COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Key Resources / Informations générales / Hintergrunddokumente

Status of Artists / Statut d'artiste / Lage der Künstler

Council of Europe / Conseil de l'Europe / Europarat

Digitisation and Online Exploitation of Broadcasters' Archives (01/2011)
This IRIS Special of the European Audiovisual Observatory addresses the fact that the archives of many television broadcasters now contain works covering more than half a century of contemporary, documentary and entertainment history, which are of immense cultural and economic value. Digitisation has created an entirely new technical basis for making these audiovisual archives available to a wide audience (cf. e.g. the BBC Creative Archive or the French Inamédiapro database). However, due to contractual practices and to aspects of copyright law that do not meet the needs of the digital age, many serious problems arise when it comes to clearing the rights for archived works. Such problems are being dealt with in the publication in order to show policy-makers and legislators where immediate action is needed. Book orders here

National Cultural Policy Reviews
Initiated in 1986, the Council of Europe's flagship programme of cultural policy reviews assesses policies in member states at the request of the Minister of Culture. One of the key issues of investigation is how governments provide support to creativity and hence to its artists. The reports of reviews in 26 countries are provided.

European Union / Union Européenne / Europäische Union

Mobility Information Standards (11/2011)
The European Commission set up in May 2011 an EU expert group on mobility information standards to develop common content and quality standards for information and advice relating to the mobility of artists and cultural professionals. The final report on Information standards for the mobility of artists and cultural professionals presents the results of this expert group's work.

Les Artistes Européens revendiquent l’Union (12/2008)
Réunis en convention, les délégués des artistes des arts visuels et plastiques de l’U.E. ont débattu de leur statut social et mis en cause "les artifices d’une valorisation exclusivement vénale des oeuvres". Le résultat de la réunion est un "Livre Blanc" avec un Manifeste qui demande une "existence culturelle et économique intégrée dans une filière professionnelle."

European Parliament Resolution on the Social Status of Artists
Initiated by MEP Claire  Gibault, this Resolution was passed in 2007. Input was provided to this exercise by the EP commissioned study on the status of artists in Europe undertaken by the ERICarts Institute.

ERICarts: The Status of Artists in Europe / Die Situation der Künstler in Europa (11/2006)
Study undertaken for the European Parliament, presenting innovative national measures and models aimed at improving the socio economic status of authors (e.g. writers or visual artists) and performing artists in Europe. / Studie für das Europäische Parlament mit innovativen Maßnahmen und Modellen zur Verbesserung des sozio-ökonomischen Status von Künstlern in Europa.

UN - UNESCO

Shaheed-Report on "The right to freedom of artistic expression and creativity" (03/2013)
The UN Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, has submitted this ground-breaking Report to the UN Human Rights Council. Based on her conviction, that "Artists may entertain people, but they also contribute to social debates, sometimes bringing counter-discourses and potential counterweights to existing power centres" and that "the vitality of artistic creativity is necessary for the development of vibrant cultures and the functioning of democratic societies", she provides first an overview of legal frameworks that are to protect artistic freedom. Based on responses from all parts of the world she then concludes that (potential) limitations to such freedoms are often taken as an excuse to restrict or prohibit artistic expressions in specific political, cultural, religious or economic contexts. This leads to a number of recommendations, ranging from non-discriminatory laws and the abolition of prior-censorship bodies to e.g. anti-trust legislation, the prohibition of coercive contracts, to an assessment of the impact of current intellectual property rights regimes on artistic freedoms or to an enhancement of "arts education in schools and communities, instilling respect for, appreciation and understanding of artistic creativity", including with regard to controversial expressions.

Questionnaire on the Right to Artistic Freedom (11/2012)
In order to prepare her next report to the UNCHR with a focus on artistic freedom, the UN Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, has prepared a questionnaire that all stakeholders - ministries, cultural institutions, NGOs, international organisations and networks, etc. - are invited to complete and submit (until January 7, 2013) to srculturalrights@ohchr.org

UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist
Adopted by the UNESCO General Assembly in Belgrade, 27 October 1980.

World Congress on the Implementation of the Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist
Presents the results, recommendations and final publication of the World Congress held in Paris, 16-20 June 1997.

World Observatory on the Social Status of the Artists
Provides an overview of the Observatory's activities to collect data and information on social benefits and taxes including: employment and protection, social dialogue, the tax system, international mobility. Links to information on allowances and fellowships as well as networks and partners are also provided. Contributions to the Observatory can be made by responding to its questionnaire.

Research, Debates / Recherches, débats / Forschung, Debatten

ART UNDER THREAT: More violations of artistic freedom (02/2017)
The latest edition of the annual "Art under Threat" documentation has been published by Freemuse in February 2017. In 2016 a total number of 1,028 cases of censorship and attacks on artistic freedom across 78 countries has been registered. This number more than doubled the number of cases registered in 2015, rising from 469.

Bratislava: New efforts to define the status of artists (02/2014)
Naming this effort "an example of effective international cooperation", Pavol Král (President of the International Association of Art Europe and of the Slovak Coalition for Cultural Diversity) presents the results of an exchange on the legal definition of a professional artist, based on a questionaire on the status of artists sent to international cultural organisations. The ERICarts Institute participated in the survey. In his paper, Král summarises the opinions, infomation and examples of related laws from 21 countries from 4 continents, asking for reactions, comments, and especially missing information regarding this "working document".

 santralistanbul: Art donations on auction (02/2013)
When the Bilgi University (Istanbul/Turkey) opened up its art museum and exhibition centre in a former power plant in 2007, it instantly became an important cultural hot spot in that region, attracting also many donations of works of art. Now officials started to get rid of this collection, which led to an outcry in the global arts community. A petition signed by thousands of supporters claims that the "University has betrayed the trust of the art world by putting the works in its collection up for auction. And: "The question is whether works donated or sold to a museum collection that would represent the heart and soul of histories of art in Turkey could be reverted to the private domain." However, this case could also be seen as a signal to artists and collectors: Don't give away your works without a proper contract that takes care such eventualities, whether of a commercial or a political nature!

The Cultural Labour Market and Artists' Market in Germany (11/2012)
This new study of Michael Söndermann, a statistical expert for the Compendium, has been carried out for the German National Commission for UNESCO.   For the first time, official statistics were harmonised according to the revised UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (FCS). As pointed out by Söndermann, "this statistical transfer process worked surprisingly well, helped by the fact that global and regional economic classification systems have undergone a world-wide adaptation process over the last years." Employed and self-employed persons in the German culture and media sector account for roughly 1.5 million people, about 1.28 million can be considered "cultural occupations" in a wider definition (2010). 29 percent of those working in cultural occupations have incomes in the lower range (up to EUR 1,100 monthly net income), while 32 percent are located in the upper income range (starting from EUR 2,000). See the full report here (in German).

France: Le salariat dans le secteur culturel/The salaried workforce in the cultural sector (09/2012)
According to this 2012 study of the DEPS/Ministère de la culture et de la communication, Paris, there are 697,000 salaried workers in the French cultural sector, with the majority working in the àŽle-de-France area (around the capital). Typical for this group are short working periods and irregular pay, as well as a frequent recourse to diversification. The full report is in French.

Finland: Positive development in cultural employment over the 2000s (08/2012)
According to Statistics Finland's Labour Force Survey, employment has grown faster in cultural occupations and cultural industries than the employment of all occupations and industries. In 2011, around 81,700 were working in cultural occupations as their main job. Of occupations, employment improved most among graphic, art and craft designers and related artists, up by over 60 per cent. Employment of those in artistic occupations increased by around 14 per cent and that of journalists by over five per cent.

On the Move (OTM)
is a cultural mobility information network with more than  30 members in over 20 countries across Europe and beyond. Its mission is to  encourage and facilitate cross-border mobility and cooperation, contributing  to building up a vibrant and shared European cultural space that is strongly  connected worldwide. The website disseminates, inter alia, project news and funding opportunities, practical and advocacy tools as well as research reports.

Index on Censorship - 40 Years (04/2012)
On the occasion of its 40th anniversary, Index on Censorship has made all of its back issues freely available online. Writing in the current issue, editor Jo Glanville calls the archive "a literary treasure trove and also an historic document of the extremes of human behaviour - from man at his most inhumane to man at his most courageous". Index began as the organ of Writers and Scholars International, the organization founded by Stephen Spender in 1968 in response to the plight of Soviet dissidents. Concentrating first on the USSR, then spreading to other eastern European countries and, in the 1980s opening up to Latin America, Africa and beyond, Index "made it clear from the start that censorship was a worldwide issue that featured in democracies as well as in dictatorships".

Labforculture.org: Research In Focus
Provides a list of links to key research reports and networks focussing on issues challenging the status of artists in Europe.