4.2.8 Social cohesion and cultural policies
In San Marino, the issue of "social cohesion" is not included in specific cultural policies. Indeed, on account of the limited number of foreigners residing on the territory, a targeted measure has not been deemed necessary (see also chapter 4.2.4). However, San Marino society is generally characterised by tolerance and dialogue and this has led to an increase, over the years, in the number of foreigners living and working in San Marino. Despite the fact that, at the time being, the Republic is not affected by discrimination problems based on race, colour, language and origin, there exist some administrative and civil law provisions mainly concerning employment. Similar provisions also regulate firing and equal opportunities.
Some measures have been adopted by the government and the institutions to enable the few foreigners residing in San Marino to express their own cultural identity and contribute to the cultural richness of the society as a whole. For instance, the evening classes for the Italian language, proposed by the Ministry of Public Education, continue to attract many immigrants: the aim is to facilitate their integration into the social context of the country. In addition, for some years, Trade Unions have been providing an information and assistance service both to workers and employers to support their process through the bureaucratic procedures (see chapter 4.2.4).
Other measures recently adopted by the San Marino Executive power to promote values aimed at strengthening social cohesion are part of the education and training policies involving the Training Department of San Marino University. This Department offers various professional categories, including teachers of any grade, training courses and study sessions concerning multicultural education, respect for diversities and the value of tolerance.
In the school year 2006/2007 new lessons concerning human rights were introduced, a priority theme in the curricula of all San Marino schools. This is the reason why the Department of Training organised some ad hoc courses on human rights and education to democratic citizenship. Moreover, the Department of Training included the subject matters "intercultural pedagogy" and "gender difference" within specialisation courses destined for teachers.
In the field of post university education, San Marino is participating, for the first time, with a national delegation in the first level Masters in "Human Rights and Humanitarian Action" promoted by the University of Siena.
For further details on the activities carried out in schools and in the field of education, see chapter 8.3.3.
In October 2006, San Marino organised the conference "Migration and Development". This initiative was organised by the Museum of the Emigrant - Permanent Study Centre on Emigration (established in 1997 with the task of documenting the experience of San Marino migration and testifying to the sense of belonging of the 12 000 San Marino citizens living abroad, see chapter 4.2.2), with the sponsorship of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. It proposed specific solutions. The results of the research presented on the occasion of the conference have underlined that emigrants have always represented a resource both for their country of origin and host country. In particular, emigration has led not only to the meeting / clash of different cultures, but above all it had an impact on the transformations, changes, improvements occurred within society, aimed at shaping it differently. The social and economic influence of migration on the country of origin and the educational function of emigrants returning to their homeland as agents of transformation are further aspects which make San Marino a model of positive emigration. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health has established professional training courses in the field of assistance and nursing, addressed to immigrants. Finally, in view of stressing much more the importance of cultures and the different ecclesiastic traditions, the San Marino-Montefeltro Diocese extended the invitation to the Christians of the different religions to take part in the Liturgy celebrated, for the first time, in the Byzantine rite in the Basilica of San Marino on 20 January 2006.