2.1 Main features of the current cultural policy model
According to the Basic Law on Culture (1992), state cultural policy (or state policy in the field of cultural development) means both principles and norms that the state follows in its actions to preserve, develop and disseminate culture and state activities in the field.
During the past decade, cultural policy priorities shifted from state administration of cultural institutions and funding, mainly heritage preservation, to more diverse principles of managing cultural affairs. Accordingly, the cultural policy model evolves from being centralised and based on state governance to a more complex and commercialised one. New cultural policy-makers emerged, including local self-governments, private actors; the cultural economy and cultural management became more sophisticated.
The measures of general political and administrative character deeply affect the cultural sector because the state remains the main cultural policy player. Decentralisation of responsibilities, an increase in cultural responsibilities of regional and local policy-makers, support for desetatisation of cultural institutions and heritage objects, together with the development of contemporary arts, media culture, cultural industries and entertainment, which are almost independent from state cultural policies, make the cultural landscape more diverse and uneven.
At the regional level, attempts were made to introduce an innovative cultural policy model oriented towards higher competitiveness of cultural institutions, wider access and participation in cultural life (e.g. see the Perm Krai profile). However, opinions divided and the change of the Perm Krai Governor (2012) was followed by winding down innovative projects and practices. Nevertheless, grant giving and competing for financial support are becoming more and more important for cultural policy making.