Romania/ 6. Financing of culture
6.1 Short overview
Government (both local and central) is the largest funder of culture in Romania. Other forms of funding culture, by means of the market, donations from individuals/ private institution or sponsorship from companies are still in the early stages and are quite small in financial terms.
In recent years, in the course of cultural decentralisation, many cultural institutions lost state funding and are supported by the local authorities.
Administration of the National Cultural Fund
In order to offer equal opportunities to all stakeholders and to make the whole process of subsidies more efficient and transparent, the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage (MoCNH) created the Administration National Cultural Fund (ANCN). ANCN was created by GO no. 10/2005 as a public institution with legal status, subordinated to MoCNH, and is financed by its own revenues and by subsidies from the state. The following objectives were targeted by the creation of the ANCF:
- Monitoring mechanisms for the collection of contributions / levies, assimilated to the budgetary debts;
- Controls are performed by the fiscal authorities and MoCNH;
- Enforcement & civil sanctions;
- Creation of a new financing source, by "transferring" the sums for programmes and projects from the MoCNH budget to the new structure, on the basis of an annual contract;
- Unification of small and disparate resources;
- Possibility of financing multi-annual programmes;
- Equal access conditions for all cultural actors, regardless of their juridical regime (private or public law);
- The assessment and selection of the cultural programmes, projects and actions are made by independent expert committees (peer review);
- Public monitoring and transparency;
- Fostering competition and value acknowledgement;
- Reduction of MoCNH functions and competencies;
- Separation of the function of financing cultural projects from the traditional role of the authority: policy making, regulation, monitoring etc;
- Reduction / elimination of political pressures in the selection process for cultural projects; and
- Creation of an "arm's length financing body", comparable to NEA, Art's Council, cultural funds in Hungary, Estonia, Latvia, Bulgaria etc.
Structure of the ANCF:
The Council, the decision making body of the ANCF:
- has a consultative role and advises the Executive Director. GD no. 802/2005 outlines the organisation and functioning of the ANCF;
- establishes the strategy and funding priorities of the National Cultural Fund Administration and appoint members of the evaluation and selection committees;
- the Council's members (11) are nominated by:
- MoCNH- 2 members;
- Romanian Cultural Institute - 1 member;
- Council of National Minorities - 1 member; and
- cultural operators - 7 members, one for each association with the greatest number of members.
- Board members are nominated for a period of two years, by order of the Minister and are remunerated according to civil conventions concluded under the law.
The director has an administrative role (duties are established by GD no. 802/2005 on the organisation and functioning of the ANCF).
Evaluation and selection committees:
- independent experts;
- clear rules regarding membership and potential conflicts of interest; and
- members must have an adequate "moral" profile.
Chapter published: 23-08-2012