COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Ukraine/ 4.2 Specific policy issues and recent debates  

4.2.6 Media pluralism and content diversity

According to the data of the State Committee on Television and Radio Broadcasting, there were 2 270 printed periodicals registered in Ukraine in 2014 (submitting one obligatory copy to the State Committee). Approximately 70% of national and local periodicals are privately owned (their founders / owners are legal or physical entities). The State Committee on Information Policy has created a database of 667 community printed periodicals.

There are 120 information agencies in Ukraine, 5 of which are state-owned. The key state-owned information agency Ukrinform, located in Kyiv, issues daily 500 prompt reports in English, German, Russian and Ukrainian, around 200 photos and an audio digest. Ukrinform delivers information to the media, TV channels, radio stations, official establishments and local governments, foreign embassies and Ukrainian diplomatic missions abroad, and the foreign media. The server "UKRINFORM-NEWS" offers on-line free access to the sites: "Nations of the World", "Business Ukraine", "Integral Ukraine", "Ukrinform Audio / Video", "BSANNA" and "Press Center".

Table 3:     Newspapers by national languages, January 2014

Language

Number of editions

Number of issues

Average number of copies (thou)

Annual number of copies (thou)

Ukrainian

1 191

50 433

19 050.3

1 048 023.4

Russian

835

39 747

29 563.9

2 159 860.0

English

4

80

18.9

864.4

Crimean Tartar

1

12

2.0

23.7

German

2

28

0.8

15.9

Polish

4

58

6.5

118.0

Romanian

5

198

37.0

1 499.0

Hungarian

5

310

38.6

2 656.9

Bilingual, incl.:

220

8 069

3 005.3

143 915.2

— Ukrainian and Russian

209

7 813

2 963.4

142 785.3

— Ukrainian and English

2

98

18.2

750.8

— Ukrainian and Moldavian

1

1

0.2

0.2

— Ukrainian and Polish

2

15

10.9

79.3

 Ukrainian and Hungarian

4

127

10.2

278.9

 Russian and Greek

2

15

2.4

20.7

Multilingual, incl.:

3

68

9.3

327.0

— Ukrainian, Russian and Bulgarian

1

51

5.9

299.0

— Ukrainian, Russian and Church Slavonic

1

8

2.6

20.8

Ukrainian, Russian and Jewish

1

9

0.8

7.2

Total:

2 270

99 003

51 732.6

335 7303.5

Source:     State Committee on TV and Radio Broadcasting, 2015.

1 625 TV and Radio stations, under various forms of ownership, were registered in Ukraine in 2012 (according to data of the National Council for Television and Radio Broadcasting). The total air time of TV and radio broadcasting is above 12 000 hours per day. About 80% of all air time is filled by non-Ukrainian products (programmes and films); this tendency increased drastically in 2010, especially of Russian products. The content of 15 national channels consists of 65.8% of Ukrainian language products and 34.2% of other languages including subtitles.

Within the system of State TV-Radio Broadcasting, there are 24 regional TV stations, the State TV Company "Crimea" and State TV-Radio Station in Kyiv and Sevastopol. The share of non-public TV and radio broadcasting constitutes 96% of the Ukrainian informational space.

There are no special legislative mechanisms or governmental programmes to promote cultural issues through media or encourage the production of cultural programmes, or any specific training programmes for journalists working in the cultural sphere.

The number of Internet users in Ukraine is increasing: in September 2009, there were 7.2 million users compared with 3.2 million in 2006, and in December 2010, their number had reached 11.3 million. Men constitute 51% of users and women – 49%. 36% are users aged between 14-29 years and 29% are aged between 25-39 years; this indicates that the Internet audience in Ukraine is rather young.

According to the survey of OpinionSoftMedia based on the user-centric approach, there are two dozens of top domains in Ukraine. The methodology is based on the work of representative panel of Internet users which have installed special software. The panel represents users all over Ukraine above 15.

Table 4:     Top-10 used domains by December, 2012

Domains

Average daily share, %

Coverage, %

Google

63%

80%

Vkontakte

55%

72%

mail.ru

45%

74%

Yandex

37%

68%

odnoklassniki

34%

56%

youtube.com

24%

65%

wikipedia.org

13%

56%

ukr.net

11%

27%

ex.ua

11%

32%

facebook.com

9%

34%

Source:     Telekritika, 24-01-2013.

According to the research of the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences "Socio-cultural trends in the modern Ukrainian society" (2014), the level of popular trust in the media was respectively low in Ukraine – 30%. As usual, people trusted the media less than the church and army but more than the president and government and, undoubtedly, political parties. During the so called "information war" (2013-2014), the popular trust in the media in Ukraine dropped abruptly and for the first time the indices of distrust overcome trust (45% vs 25%), demonstrating a strict regional differentiation: a quarter of the population distrust the media in the western part of Ukraine while in eastern part a half of population distrust, and in Donetsk region – two thirds.


Chapter published: 05-06-2015

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