Employment in the cultural sector decreased by 7.4% between 2011 and 2012.
4.2.9 Employment policies for the cultural sector
The weight of the cultural sector in the Spanish economy is measured in terms of its contribution to GDP (2.8% or 3.6%, in 2009, depending on whether one takes into account all activities related to intellectual property) and employment. According to the Cultural Statistics Yearbook 2012, the number of jobs in the cultural field rose from 397 600 in 2000 to 452 700 in 2012, an increase of approximately 14% in absolute terms. Employment grew significantly throughout the 2000s as a result of the development of cultural companies as producers of value added with the capacity to absorb new technologies and qualified workers. However, during the past few years job growth has slowed down. Thus, employment in this sector has decreased by 7.4% over the previous year (2011) and its share of total employment has decreased from 2.7% in 2011 to 2.6% in 2012.
The most significant differences between cultural and total employment are observed in the education level, as employees in the cultural sector have above-average training and there is a higher rate of part-time workers. The autonomous regions of Madrid and Catalonia have the highest number of employees in culture: 4.6% and 3.3% respectively of total employment in these communities. The number of jobs in "cultural professions" (e.g. artists, archivists, librarians, etc.) has risen even faster, from 154 300 to 289 600, over the 2000-2012 period, as a result of the Ministry's policy in these sectors. Approximately 72% of workers in culture were employees in 2012: 75.7% of these had indefinite contracts and the other 24.3% had temporary contracts. It is equally true, however, that cultural employment, particularly in the entertainment field, is made up of a high proportion of unregistered workers who exist on the fringes of the mainstream economic system.
As for civil service employment in this field, the main traditional challenge has been to re-train local and regional officials and bring them up to speed on current trends in cultural policy-making. The economic crisis has also affected cultural administration, with the consequent reductions in jobs. This trend diverges from that in times of economic expansion in which the cultural administration had significantly increased their structures.