COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
Print this Page
EN DE FR  ||  About Us | Contact | Legal Notice Council of Europe LOGO  ERICarts LOGO
Print this Page
EN DE FR  Council of Europe LOGO  ERICarts LOGO
 

National cultural expenditure in 2012 amounted to 2.31% of GDP compared to 2.72% in 2010.

 

The Minister of Culture managed to negotiate a much lower cut of the budget for culture in 2014 than the government had planned.

Show all Profile-News...

Slovenia/ 6. Financing of culture  

6.1 Short overview

Within the public sphere, culture in Slovenia is co-financed by two main actors: the state and local communities. On the state level, the Ministry of Culture is responsible for the distribution of the majority of public funds for culture (ca. 90%). Various programmes and projects are supported by the cultural budget including those of public cultural institutions (national and municipal), the Slovenian Film Centre Slovenian Book Agency and the Public Fund of the Republic of Slovenia for Cultural Activities, programmes and projects of both minority groups as well as subsidies and grants for artists, professional societies, scholarships, cultural festivals, investments in information technology, sites and monuments, minimum social security for self-employed artists, retirement benefits for cultural workers etc.

In Slovenia, there are still no regional authorities that operate between the state and local level. In a country of 2 million people and approx. 20 000 square kilometres, there are 212 local communities. The obligations of the local communities in the cultural field are: to ensure conditions for common library activities, cultural and arts activities and amateur cultural activities, conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and other cultural programmes of local importance. In areas where national minorities live, the local communities are also obliged to support their cultural activities.

Total public cultural expenditure in 2013 amounted to approximately 284 million EUR and corresponded to 0.79% of the GDP. Table 14 contains data on public cultural expenditure for 2001-2013 which show that the level of public cultural expenditure grew steadily from 2001 until 2009. There was a decline in 2010 due to a reduction in the state budget as a result of the economic crisis and after that an ever more significant decline in each of the following years until 2013 when the budget is (nominally!) only slightly higher than it was in 2007.

Table 14:   Public cultural expenditure, in EUR, in % of GDP, 2001-2013

Year

Public cultural expenditure
(in EUR)

Public cultural expenditure
as % of GDP

2001

164 793 043

0.78%

2002

180 903 591

0.77%

2003

194 482 579

0.76%

2004

213 998 398

0.77%

2005

230 596 990

0.79%

2006

256 722 131

0.81%

2007

276 072 592

0.79%

2008

321 541 083

0.85%

2009

356 616 676

0.99%

2010

350 847 980

0.97%

2011

343 164 878

0.93%

2012

335 110 114

0.93%

2013

283 976 042

0.79%

Source: Ministry of Culture 2014.

The share of the state in public cultural expenditure was 55% in 2010, with the local level providing the remaining 45%. (This division includes all local level expenditure on culture and central spending of the Ministry of Culture and other ministries and parts of the public administration system).

Household spending on cultural activities and goods in Slovenia was calculated on the basis of the National Household Budget Survey carried out by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. In 2012, this amounted to ca. 497.66 million EUR or 3.68% of the total household budget (in 2010 it amounted to ca. 633.67 million EUR or 4.56% of the total household budget). The majority of cultural household expenditure was spent on the RTV subscription (33.9%) and press (19.7%). Household spending on cultural activities and goods in Slovenia, in 2012, corresponded to 1.38% of GDP (in 2010 it corresponded to 1.75%).

National cultural expenditure, calculated on the basis of public cultural expenditure and household spending on cultural activities and goods, in 2012, amounted to 832.77 million EUR and corresponded to 2.31% of GDP (in 2010 it amounted to 985.52 million EUR and corresponded to 2.72% of the GDP).

Table 15 shows shares of sources of expenditure in Slovenian GDP and also shows that the share of public cultural expenditure in GDP has been rather stagnant in the period from 2000-2007. GDP grew significantly 2008 and 2009, which can be attributed to the policy of the left-wing government of Prime-minister Pahor, who insisted on raising the budget for culture despite the worsening conditions for business environment for culture. This policy came to an end with the rise of the right-wing government in 2012, which implemented the first significant cuts in the public budget for culture and these continue to date. The government in charge in 2013 is more left-wing oriented, but culture is not high on its priorities and cuts have been made nevertheless. In 2014 a 10 million EUR cut in the budget of the Ministry of Culture had been planned by the new government, but the minister succeeded to turn it into a lower cut of 1.67 million EUR.

The data for household expenditure shows that this source has been significantly falling since 2001, reaching its lowest in 2007, while rising in 2008, 2009 and 2010 (falling back again in 2012, most likely due to the obvious results of the financial crisis). Almost all of the positions in household spending for culture (RTV subscription, expenditure on press, cinema and concerts, etc.) show a similar rise in 2008, 2009 and 2010. This could be a consequence of two forces: on one hand the public budget for culture has risen and as shown by Srakar and Čopič (2012) in most European countries, public and private funds are in relationship of crowding-in meaning that raising the public funds will have as a consequence raising (and not lowering) of the private funds (while lowering of the first will lead to the lowering of the latter) while on the other hand, the response to the worsened conditions in the general economy was not adjusting fast enough, as most cultural goods are price-inelastic. In general, Slovenian households faced the crisis with a delay due to the policy of "buying social rest" which pumped the money mostly into social transfers and lowering of daily impact of the crisis, while being mostly unresponsive in light of structural reforms. As expected, the observed trends have been reversed in the following years, as shown already in data for 2012.

Table 15:   GDP share for spending on culture and cultural expenditures, 2005-2012

 

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Share of household spending on culture

1.62%

1.54%

1.41%

1.46%

1.59%

1.75%

/

1.38%

Share of public cultural expenditure

0.79%

0.81%

0.79%

0.85%

0.99%

0.97%

0.93%

0.93%

Share of national cultural expenditure

2.41%

2.35%

2.20%

2.31%

2.58%

2.72%

/

2.31%

Source:     Ministry for Culture 2014.


Chapter published: 11-02-2015

Your Comments on this Chapter?