New Agency created to manage national cultural projects.
Government has put forward a draft legislation that will stop the transfer of the 2% of the Romanian Lottery revenues to the Administration of the National Cultural Fund.
3.2 Overall description of the system
The main actor in the cultural field is the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. At local level, MoCNH shares responsibility for cultural policymaking and implementation with its forty-two Directorates for Culture and National Heritage.
Government Decision no. 90/2010 established the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage by reorganisation of the Ministry of Culture, Religious Affairs and National Heritage. This institution is a specialised organism of the central public administration, subordinated to the government, having distinct responsibilities for development and implementation of strategies and policies in culture, the arts and the audiovisual sector (in collaboration with the National Audiovisual Council). This Decision incorporates the organisational framework established by Government Decision no. 78/2005 which diversified the structure of the ministry, creating new departments to cover all areas of competence, allowing for transversal, intersectorial co-operation within the ministry and within the government.
In 2010, these changes were followed by a number of government changes to the department housing culture, heritage and religious affairs. Only two years before, Government Urgency Order no. 221/2008 had established the Ministry of Culture, Religious Affairs and National Heritage by reorganisation of the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs established in 2005.
Government Decision no. 1410/2009 established a re-organisation of some institutions that are subordinated to the Ministry of Culture, Religious Affairs and National Heritage, as follows:
- the National Office for Historical Monuments and the National Historical Monuments Institute to merge and become the National Heritage Institute;
- the Centre for Research on Culture and the Consultancy Centre for European Cultural Programmes to merge and become the Centre for Research and Consultancy on Culture;
- the Centre for Professional Training in Culture to merge with the European Centre for Culture Sinaia and the Institute for Cultural Memory, the activity of the two last institutions being ceased;
- the Cultural Centre "Sala Palatului" to change its name to the Centre for Performing Arts "Sala Palatului"; and
- the National Institute for Research on Conservation and Restoration to cease activity and to be reorganised as a department of the National History Museum.
Despite recent attempts of embracing a decentralised model of organisation, a large number of "national" cultural and artistic institutions still fall under the direct authority of the Ministry. MoCNH also controls commercial entities such as film production studios – RoFilm, Sahia Film, AnimaFilm; publishing houses – Meridiane Publishing House; and printing companies – Coresi Printing Company.
Reorganisation of the decentralised services (the county directorates for culture, and national cultural heritage)
Currently, the public decentralised services of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage are organised at each county level – Directorates for Culture and National Heritage. The decentralised services of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage do not normally function as cultural operators. They mostly act as part of the central administration as mediators, network operators etc.
Following the adoption of Government Decision no. 78/2005, these services have been reorganised and are now entrusted with specific tasks, adapted to their role and functions as decentralised bodies. They are now responsible for part of the central public administrative system in various fields, such as the protection of historical monuments and national cultural heritage, monitoring copyright infringements, support for NGOs and financing of cultural programmes, projects and events in emergency situations. They also monitor the implementation and compliance, by relevant entities, of their respective obligations, according to the provisions of Government Ordinance no 10/2005, relating to the transfer of levies set up by the Ordinance to the National Cultural Fund. Training for cultural operators is also organised through these decentralised services (e.g. access to financial resources, the Culture 2000-2013 programme, Structural and Cohesion funds).
Reorganisation of the Ministry and the increasing number of project based activities has led to the creation of a new department: Project Management Agency (PMA). Founded under Government Decision no.90/2010, PMA is responsible for the proposal of new projects, coordination of the development of the absorption of the grants’ strategy for the cultural field, the coordination of the MoCNH part in the application for the funding of the culture-focused operational programme from the EU structural budget (2013-2019). Besides, it also acts as a consultant and gives technical assistance on various projects on a contractual basis.
By means of the Project Management Agency, MoCNH coordinates, implements and monitors:
- the programme funded by the two projects of the Bank of Development of the European Council focused on the finalisation and rehabilitation of the public cultural buildings in Romania;
- the projects financed by the Financial Mechanism SEE under implementation (i.e. The Restoration of the Gate V – The fortress Vauban/ Fortification in the city of Alba Iulia and The Restoration of the Gabroveni Inn in Bucharest); and
- other projects financed by loans and by grants initiated and implemented by the MoCNH.
Moreover, on the administrative and procedural level, the PMA meets a broad number of functions in relation to project management (http://www.umpcultura.ro/).
On 1 July 2011, the Directorate for the Preservation of Cultural Memory (DPoCM) was established within the National Institute for Heritage, which is an Institute under the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage.
The DPoCM has a long and sinuous institutional history, first established in 1978 as the Records Office (Oficiu de Calcul) within the National History Museum, changing names and institutional affiliation in 1990 and 1998 when it became the National Institute of Cultural Memory.
In 2006, MoCNH allocated financial responsibility for the cultural field to the Administration of the National Cultural Fund. The ANCF, as a public institution, offers financial support to cultural projects in a transparent and competitive environment. It holds consultations with cultural operators (artists, NGOs, public institutions), and representatives of the Ministry, in order to establish a financial strategy for culture. The agency also contributes to public awareness of culture and promotes access, appreciation and direct participation. In recent years, ANCF has acknowledged the importance of new media, by creating a new area of financing (see chapter 4.2.11). As a result of debates organised by the Coalition of the independent sector, the methodological rules of ANCF have been changed. (http://coalitiasectoruluiculturalindependent.wordpress.com/category/afcn/page/2/).
In 2012, the Romanian Government has put forward a draft legislation that will stop the transfer of the 2% of the Romanian Lottery revenues to the Administration of the National Cultural Fund. These 2% were amounting to as much as 95% of the total budget of the AFCN for its grant-making towards cultural and editorial projects, so the effect for all project-based culture in Romania will be very important, especially for small organizations and freelance artists.
In 2002, the Law of Cinematography (Law 630/2002) established the National Centre of Cinematography (NCC). NCC supports finances and stimulates the Romanian movie industry. The Centre is the main governmental institution, ran by a state secretary that supports (through funding as well), stimulates and contributes to the administration of the Romanian movie industry (see chapter 6.2.3).
Chapter published: 11-09-2012