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Netherlands/ 4.2 Specific policy issues and recent debates  

4.2.4 Cultural diversity and inclusion policies

In April 2013, the Netherlands' population was just over 16.8 million inhabitants. The population is ageing, with approximately 16.8% already in the over-65 age group. By 2040, the population is expected to be 17.8 million people, 26% of whom will belong to the over-65 age group (source: Statistics Netherlands, click here for the English page about the Dutch population).

The Frisians

The only officialminority group in the Netherlands is the Frisian minority. In 2005 a covenant was signed concerning the Frisian language and culture. The covenant includes agreements concerning education in the Frisian language; the use of Frisian by the judiciary, in the courts, public administration and the media and for cultural activities and amenities (see also chapter 4.2.5). The covenant implements the commitments made by the Netherlands, when it ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Frisian.

The covenant also implies that the country now complies with the conditions set by the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, which the Netherlands signed in 2005.


Like many other countries in Western Europe, the Netherlands is effectively an "immigration country". The trend began soon after World War II, with a wave of immigrants from the former Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. One special group of immigrants are the Moluccans, who had served in the former colonial army and brought their families with them.

Over the past 40 years, the number of immigrant nationalities has increased considerably, with Turkey and Morocco as the main countries of origin. In the 1960s, Dutch companies, which were having trouble filling their low-paid vacancies, recruited Turkish and Moroccan workers. After Surinam became independent in 1975, a large number of Surinamese who had Dutch nationality also decided to take up residence in the Netherlands.

The last two decades have seen an influx of asylum seekers from various parts of Africa and Asia as well as Europe. Most immigrants live in or near the major cities. Official figures put the foreign population in 2012 at almost 3.5 million (not including illegal immigrants), or about 20% of the total population. People from Morocco, Surinam and Turkey outnumber the other groups of immigrants by far (source: Statistics Netherlands, click here for website). In official terms, people are defined as immigrants when at least one parent was born in another country. The Dutch Constitution [Grondwet] provides the legal basis for the civil rights of immigrants (e.g. citizenship, education, health, social insurance etc.) and for their cultural rights (e.g. to participate in cultural life, to protect and develop cultural and linguistic identities, to create, etc.). In the policy memorandum More Than Quality (2010), there is no specific policy regarding immigrants and cultural diversity. This responsibility lies with the cultural institutions themselves.

The Cultural Diversity Code

The Cultural Diversity Code was developed in 2010 by the cultural sector itself with support from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. A code of conduct, it is a practical tool, both a framework as well as a specific guidance, to assist organisations in formulating and putting into practice ambitions and objectives in the area of cultural (ethnic) diversity. The aim of the code is to permanently embed diversity in cultural organisations. It focuses on the following four aspects of cultural organisations: programming, public reach, partners and staff / management policy.

The 2012 coalition agreement states that "state-funded cultural organisations will apply the Cultural Diversity Code".

Minorities, groups and communities in the media

A number of television channels and radio stations focus specifically on a diverse cultural group of people.  The radio station FunX is a municipal public channel for urban youth with a dual background. FunX broadcasts in the four large cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

Until 2013, the production company MTNL (Multicultural Television in the Netherlands) produced multicultural programmes for the Dutch broadcasting system. Due to the budget cuts from central government for the period 2013-2016, the organisation was dissolved at the end of 2012. The mission, the objectives and some of the programme directors of MTNL have been integrated within AT5, the local broadcasting station of Amsterdam. 

Chapter published: 04-02-2014

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              Council of Europe/ERICarts, "Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 16th edition", 2015 | ISSN 2222-7334