COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Monitoring Public Cultural Expenditure in Selected European Countries 2000-2010/12

Gross figures in € per capita and in % of total public expenditure or of GDP; all levels of government

State: October 2014 (significant cuts are marked red, significant raises green)

COUNTRY

2000

2005

2009

2010, 2011 and/or 2012

Basis of Comparison
(years; definitions; sources other than the "Compendium")

€ per capita

€ per capita

€ per capita

€ per capita

% of total publ. expenditure

% of GDP

Read/Compare:

mainly horizontal comparisons

mainly vertical comparisons  

Austria

225

250

274

278/273/286

1.55

0.82/0.76/0.79

 

Azerbaijan

1.98

11

N/A

31/39/38*

ca. 2*

0.4*

*) 2012

Bulgaria

16

18

29

N/A

1.72*

0.64*

*) 2009

Croatia

N/A

N/A

77

72*/68**

1.48*/1.40**

0.68*/0.61**

*) 2011 **)2012

Czech Rep.

N/A

N/A

97

105/105/130

1.66/1.70/2.20

0.96/0.90/0.89

 

Denmark

290

352*

294

300**

ca. 1**

0.7***

*) 2006 **) 2011 (Budget); ***) 2010

Estonia

80*

140

164

188/188/176

3.21**

1.8/1.6/1.3

*) 2001 **) 2010

Finland

175

168

177

N/A

0.99*

0.54*

*) 2009 ( + trend, new budget design)

Georgia

3.6

7.6

11.6

9.3

N/A

0.46

 

Germany

100

97

112

117

1.67

0.38

Add. Source: Kulturfinanzbericht 2012

Hungary

N/A

36*

56

N/A

1.69**

0.57**

*) 2004 **) 2009 (cuts of -18% in 2012)

Ireland

N/A

34

50*

40**/38***

0.31***

0.11**/***

*) 2008 **) 2010 ***) 2012

Italy

101*

112

134

117/108**

0.8**

0.41**

*) Other sources: 118 € **)2011

Malta

N/A

42

55

55/63*

0.79/0.89*

0.39/0.43*

*) 2011 (approved budget)

Moldova

1.4

4.5

7.6

7.7

N/A

0.08

 

Netherlands

196

229

267

274/267*

1.48*

0.83*

Source: Min. of Cult. (incl. media) *) 2011

Norway

296*

380

389

446/534**

1.53/1.54**

0.7/0.7**

*) 2002 **) 2012

Portugal

60

76

76

69

0.9

0.42

 

Romania

N/A

N/A

50

41

2.1

0.73

 

Spain

78

120

153

149/126*

1.36/1.28*

0.65/0.55*

2010 Source Min. of Culture *) 2011

Sweden

234

220

239

267/278/274

2.6*

0.68*/0.66**

*) 2011 **) 2012

Switzerland

185

183

207

235/311*

1.7/1.6*

0.45/0.44*

*) 2011

Ukraine

4.5*

8.3

12.6

12.1/12.1**

1.7/1.62**

0.6/0.57**

*) 2001 **) 2012

Median of shares 2010-12
(rough indicator for comparisons):

1.55

0.58

(excl. "Only National Govt." countries!)

Countries where (parts of) the data are for national governments only:

Greece

38*

32*

N/A

45**

0.37**

0.23**

*) 2001/2006 **) 2011

Latvia

3.2

27

61

52/63/66

1.86/1.94/1.95

0.64*

*) 2010

Liechtenstein

396

590*

802

703/678**

ca. 3

ca. 0.65

*) 2007 **)2012

Lithuania

21

34*

N/A

44**

1.76

0.40

*) 2004 **) 2012

Poland

18

29

48

55/54*

0.54**

0.52

*) 2012 **) Only National Govt.!

Serbia

16.5

17

24

15*

0.65**

0.35*

*) 2011 **) Only Ministry of Culture!

Source:  Council of Europe/ERICarts, Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 15th edition, 2014 (www.culturalpolicies.net), earlier versions of the Compendium and additional sources, where indicated

Notes: Compendium figures are generally based on official data for gross public expenditure by all levels of government in specific cultural domains and sub-domains (as defined in: www.culturalpolicies.net/web/files/134/en/compendium_stat_comp_zurich_2010-1.pdf). However, data corresponding to this definition may not always be available (cf. Chapter 6 of the Country Profiles for details). Countries where only data from national state budgets can be compared are marked this way. In addition, administrative traditions of public involvement in the arts, heritage and media domains can, in some cases, influence results and should be taken into account in comparisons. As well, 2000, 2005 and 2009-11 may not always represent "typical" years for public cultural spending. In some countries, the most "cruel" cuts happened after the period covered in this table, for example in the Netherlands, where national funding decreased by 22% from 2012 to 2013. Obviously, we are forced to "Making Compromises to Make Comparisons in Cross-national Arts Policy Research" (title of a legendary article published 1987 by the late Mark D. Schuster in the Journal of Cultural Economics)!

Additional caveats, especially as regards absolute figures (per capita expenditure): Data could not be adjusted for price changes. In some countries, e.g. in Latvia, Poland or Sweden, parities between national currencies and the Euro changed frequently during the period studied in this table (parities were adjusted for the respective year). As well, lower per capita expenses in most of the East/Central European countries (e.g. Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Ukraine, etc.) can be partly explained by much lower average costs of main public services in the cultural domain (which also result in lower entrance fees or service rates, cf. the Compendium CUPIX index – www.culturalpolicies.net/web/statistics-markets.php). For these and other reasons, per capita figures should be seen mainly as a rough indicator for trends within a given country!