, teachings and beliefs, provided that such criticism does not amount to intentional and gratuitous insults or hate speech and does not constitute incitement to disturb the peace or to violence and discrimination against adherents of a particular religion.” It thus adopted the position of a Report (March 2007) of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) on this subject.

European Declaration on Cultural Objectives (1984)
The Declaration, adopted by the 4th Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Cultural Affairs in Berlin, stresses, inter alia, “that the various European cultures are strongly rooted in a humanitarian and religious tradition, which is the source of their dedication to freedom and human rights”.

UN – UNESCO

Shaheed-Report on “the impact of intellectual property regimes on the enjoyment of right to science and culture” (2015) (Word document)
This report concentrates on the issue of the impact of intellectual property regimes on the enjoyment of right to science and culture, as enshrined in particular in article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It address the impact of intellectual property regimes on the right of people to enjoy and access cultural heritage; access by everyone without discrimination to the benefits of science and its applications, including scientific knowledge, technology, and opportunities to contribute to the scientific enterprise; the freedom indispensable for scientific research, including access of researchers to scientific information and advances, as well as collaborative work; artistic freedoms and the right of people to access, contribute to and enjoy the arts; and the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities.

Shaheed-Report on “The impact of commercial advertising and marketing practices on the enjoyment of cultural rights” (2014)
In the present report, the Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights considers the impact commercial advertising and marketing practices have on the enjoyment of cultural rights, with a particular focus on freedom of thought, opinion and expression, cultural diversity and ways of life, the rights of children with respect to education and leisure, academic and artistic freedom and the right to participate in cultural life and to enjoy the arts.

Shaheed-Report on “The right to freedom of artistic expression and creativity” (2013)
Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, to the UN Human Rights Council. See more under “Status of Artists”. The report focused on the right to freedom of artistic expression and creation, which includes the right of all persons to freely experience and contribute to artistic expressions and creations, through individual or joint practice, to have access to and enjoy the arts, and to disseminate their expressions and creations. This report addresses laws and regulations restricting artistic freedoms as well as economic and financial issues significantly impacting on such freedoms. The underlying motivations are most often political, religious, cultural or moral, or lie in economic interests, or are a combination of those.

Shaheed-Report on “Cultural Rights of Women” (2012)
The report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, proposes to shift the paradigm from one that views culture as an obstacle to women’s rights to one that seeks to ensure equal enjoyment of cultural rights; such an approach also constitutes an important tool for the realization of all their human rights. The report underlines the right of women to have access to, participate in and contribute to all aspects of cultural life. This encompasses their right to actively engage in identifying and interpreting cultural heritage and to decide which cultural traditions, values or practices are to be kept, reoriented, modified or discarded.

Shaheed-Report on “The right of access to and enjoyment of cultural heritage” (2011)
The report focuses on the right of access to, and enjoyment of cultural heritage. She stresses that cultural heritage is important not only in itself, but also in relation to its human dimension, in particular its significance for individuals and communities in terms of both their identity and development processes. As set out in the report, the right of access to and enjoyment of cultural heritage finds its legal basis in various human rights norms. It includes the right of individuals and communities to, inter alia, know, understand, enter, visit, make use of, maintain, exchange and develop cultural heritage, as well as to benefit from the cultural heritage and the creation of others.

UN Human Rights Committee: Media freedom a “cornerstone” of democracy (2011)
In its General comment No. 34 on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the HRCee deals with major issues concerning the Freedoms of opinion and expression and underlines that the “freedoms of opinion and expression form a basis for the full enjoyment of a wide range of other human rights.” In particular, the Committee holds that “a free, uncensored and unhindered press or other media is essential in any society to ensure freedom of opinion and expression and the enjoyment of other Covenant rights. It constitutes one of the cornerstones of a democratic society.”

Integrating Human Rights, Culture and Gender in Programming (2009)
Interactive manual for training workshops with UN-related development practitioners, published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The aim of the manual is to show basics of how to communicate, negotiate and mediate about culturally sensitive issues. It includes a programming tool – the “Culture Lens” – developed by UNFPA, as well as discussion of how it relates to international development goals, and how it can be applied. As well, case studies from different national contexts and articles/reference documents related to culture have been added.

Building the Information Society – Declaration of Principles (2003)
The World Summit on Information Society (WSIS), organised by the UN and the ITU in Geneva, December 2003, included in its Declaration of Priciples “ethical dimensions of the Information Society”. This has led to a number oc actions, e.g. by UNESCO in the context of its “Information for All Programme” (IFAP) as well as to a number of related conferences including, more recently, the “Memory of the World in the Digital age: Digitization and Preservation” conference held in Vancouver, Canada in September 2012, the 7th Internet Governance Forum (IGF) held in Baku/Azerbaijan on 9 November 2012 or the first multi- stakeholder WSIS+10 review meeting on 26 February 2013 in UNESCO headquarters in Paris. More conferences are planned in Russia and Latvia in 2013.

Promotion and Protection of Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1999)
United Nations General Assembly resolution 53/144, 8 March 1999

Stockholm “Action Plan on Cultural Policies for Development” (1998)
The Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development, held at Stockholm (30 March-2 April 1998), produced a final declaration with many references to ethical and rights issues, including but not limited to: participation in cultural life; intercultural dialogue; artistic freedom; civil society involvement; cultural education; gender equality; linguistic diversity.

A New Global Ethics (1996)
The first chapter of the Summary Version of “Our Creative Diversity”, the influential Report of the UNESCO World Commission on Culture and Development, Paris 1996, p.16/17.

European Union

European Court of Justice: US no “Safe Harbour” for European data (2015)
In its famous Case C-362/14 regarding Facebook’s European subscribers, the ECJ ruled that the United States does not afford an adequate level of protection of personal data, limited to what is strictly necessary. Therefore, the “Safe Harbour” agreement of the EU with the USA, which it authorises the transfer of personal data without any differentiation, limitation or exception and no clear limits of the access of the public authorities to the data and of its subsequent use can be considered invalid. The Court added that legislation permitting the public authorities to have unlimited access to the content of electronic communications must be regarded as compromising the essence of the fundamental right to respect for private life.

Discrimination in the EU in 2012 (2012)
This survey looks into attitudes and perceptions of Europeans towards discrimination, based on different grounds (gender, ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, age, disability, sexual orientation and gender identity). As the last Eurobarometer on this topic, from 2009, this survey also includes several questions on the impact of the crisis on the implementation of anti-discrimination policies and efforts. New questions have been added to cover important or emerging topics, such as the situation of the Roma in Europe, discrimination outside the workplace or the links between discrimination and accessibility.

Transfers of asylum seekers must respect fundamental rights (2011)
Under the Dublin Regulation (343/2003/EC), asylum applicants are, in principle, to be dealt with by the country where they first entered the EU, leading to increased migratory pressure on Member States with an external Schengen land border. In January 2010, the European Court of Human Rights held in MSS v. Belgium & Greece that asylum seekers’ rights under the Convention would be violated should those persons be transferred to Greece under the Dublin system, given the substandard quality of the asylum facilities there. In its judgment on NS v. SSHD, released on 21 December 2011, the European Court of Justice has revisited this issue. Considering both the Dublin Regulation and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (CFR), it basically confirmed the previous decision. Thus, transfers cannot be permitted where they would amount to a breach of Art. 4 CFR.

A la recherche d’un équilibre entre le droit à  l’égalité et d’autres droits fondamentaux (2010)
Based on individual cases, this publication identifies a number of conflicts between certain fundamental rights and the right to equality and non-discrimination with a view to defining how the national legislature or courts should reason when faced with such conflicts. The two editors (legal experts Emmanuelle Bribosia and Isabelle Rorive) highlight “an inflation of conflicts between fundamental rights” while also discussing “real and false conflicts”. Among the most important tensions identified are the right of conscientious objection on religious or philosophical grounds and the principle of non-discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender. The report will soon be available also in English and German.

Memorandum of Understanding between the Council of Europe and the European Union (2007)
Cooperation between the European Union and the Council fo Europe in matters relating to, inter alia, human rights, ethical issues and intercultural dialogue is guided by this Memorandum, which was signed by both parties in May 2007. On this basis, more concrete settlements have been reached, such as the Agreement on cooperation between the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and the Council of Europe (2008).

European Agenda for Culture in a Globalising World (2007)
A new cultural strategy of the European Commission was published in May 2007. It includes references to human rights and identifies cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue, creativity and innovation and culture as key elements of the EU’s internal and external relations activities.

OSCE

The Oslo Recommendations regarding the Linguistic Rights of National Minorities (1998)

National, regional and local authorities

Quelles perspectives pour des droits culturels (2014)
Jean-Michel Lucas présente dans ce texte les perspectives qui attendent les droits culturels en terme d’agendas : le lien avec l’Agenda 21 de la culture et le nouveau document « Culture 21: Actions » ; le suivi des travaux de la rapporteuse spéciale sur les droits culturels ; les suites à donner au débat qui s’est ouvert au niveau national autour de l’amendement proposé (et rejeté) à la loi NOTRe... Beaucoup de pistes y sont données pour ouvrir des perspectives aux droits culturels en France.

Cultural Participation as a Human Right? (2013) (Word document)
At a press conference held on 15 January 2013, city officials from Wroclaw (Poland) announced their intention to strive, in cooperation with the Polish Government, for an inclusion of the “right to participation in culture” as one of the basic rights in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of the Council of Europe. A Panel of Experts held on March 6 in Wroclaw, co-organized with NCK (National Centre of Culture), is to further clarify this issue. In 2011, the city of Wroclaw had been selected – together with San Sebastian in Spain – to become the European Capital of Culture (ECOC) in 2016.

Controversial Ban of a Theatre Play in Malta (2010) (Word document)
A new ruling of the Civil Court of Malta justifying the 2009 ban of the play “Stitching” of Scottish writer Anthony Neilson on the grounds of “extensive use of language which was vulgar, obscene and blasphemous and which exalted perversion and undermined the right to life” revived controversial debates on fundamental rights (freedom of expression) in that country. Following numerous incidents on censorship and a Human Rights case on infringement of freedom of expression in 2009, the Minister responsible for Culture announced a thorough review of the classification as part of the 2011 cultural policy.

Culture & Ethics
This Website is part of “The Power of Culture” platform which has been developed on behalf of the Dutch National Committee for International Cooperation and Sustainable Development (Nationale Commissie voor Internationale Samenwerking en Duurzame Ontwikkeling).
See also: http://www.powerofculture.nl/en/theme/ethics

Fair Culture? (2006/7)
Report published by the Finnish Ministry of Education on the ethical dimension of cultural policy and cultural rights.

Agenda 21 for Culture (2004)
Adopted by the International Federation of Cities and Local Governments (Barcelona), this Agenda underlines a commitment to human rights, cultural diversity, sustainability and participatory democracy.

Civil Society – NGOs

Freemuse 2018 Report on the State of Artistic Freedom (2018)
The State of Artistic Freedom 2018 report documents and examines 553 cases of artistic freedom violations in 78 countries in the 2017 calendar year, combined with an analysis of legal, political and social developments that shed light on the motivations and rationales behind the violations.

Exploring the connections between arts and human rights meeting report (2017)
The agency organised a high-level expert meeting in Vienna on 29-30 May 2017, bringing together participants from different EU Member States and horizons, including: human rights and fine arts academics; museum staff; curators; representatives of civil society organisations focusing on artistic freedom; and artists from the fields of photography, visual arts, comics, choreography, literature and music.

Hammarberg: Action Plans for Roma and Sinti must be implemented (2014) (Word document)
In October 2014, the former Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Thomas Hammarberg, posted this position paper in his Blog. He underlines that “Roma and Sinti people are still suffering systematic discrimination in large parts of Europe…. are denied basic human rights and victims of flagrant racism. … In social terms they tend to be marginalised”, despite some action plans and other efforts made during the last decade. In his analysis, he comes to this conclusion: “Social gaps and injustices are a consequence of antiziganism. This has to be a major aspect of all strategies and action plans.” In particular he calls for changing attitudes and combatting stereotyped prejudices against Roma and Sinti people in larger parts of the European public. For him, a key aspect would be to improve knowledge about the Roma-Sinti history and culture, be it in school curricula or in the media. Collaborating with Roma and Sinti on a level playing field and avoiding “ethnic registration and profiling approaches” are additional steps towards achieving “real changes and reforms” instead of mere political “symbolism”.

Conference “Human Rights and Intercultural Dialogue in Development” (2012)
On the occasion of the Human Rights Day (10th December), the Association of Local Democracy Agencies (ALDA) organised this International Conference in Paris. The Conference was attended by 60 participants representing Local Authorities and CSOs coming from the enlarged Europe. The conference has been organized within the framework of the multi-annual WTD – Working Together for Development programme, which aims at exploring the opportunities Local Authorities and Civil Society Organizations have in working together to promote more sustainable global development achievements. The discussion focused on the linkages between Human Rights and global development and included speakers like Catherine Lalumière, President of the French Federation of the Houses of Europe, Pierre Barge, Honorary President of the European Association for the Defense of Human Rights (AEDH) and Christoph Eberhard, Professor in Anthropology and Theory of the Law at the University of Saint Louis in Brussels.

“All that is Banned is Desired” (2012)
This Arab proverb is also the motto of the first World Conference on Artistic Freedom of Expression, organised by Fritt Ord and Freemuse, that was held in Oslo, Norway, on October 25-26, 2012. The Conference is to mark the beginning of a concerted effort to enhance the monitoring of and defense against violations of artists’ freedom of expression worldwide.  Following the Conference (October 27), representatives of key international and regional arts and human rights organisations will launch a new global network, Artsfex. Aims of Artsfex are:

  1. Information exchange, awareness raising and monitoring;
  2. Advocacy; and
  3. Facilitating networking and collaboration.

Justice for the World
Through their “Human Rights News”, the editors of this independent global Internet platform based in The Netherlands strive towards a better protection of human rights and “to creatively raise awareness in this world by word and via art.”

Ethics and Cultural Policy (2008)
Through its D’Art process of gathering information from different sources, the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA) participated in a project of Finland’s Ministry of Education, Science and Culture on the ethical dimensions of cultural policy that led to the report Fair Culture? (see above). The publication argues that cultural rights are central to the identity, coherence and autonomy of nations. It identifies three main ways of viewing ethical issues in cultural policy (as cultural freedoms, as cultural rights and as cultural benefits), none of which is necessarily more ‘correct’ or valuable than the other. The D’Art report by Hannele Koivunen and Leena Marsio summarises the Ministry’s research project and outlines future directions for research and action.

Fribourg Declaration on Cultural Rights (2007)
The Fribourg Declaration on Cultural Rights was launched by the Observatory of Diversity and Cultural Rights at the University of Fribourg, together with the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie and UNESCO, on May 7, 2007 and at the Palais des Nations in Geneva on May 8. It is supported by many human rights personalities and NGOs. According to Patrice Meyer-Bisch, coordinator and professor at the Observatory, cultural rights are an indivisible part of human rights – not in opposition to them. The Download includes texts in English, French and German.

A Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities (1997)
Proposal of the InterAction Council of 1 September 1997 that emphasizes individual ethical responsibilities in society. It has influenced other declarations including the above mentioned UN General Assembly resolution of 1999.

Research

Culture and Human Rights: THE WROCLAW COMMENTARIES (2016)
The handbook with 130 topical keyword-articles has been developed by ARCult Media (Cologne) in the context of Wroclaw – European Capital of Culture 2016. Guided by a Scientific Committee, chaired by Yvonne Donders (University of Amsterdam), the editors Kalliopi Chainoglou (Thessaloniki), Anna Śledzińska-Simon  (Wroclaw) and Andreas Joh. Wiesand (Cologne) as well as 92 other experts aim at bridging the gap between theory and practice, i.e. between dispersed and partly unspecific references to “culture” (in the wider sense) in the human rights literature, in legal instruments, or in court cases and the daily needs of decision or law-making on different juridical, administrative and political levels.

The Concept of Human Dignity in Indigenous Philosophies (2011)
In the course of the ongoing intercultural dialogue about human rights, initiatives such as the Fribourg Declaration on Cultural Rights of 2007 tried to fill a gap in the protection of the whole of human rights. In the same year, the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples gave this debate another twist: Ethical values of indigenous people and their role in protecting social cohesion and environmental sustainability could indeed be seen as an inspiration to the future human rights discourse. In this context, a conference of the Oslo University, the Oslo Center for Peace and Human Rights and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters on “The Concept of Human Dignity in Indigenous Philosophies” (September 2011) has been a noteworthy activity that could improve the knowledge of cultural dimensions of human rights.

Freedom of Connection – Freedom of Expression (2011)
This publication of William H. Dutton, Anna Dopatka, Michael Hills, Ginette Law and Victoria Nash deals with “The Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet” (sub-title). It includes several case studies world-wide and sees freedom of expression not just as a by-product of technical change; it must be protected by legal and regulatory measures that balance a variety of potentially conflicting values and interests in a complex global ecology of choices. ISBN 978-92-3-104188-4

Habermas: The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights (2010) (Word document)
In a keynote lecture held on 17. June 2010 in the University of Frankfurt at the International Congress “Human Rights Today: Foundations and Politics”, philosopherJürgen Habermas called for a new “drive towards the merger of the contents of rational ethics with the forms of positive law, leading to a generalisation of the – originally status-bound – dignity toward a true ‘human dignity'”, which could create the need for an introduction of more socially- oriented basic laws into the domain of human rights. According to him, frequent violations of human dignity, be it in the context of armed conflicts and of the enforcement of Great Power interests or in the local neighbourhood, should motivate such a change of paradigm.

Tolerance: reason and rights (2009) (Word document)
Published in Research JournalBlogs, Bernard Leckning introduces and discusses three basic articles of German philosophers Rainer Forst and Jürgen Habermas on issues of tolerance in current societies – including different definitions, social and legal interpretations, limits of toleration, religious issues and implications for cultural rights. Leckning works as a researcher at Macquarie University (Sydney/Australia), Faculty of Arts, Department of Sociology.

Global Justice – Beyond International Equity (2001)
In his article published in polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy 3 (2001), Amartya K. Sen tries to develop a new perspective for justice taking account of both the formation of international solidarity and the constructions of identity patterns that go beyond national borders. It seeks a way between the established approaches of “grand universalism” and “national particularism”. Arguing on the basis of the concept of “plural affiliation”, Sen points to the range of multiple identities accessible to individuals and, as a consequence, wants to make “justice” applicable to a corresponding diversity of socio-political realities, independent of the idea of national frameworks.

Other Actors

Swiss Voters’ Minaret Ban as seen by International Press Commentators (2009) (Word document)
An overview of – mostly negative – foreign press reactions to the November 2009 decision of Swiss voters to ban the construction of minarets, published by swissinfo.ch (a division of the public Swiss Broadcasting Corporation SBC, whose mission is to inform Swiss living abroad about events in their homeland and to raise awareness of Switzerland in other countries)

Declaration towards a Global Ethic (1993)
According to this paper of the Global Ethic Foundation for Inter-cultural, Inter-religious Research, Education and Encounter (President: Swiss-German theologian Hans Küng), the fundamental crisis in global economy, global ecology, and global politics is due to the “lack of a grand vision, the tangle of unresolved problems, political paralysis, mediocre political leadership with little insight or foresight, and in general too little sense for the commonweal are seen everywhere: Too many old answers to new challenges”. The founders and supporters of the foundation are committed “to the precepts and practices of the world’s religions. We confirm that there is already a consensus among the religions which can be the basis for a global ethic – a minimal fundamental consensus concerning binding values, irrevocable standards, and fundamental moral attitudes.”

Wittenberg Center for Global Ethics
The Center focuses on building ethical competences in present and future decision makers in business, politics, and society through seminars, international conferences and publications: Founded on the theoretical concept of “economic ethics”, it wants to create opportunities to foster and implement ethics and morality under the condition of globalization, competition and market economy

Council of Europe

Recommendation CM/Rec(2017)8 on Big Data for culture, literacy and democracy (2017)
A Council of Europe Recommendation on Big Data for Culture, Literacy and Democracy was adopted in autumn 2017. It stresses, in particular, that everyone can choose to remain inscrutable in the digital age and therefore to not have predictions made by algorithmic decisions about their cultural attributes, preferences and behaviours.

3rd CoE Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation, Tallinn September 2016
The Estonian Government hosted the Exchange under the title “Culture 4D: Digitisation, Data, Disruptions, Diversity”. Among the topics of the event, “Big Data” played a key role (cf. the Conference Reader). This issue is also the main theme of a draft Resolution on Big Data for Culture, Literacy and Democracy prepared by a working group in early 2017, which is to be dealt with by the responsible CoE Committee (CDCPP) and the Committee of Ministers. This draft stipulates:
“All forms of cultural data management should enable citizens to be empowered through an open culture both online and offline, while respecting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms. Action is also required to foster critical digital literacy among citizens and cultural workers. This strengthens democracy and prepares Internet users to deal with the challenges ahead namely to be responsible citizens online who can manage the automated collection and processing of their data.”

2nd CoE Platform Exchange in Linz/Austria, September 2015
The 2nd Platform Exchange explored how digitisation can best be used for facilitating access to and participation in culture and creativity, with a view to strengthening democratic participation (see final report).

Why democracy needs the arts and culture
Input paper by Jaroslav Anděl, Artistic Director-at-large, DOX Center for Contemporary Art, Prague for the Linz Conference – Second Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Smart Creativity, Smart Democracy”, Linz, September 2015.

Digital Culture, a Challenge and an Opportunity for Art Museums
Input paper by Pierre-Yves Desaive, Head of Digital Media and Contemporary Art, Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium for the Linz Conference – Second Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Smart Creativity, Smart Democracy”, Linz, September 2015.

Overcoming Barriers to Creativity through Digitisation
Input paper by Dr. Divina Frau-Meigs, Sorbonne Nouvelle University for the Linz Conference – Second Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Smart Creativity, Smart Democracy”, Linz, September 2015.

“European cultures in the cloud”: Mapping the impact of digitisation on the cultural sector
Input paper by Dr. Divina Frau-Meigs, Sorbonne Nouvelle University for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens”, Baku, July 2014.

Possible recommendations for creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens
Input paper by Dr. Divina Frau-Meigs, Sorbonne Nouvelle University for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens”, Baku, July 2014.

Digital shift and a pressure to survive – new audiences, new demands, new business models
Input paper by Dr. Aleksandra Uzelac, IRMO for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens”, Baku, July 2014.

Need for new regulation to enhance creativity in the digital age: the cases of user-generated content and cultural heritage institutions
Input paper by Leonhard Dobusch, Freie Universität Berlin for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens”, Baku, July 2014.

Empowering citizens through media literacy education
Input paper by Manuel Pinto, University of Minho for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation “Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens”, Baku, July 2014.

Digitisation and cultural democracy, an (as yet) unfulfilled promise
Think piece prepared by Joost Smiers for the CultureWatchEurope initiative of the Council of Europe.

Connecting institutions and citizens in the digital age
Final report of the Council of Europe World Forum for Democracy held on the 27-29 November 2013

European Union

Digital solutions in the field of cultural heritage – Interreg Europe (2018)
The objective of this policy brief is to describe the different opportunities created through digital technologies for the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. The document provides a brief overview of the EU policy documents addressing digitisation of cultural heritage and presents inspiring good practices stemming from the Interreg Europe projects.

Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on promoting access to culture via digital means (2015)
This document, prepared by Ms. Cristina Da Milano and Mr. Niels Righolt on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC), aims to analyse the challenges and future possibilities for European cultural organisations in the current environment of fast technological change, global competition, and tight budgets. It also identifies examples of practices that appear to be the most efficient or mostly used to support audience development via digital means, in a broad spectrum of sectors.

New Business Models in the Cultural and Creative Sectors CCSs
Paper prepared, at the request of DG EAC, by the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) and written by Dr. Cornelia Dümcke.

Promoting Access via Digital Means (2015)
Paper prepared, at the request of DG EAC, by the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) and written by Mr. Niels Righo.

2015 Information society statistics
Recent statistical data on different aspects of the information society in the European Union (EU), focusing on the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use by individuals and within households.

Council of the European Union conclusions on the digitisation and online  accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation

Digitisation of cultural heritage to boost innovation

Survey Report on Digitisation in European Cultural Heritage Institutions 2014 Survey Report on Digitisation in European Cultural Heritage Institutions 2012

European Commission’s Reflection Group on Bringing Europe’s Cultural Heritage Online: The New Renaissance

UNESCO

United Nations Creative Economy Report 2013 [United Nations Creative Economy Report 2013 Special Edition]

UNESCO’s Hangzhou Declaration: Placing Culture at the Heart of Sustainable Development Policies

UNESCO’s WSIS+10 Report: Renewing the Knowledge Societies Vision for Peace and Sustainable Development

Research

France: Les publics in situ et en ligne (2017)
Que savons-nous aujourd’hui des publics in situ et des publics en ligne, des usages que les uns et les autres font de l’offre proposée par les équipements culturels, et surtout des relations qu’ils entretiennent ? Ce numéro de Culture et Recherche (Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication) est l’occasion d’un retour réflexif sur différentes initiatives de mise en ligne de contenus, de médiation numérique et d’étude sur leur réception menées au sein de musées, services d’archives, bibliothèques ou structures de spectacle vivant.
This new edition of a magazine of the French Ministry of Culture and Communication provides an overview of different online initiatives conducted by museums, archives, libraries and performing arts facilities.

For a Diversified Networked Culture (2015)
This study, prepared by te Centre d’études sur l’intégration et la mondialisation (CEIM), affiliated to the Université du Québec in Montréal, investigates concrete challenges to the diversity of cultural expressions in the digital era, studies measures or policies aiming to implement the 2005 Convention principles in the digital environment and proposes new specific operational guidelines in order to transform the 2005 UNESCO Convention into “an important instrument of the global cultural governance in the digital era.”

Pratiques culturelles en ligne en France et en Europe (2007-2014)
[Cultural Online Activities in France and Europe / Kulturelle Online-Aktivitäten in Frankreich und Europa]
Roxane Laurent, Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques (DEPS), Ministry of Culture and Communication, has published in the series CULTURE CHIFFRES, no. 2015-2, an instructive new dossier with different «points of evidence and comparison» (in French).

ICOM’s Lisbon Declaration: Support Culture and Museums to Face the Global Crisis and Build the Future

IFLA 2013 Trend Report: Riding the waves or caught in the tide? Navigating the Evolving Information Environment

WIPO’s Study on Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for Libraries and Archives

Council of Europe

Recommendation No. 192 (2017) on mainstreaming a gender equality perspective in the implementation of the Convention as well as in the work of the Convention
In December 2017, the Standing Committee to the Bern Convention adopted Recommendation No. 192 (2017) on mainstreaming a gender equality perspective in the implementation of the Convention as well as in the work of the Convention.

European Union

The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE)
EIGE is an autonomous body of the European Union, established to contribute to and strengthen the promotion of gender equality, including gender mainstreaming in all EU policies and the resulting national policies, and the fight against discrimination based on sex, as well as to raise EU citizens’ awareness of gender equality.

The Gender Equality Index of the European Institute for Gender Equality (2017)
The Index measures gender gaps and takes into account the context and different levels of achievement of EU Member States within a range of relevant policy areas: work, money, knowledge, time, power and health. Additionally, it gives insights into violence against women and intersecting inequalities.

Discrimination in the EU in 2012 (2012)
This survey looks into attitudes and perceptions of Europeans towards discrimination, based on different grounds (gender, ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, age, disability, sexual orientation and gender identity). As the last Eurobarometer on this topic, from 2009, this survey also includes several questions on the impact of the crisis on the implementation of anti-discrimination policies and efforts. New questions have been added to cover important or emerging topics, such as the situation of the Roma in Europe, discrimination outside the workplace or the links between discrimination and accessibility.

UNESCO

Precarious Situation for Women Working in the Field of Culture (2017)
The fact sheet Nr. 47 from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics offers a snapshot of the characteristics of persons employed in cultural jobs, with a particular focus on the profile of women.

2014 UNESCO Report on Gender Equality and Culture (2014)
The report demonstrates the need for deeper debate, research and awareness-raising on the need for equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for women and men, boys and girls in the fields of heritage and creativity. Founded on UNESCO’s commitment to advancing human rights, including women’s rights, in cultural life, the report acknowledges culture as the enabler for all people, regardless of their gender to develop to their full potential.

Shaheed-Report on “Cultural Rights of Women” (2012)
The report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, proposes to shift the paradigm from one that views culture as an obstacle to women’s rights to one that seeks to ensure equal enjoyment of cultural rights; such an approach also constitutes an important tool for the realization of all their human rights. The report underlines the right of women to have access to, participate in and contribute to all aspects of cultural life. This encompasses their right to actively engage in identifying and interpreting cultural heritage and to decide which cultural traditions, values or practices are to be kept, reoriented, modified or discarded.

Integrating Human Rights, Culture and Gender in Programming (2009)
Interactive manual for training workshops with UN-related development practitioners, published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The aim of the manual is to show basics of how to communicate, negotiate and mediate about culturally sensitive issues. It includes a programming tool – the “Culture Lens” – developed by UNFPA, as well as discussion of how it relates to international development goals, and how it can be applied. As well, case studies from different national contexts and articles/reference documents related to culture have been added.

Research

Gender inequalities in the cultural sector – Culture Action Europe (2016)
This report compiled by Sandrine Pujar explains why ensuring gender equality in the cultural sector is capital. It describes how gender inequalities manifest themselves on the ground, why, in the way they do and how cultural actors can try to overcome them.

Funding for Inclusion – Women and Girls in the Equation (2012)
Research commissioned by GrantCraft and the international women’s fund Mama Cash on the funding patterns of several foundations revealed that the European foundation community can play a much more central role in improving the position of women and girls worldwide. With the aim of inspiring and helping to tap this diversity potential by European foundations and to provide practical strategies, a guide has now been produced by Helen O’Connell, Andrea Lynch, Andrea Cornwall and Zsofia Lang. According to this guide, gender research as well as proper communication and media policies can be crucial points of departure for such strategies. GrantCraft is a joint project of the Foundation Center in New York and the European Foundation Centre (Brussels).

Council of Europe

T-Kit 4 – Intercultural learning (2nd edition) (2018)
This T-Kit was developed for the context of youth work and non-formal education with young people, both of which support the personal development, social integration and active citizenship of young people. Educators and youth workers have an important role in addressing intercultural learning in their work with young people. They can stimulate young people’s learning in their daily lives, so that they can question and extend their perception, develop competences to interact positively with people from different cultural backgrounds and embrace the values of diversity, equality and dignity. In today’s Europe, these values and skills are fundamental for young people and for society as a whole in order to continue building peace and mutual understanding.

Human rights in culturally diverse societies (new edition) (2017)
This updated publication contains the Committee of Ministers’ Guidelines to member States on the protection and promotion of human rights in culturally diverse societies, the Compilation of Council of Europe standards relating to the principles of freedom of thought, conscience and religion and links to other human rights, as well as the Proceedings of the High-level Seminar on human rights in culturally diverse societies (Strasbourg, 13-14 June 2016).

3rd edition of the Education Pack “all different – all equal” (2016)
Originally produced in 1995 as an educational resource for the European youth campaign against racism, antisemitism, xenophobia and intolerance, the Education Pack became a reference work for those involved in intercultural education and training with young people across Europe and beyond. Translated into many languages, it remains today one of the most successful publications of the Council of Europe. It is available in printed form and as PDF file at the CoE Online Bookshop.

Developing Intercultural Competence through Education (2014)
The Pestalozzi book series started with “Teacher education for change”, explaining the underlying philosophy of the Pestalozzi Programme and its approach to education in general and teacher education in particular. The second – “Intercultural Competence for All” – looked at the various implications of promoting the development of intercultural competence as a main concern of mainstream education. This third volume takes a step further towards the full integration of intercultural competences as a key element within the education system. It aims at offering an educational rationale and conceptual framework for the development of intercultural competence, as well as a clear description of its constitutive elements to be developed in and through education.

The Intercultural City Step by Step (2013)
It falls primarily upon cities to design and implement policies that foster community cohesion and turn cultural diversity into a factor of development rather than a threat. This practical guide for applying the urban model of intercultural integration is designed for city leaders and practitioners wishing to learn from the “Intercultural Cities” pilot project run by the Council of Europe and the European Commission in developing an intercultural approach to diversity management. The guide recommends steps and measures to help develop an intercultural strategy and monitor its implementation.

Dimension of religions and non-religious convictions within intercultural education – Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)12 and explanatory memorandum (2009)
This policy recommendation defines the perspective from which religions and non-religious convictions are to be taken into account in a framework of intercultural education, while setting out a number of principles, objectives and teaching and learning methods. It was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 10 December 2008 as the final outcome of the project carried out by the Steering Committee for Education on the New Challenge of Intercultural Education: Religious Diversity and Dialogue in Europe (2002-2005).It can be used as a reference by policy makers, curricula designers, trainers and teachers in their everyday work to develop competences for intercultural dialogue and to remove obstacles that prevent appropriate treatment of the diversity of religions and non-religious convictions in school settings.

Intercultural Cities
A joint action of the Council of Europe and the European Commission, the Intercultural Cities programme aims to  help participating communities adopt a comprehensive, strategic approach to managing diversity by designing intercultural strategies and developing initiatives. Participating cities in the first round were: Berlin Neukölln (Germany); Craiova (Romania); Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Lublin (Poland); Lyon (France); Melitopol (Ukraine); Neuchà¢tel (Switzerland); Reggio Emilia (Italy); Subotica (Serbia); Greenwich (UK); Patras (Greece); Stavropol (Russian Federation). In the meantime, the programme is constantly growing stronger and the Intercultural Cities Index on this Website provides data of many more cities!

Attacks in Norway: A call to action! (2011)
Compendium editor Andreas Wiesand sent a letter of condolence to Thorbjörn Jagland, Secretary General of the Council of Europe, calling for increased efforts to strengthen cohesive diversity and intercultural dialogue in European societies.

Intercultural Dialogue in the Framework of European Human Rights Protection (White Paper Series – Volume 1) (2010)
This report analyses the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in terms of the promotion of cultural diversity, as championed by the Council of Europe particularly through its “White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue” (2008). The Court’s views on the governance principles and preconditions of intercultural dialogue – and particularly the case law on freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of expression and freedom of association and assembly – provide guidelines for politicians, academics and practitioners alike.

White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue (2008)
Webspace which houses all relevant information on the  strategy, methodology and conceptual basis for the Council of Europe’s White Paper published in May 2008. You can download the White Paper from this site.

Livre blanc sur le dialogue interculturel (2008)
Le Livre blanc prévoit diverses orientations pour la promotion du dialogue interculturel, du respect et de la compréhension mutuels, basées sur les valeurs fondamentales de l’Organisation.

Intercultural Dialogue – Cases of Good Practice (2005)
Collection of good practices assembled by the Council of Europe’s Project Group on Intercultural Dialogue and Conflict Prevention in 2005.

Faro Declaration on the Council of Europe’s Strategy for Developing Intercultural Dialogue  (2005)
Adopted by the European Ministers responsible for Cultural Affairs following the closing conference of the 50th Anniversary of the European Cultural Convention “Intercultural Dialogue: The Way Ahead” in Faro, Portugal, 28 October 2005.

Opatija Declaration on Intercultural Dialogue and Conflict Prevention (2003)
Adopted by the European Ministers Responsible For Cultural Affairs, Opatija (Croatia), 22 October 2003.

European Cultural Convention  (1954)
Council of Europe Convention adopted in Paris 19 November 1954. It has been signed by 48 countries.

European Union

2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue – Final Evaluation (2010)
Provides an assessment of activities undertaken during EU’s Year of Intercultural Dialogue and highlights projects undertaken throughout Europe.

European Agenda for Culture in a Globalising World(2007)
Commission’s strategy for culture was published in May 2007 which  identifies intercultural dialogue among its main priorites; the others being cultural diversity, creativity and innovation and culture as a key element of the EU’s external relations activities.

Catalogues of Good Practice Projects supported by European Commission Programmes
29 Ways to Promote Inter-cultural Understanding: Examples of Best Practice from around Europe

Intercultural Dialogue: Best Practices at the Community Level
Selection of key projects supported by the European Commission Culture 2000 programme.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)
Provides comparative information and data on racism, xenophobia, islamophobia and anti-Semitism in the EU member states as well as national measures and action taken to fight against racism and xenophobia.  Its magazine “Equal Voices” can be downloaded from this site.

Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for Dialogue between Cultures
Provides background information on the Foundation, its activities, network of networks, publications and journalist prize. Applications or calls for proposals are available as is a newsletter.

Research/Debates/Good Practices

Dragan Klaic: Inclusion and Participation Can Lead to ‘Cultural Security’ (2004/2006 – 11/2015)
“Cultural debates – if not cultural policies – are affected and coloured by raised fears of asylum seekers, radical Islam and terrorist attacks. Against such a background, it would perhaps make more sense to look at the culture budgets not in terms of their economic impact – as has been the case for the last 10-15 years, under the influence of the neo-liberal thinking – but rather as a security issue. An argument could be made that discrimination, exclusion and marginalization in a political, ideological and socio-economic sense nourish a dangerous cultural insecurity; and that cultural policies aimed at inclusion and active participation of marginalized social groups in culture nurture their sense of cultural security, a sense of belonging, and strengthen the social cohesion. This security prism has consequences on developing cultural policies at home and in the EU at large but also in developing a cultural dimension of an emerging EU foreign and security policy, esp. in the direction of immediate neighbours in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Southern Mediterranean.”

Conference “Human Rights and Intercultural Dialogue in Development” (2012)
On the occasion of the Human Rights Day (10th December), the Association of Local Democracy Agencies (ALDA) organised this International Conference in Paris. The Conference was attended by 60 participants representing Local Authorities and CSOs coming from the enlarged Europe. The conference has been organized within the framework of the multi-annual WTD – Working Together for Development programme, which aims at exploring the opportunities Local Authorities and Civil Society Organizations have in working together to promote more sustainable global development achievements. The discussion focused on the linkages between Human Rights and global development and included speakers like Catherine Lalumière, President of the French Federation of the Houses of Europe, Pierre Barge, Honorary President of the European Association for the Defense of Human Rights (AEDH) and Christoph Eberhard, Professor in Anthropology and Theory of the Law at the University of Saint Louis in Brussels.

Cultural Participation of Migrants (2012)
A first “InterCultureBarometer” survey was conducted by the Centre for Cultural Research (ZfKf): Based on 2800 interviews, it analyses how migration influences cultural life in Germany.

Culture, Development and Intercultural Dialogue in Central Asia (2010)
The Art and Culture Programme in Uzbekistan is a part of the Regional Arts and Culture Programme funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) whose activities reflect the diversity of the local population; support art and culture activities building on a participative approach; promote intercultural dialogue between art and culture actors in the three Central Asia countries Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

MAP for ID – Museums as Places for Intercultural Dialogue  (2009)
Bodo, K. Gibbs, M. Sani (eds.), Museums as places for intercultural dialogue: selected practices from Europe, published by MAP for ID partners, 2009.

Intercultural Dialogue and Digital Culture  (2008)
This round table was organised by Culturelink (Zagreb) in November 2008. Participants raised a plethora of issues that need to be taken into account while researching intercultural dialogue and digital culture including outdated concepts of culture, citizenship participation, the continuing digital divide, new opportunities for younger generations, etc. A conference reader can be downloaded from the site.  

Sharing Diversity: National Approaches to Intercultural Dialogue in Europe  (2008)
A Europe-wide study undertaken by the ERICarts Institute for the European Commission to map national approaches, policies or strategies in Europe to ICD in the fields of education, culture, youth and sports.

Intercultural Dialogue in Europe: Flash Eurobarometer  (2007)
Reports on how citizens interact with people from different cultural backgrounds and on their attitude towards cultural diversity. Download results from individual countries.

European Forum for Arts and Heritage: Island and Bridges  (2006) (Pdf document)
Website of the  EFAH conference on intercultural dialogue and the culture sector entitled, “Islands and Bridges” which took place in Helsinki 5-7 October 2006. Final report of the conference available from the home page. Further reading section of the website provides links to interesting articles by Naseem Kahn, Raj Isar, Dragan Klaic and Therese Kaufman.

Interarts:  Cultural Policies and Immigration: Experiences and Reflections  (2006)
Final report of  a European seminar organised by Interarts in  Barcelona 21-22 November 2006.

European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts): Developing Indicators on Intercultural Dialogue, Cultural Policies and the Compendium
Series of indicators developed in 2004 to collect information on  intercultural dialogue from the point of view of cultural policies in general and the Compendium methodology in particular.

Council of Europe

The wider benefits of investment in cultural heritage (2015)
Whether investing in cultural heritage actually produces dividends for local economies and improves the quality of life of communities remains an open question for many policymakers and researchers. Available at the CoE Online Bookshop, this publication reports on a pilot exercise in Bosnia and Herzegovina, carried out by the Research Unit on South Eastern Europe at the European Institute of the London School of Economics and Political Science. It develops a methodology for the collection of evidence needed to monitor and evaluate the wider benefits of investment in cultural heritage.

Working Group on Social and Economic Values of Heritage (2013)
A new Working Group at the Council of Europe has started its activities in October 2013 with a first meeting. The Group’s mandate focuses on to assessing and measuring heritage-related values as stipulated in the “Faro Framework Convention” of the CoE including, but not limited to, those mentioned in Art. 1a “recognise that rights relating to cultural heritage are inherent in the right to participate in cultural life, as defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights” and Art. 12a (under the heading “Access to cultural heritage and democratic participation”): “encourage everyone to participate in:
– the process of identification, study, interpretation, protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural heritage;
– public reflection and debate on the opportunities and challenges which the cultural heritage represents”.

Cultural participation: New challenges and opportunities (2013)
Presentation on the socio-economic impacts of cultural participation by Mr Pier Luigi Sacco Professor of Cultural Economics, IULM University, Milan in the context of the 10th Council of Europe Conference of Ministers of Culture “Governance of Culture – Promoting Access to Culture” in Moscow, Russian Federation, 15-16 April 2013

European Union

Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe (2015)
The Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe project has resulted in a nearly 300 page report for tapping into heritage’s full potential. It provides compelling evidence of the value of cultural heritage and its impact on Europe’s economy, culture, society and the environment. The full report and the report’s executive summary are available for free download.

The Impact of Culture on Creativity (2009)
A study realised for the European Commission by KEA. The report develops the concept of culture-based creativity, stemming from art and cultural productions or activities which nurture innovation, and going beyond artistic achievements or “creative content” feeding broadband networks, computers and consumer electronic equipments.

Research

Cultural Participation and Wellbeing What do the data tell us? (2018)
The – actually quite important – role of culture in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing is being investigated in this fourth issue of a regular Dossier published by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”.
The current issue is edited by Anna Villarroya and Vicky Ateca-Amestoy. It compares Spain with the EU average and selected countries, analysing the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflecting on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Business tools for measuring socio-economic impact a model for culture? (2015)
In 2013, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) published the guide Measuring socio-economic impact: A guide for business. The guide presents, inter alia, 10 existing, publicly available tools which have been developed for business and which companies are increasingly applying and tries to translate the specific methods and terminology often used in that context for a business audience. Since some of these tools could be seen as a challenge to public and private organisations operating in the arts and media domains, we would like to ask policymakers, researchers and operators about their experiences (and instruments) in this field of activity.

Culture3.0:Theimpactofcultureonsocialandeconomicdevelopment,&howto measure it (2013)
A presentation made by Mr Pier Luigi Sacco Professor of Cultural Economics, IULM University, Milan on the different impacts of culture on social and economic development.

The Impact of Culture on Education (2010)
This article analyses in which way cultural tendencies impact on the way children participate in education. It describes different expectations about “normal” school behavior for students from individualist and collectivist cultures.

The Impact of Culture on Tourism (2009)
This OECD publication concentrates on the different impacts that culture can have on tourism and examines the growing relationship between tourism and culture, and the way in which they have together become major drivers of destination attractiveness and competitiveness.

The Impact of Culture on Interactions: Five Lessons Learned from the European Commission (2008)
Using data collected from 25 interviews with Austrian employees in the EuropeanCommission, this article explores the conditions under which cultural differences do and do not influence interactions.

The Social Effects of Culture (2006)
Dick Stanley is presenting the results of a workshop analysing the social effects of culture that were published in the Canadian Journal of Communication.

The Role of the Arts in Social Inclusion (2005)
This report from Jo Barraket was commissioned by the Brotherhood of St Laurence and the University of Melbourne as part of a preliminary analysis of the role of the arts in building social inclusion.

Council of Europe

Digitisation and Online Exploitation of Broadcasters’ Archives (2011)
This IRIS Special of the European Audiovisual Observatory addresses the fact that the archives of many television broadcasters now contain works covering more than half a century of contemporary, documentary and entertainment history, which are of immense cultural and economic value. Digitisation has created an entirely new technical basis for making these audiovisual archives available to a wide audience (cf. e.g. the BBC Creative Archive or the French Inamédiapro database). However, due to contractual practices and to aspects of copyright law that do not meet the needs of the digital age, many serious problems arise when it comes to clearing the rights for archived works. Such problems are being dealt with in the publication in order to show policy-makers and legislators where immediate action is needed. Book orders here

National Cultural Policy Reviews
Initiated in 1986, the Council of Europe’s flagship programme of cultural policy reviews assesses policies in member states at the request of the Minister of Culture. One of the key issues of investigation is how governments provide support to creativity and hence to its artists. The reports of reviews in 26 countries are provided.

European Union

Mobility Information Standards (2011)
The European Commission set up in May 2011 an EU expert group on mobility information standards to develop common content and quality standards for information and advice relating to the mobility of artists and cultural professionals. The final report on Information standards for the mobility of artists and cultural professionals presents the results of this expert group’s work.

Les Artistes Européens revendiquent l’Union (2008)
Réunis en convention, les délégués des artistes des arts visuels et plastiques de l’U.E. ont débattu de leur statut social et mis en cause “les artifices d’une valorisation exclusivement vénale des oeuvres”. Le résultat de la réunion est un “Livre Blanc” avec un Manifeste qui demande une “existence culturelle et économique intégrée dans une filière professionnelle.”

European Parliament Resolution on the Social Status of Artists
Initiated by MEP Claire  Gibault, this Resolution was passed in 2007. Input was provided to this exercise by the EP commissioned study on the status of artists in Europe undertaken by the ERICarts Institute.

ERICarts: The Status of Artists in Europe / Die Situation der Künstler in Europa (2006)

Study undertaken for the European Parliament, presenting innovative national measures and models aimed at improving the socio economic status of authors (e.g. writers or visual artists) and performing artists in Europe. / Studie für das Europäische Parlament mit innovativen Maßnahmen und Modellen zur Verbesserung des sozio-ökonomischen Status von Künstlern in Europa.

UN – UNESCO

Shaheed-Report on “The right to freedom of artistic expression and creativity” (2013)
The UN Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, has submitted this ground-breaking Report to the UN Human Rights Council. Based on her conviction, that “Artists may entertain people, but they also contribute to social debates, sometimes bringing counter-discourses and potential counterweights to existing power centres” and that “the vitality of artistic creativity is necessary for the development of vibrant cultures and the functioning of democratic societies”, she provides first an overview of legal frameworks that are to protect artistic freedom. Based on responses from all parts of the world she then concludes that (potential) limitations to such freedoms are often taken as an excuse to restrict or prohibit artistic expressions in specific political, cultural, religious or economic contexts. This leads to a number of recommendations, ranging from non-discriminatory laws and the abolition of prior-censorship bodies to e.g. anti-trust legislation, the prohibition of coercive contracts, to an assessment of the impact of current intellectual property rights regimes on artistic freedoms or to an enhancement of “arts education in schools and communities, instilling respect for, appreciation and understanding of artistic creativity”, including with regard to controversial expressions.

Questionnaire on the Right to Artistic Freedom (2012) (Word Document)
In order to prepare her next report to the UNCHR with a focus on artistic freedom, the UN Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, has prepared a questionnaire that all stakeholders – ministries, cultural institutions, NGOs, international organisations and networks, etc. – are invited to complete and submit (until January 7, 2013) to srculturalrights@ohchr.org

UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist
Adopted by the UNESCO General Assembly in Belgrade, 27 October 1980.

World Congress on the Implementation of the Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist
Presents the results, recommendations and final publication of the World Congress held in Paris, 16-20 June 1997.

Research/Debates

Beyond Curiosity and Desire: Towards Fairer International Collaborations in the Arts (2018)
In collaboration with On the Move and DutchCulture, IETM has published a new Toolkit for fairer international collaborations, written by Mike van Graan. The publication explores why and how artists and cultural professionals can adopt a more equitable approach to international and intercultural collaborations.

Crossing Borders > A guide for musicians and ensembles travelling with musical instruments containing protected species (2018)
This guide, by PEARLE* and the International Federation of Musicians, is for musicians and ensembles travelling with musical instruments containing species protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered (CITES).

The Evaluation Journey – A Toolkit for Cultural Operators (2018)
This toolkit initiated by the European Network of Cultural Centres (ENCC) in partnership with Dagna Gmitrowicz and On the Move will embark you on the different steps of development of your evaluation through information, advice and exercises.

ART UNDER THREAT: More violations of artistic freedom (2017)
The latest edition of the annual “Art under Threat” documentation has been published by Freemuse in February 2017. In 2016 a total number of 1,028 cases of censorship and attacks on artistic freedom across 78 countries has been registered. This number more than doubled the number of cases registered in 2015, rising from 469.

Bratislava: New efforts to define the status of artists (2014)
Naming this effort “an example of effective international cooperation”, Pavol Král (President of the International Association of Art Europe and of the Slovak Coalition for Cultural Diversity) presents the results of an exchange on the legal definition of a professional artist, based on a questionaire on the status of artists sent to international cultural organisations. The ERICarts Institute participated in the survey. In his paper, Král summarises the opinions, infomation and examples of related laws from 21 countries from 4 continents, asking for reactions, comments, and especially missing information regarding this “working document”.

santralistanbul: Art donations on auction (2013)
When the Bilgi University (Istanbul/Turkey) opened up its art museum and exhibition centre in a former power plant in 2007, it instantly became an important cultural hot spot in that region, attracting also many donations of works of art. Now officials started to get rid of this collection, which led to an outcry in the global arts community. A petition signed by thousands of supporters claims that the “University has betrayed the trust of the art world by putting the works in its collection up for auction. And: “The question is whether works donated or sold to a museum collection that would represent the heart and soul of histories of art in Turkey could be reverted to the private domain.” However, this case could also be seen as a signal to artists and collectors: Don’t give away your works without a proper contract that takes care such eventualities, whether of a commercial or a political nature!

The Cultural Labour Market and Artists’ Market in Germany (2012)
This new study of Michael Söndermann, a statistical expert for the Compendium, has been carried out for the German National Commission for UNESCO.   For the first time, official statistics were harmonised according to the revised UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (FCS). As pointed out by Söndermann, “this statistical transfer process worked surprisingly well, helped by the fact that global and regional economic classification systems have undergone a world-wide adaptation process over the last years.” Employed and self-employed persons in the German culture and media sector account for roughly 1.5 million people, about 1.28 million can be considered “cultural occupations” in a wider definition (2010). 29 percent of those working in cultural occupations have incomes in the lower range (up to EUR 1,100 monthly net income), while 32 percent are located in the upper income range (starting from EUR 2,000). See the full report here (in German).

France: Le salariat dans le secteur culturel/The salaried workforce in the cultural sector (2012)
According to this 2012 study of the DEPS/Ministère de la culture et de la communication, Paris, there are 697,000 salaried workers in the French cultural sector, with the majority working in the àŽle-de-France area (around the capital). Typical for this group are short working periods and irregular pay, as well as a frequent recourse to diversification. The full report is in French.

Finland: Positive development in cultural employment over the 2000s (2012)
According to Statistics Finland’s Labour Force Survey, employment has grown faster in cultural occupations and cultural industries than the employment of all occupations and industries. In 2011, around 81,700 were working in cultural occupations as their main job. Of occupations, employment improved most among graphic, art and craft designers and related artists, up by over 60 per cent. Employment of those in artistic occupations increased by around 14 per cent and that of journalists by over five per cent.

On the Move (OTM)
is a cultural mobility information network with more than  30 members in over 20 countries across Europe and beyond. Its mission is to  encourage and facilitate cross-border mobility and cooperation, contributing to building up a vibrant and shared European cultural space that is strongly  connected worldwide. The website disseminates, inter alia, project news and funding opportunities, practical and advocacy tools as well as research reports.

Index on Censorship – 40 Years (2012)
On the occasion of its 40th anniversary, Index on Censorship has made all of its back issues freely available online. Writing in the current issue, editor Jo Glanville calls the archive “a literary treasure trove and also an historic document of the extremes of human behaviour – from man at his most inhumane to man at his most courageous”. Index began as the organ of Writers and Scholars International, the organization founded by Stephen Spender in 1968 in response to the plight of Soviet dissidents. Concentrating first on the USSR, then spreading to other eastern European countries and, in the 1980s opening up to Latin America, Africa and beyond, Index “made it clear from the start that censorship was a worldwide issue that featured in democracies as well as in dictatorships”.