3.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy
The man instruments of international co-operation are bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements and cultural co-operation programmes. However, the Ministry concludes more detailed protocols with some countries, e.g. the annual protocol of co-operation with the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs of Romania.
To date, the Republic of Moldova has concluded agreements and detailed programmes on cultural co-operation and cultural tourism development with 35 countries.
The three institutions most involved in this process are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-ordinates and negotiates all the agreements on international cultural co-operation and has a key role in international cultural affairs that may have wider political implications. The Ministry of Culture usually drafts the international inter-ministerial agreements and cultural co-operation programmes and is responsible for its administration.
The Ministry of Education is responsible for cross-border co-operation in education and science, and for exchanges in the field of art, music and literature with countries such as Italy, France, Russia and Romania. One example in this field is the co-operation protocols between the Moldovan and Romanian Ministries of Education, whereby over 1 000 Moldovans study in different institutions in Romania each year, including art universities and research cultural centres. In 2010 this number increased to 5 000 young people. These programmes are carried out and funded by the Romanian Government.
On 26 August 2010, a protocol of cooperation was signed between the Romanian and Moldovan Ministries of Education on mutual recognition of diplomas and certificates of studies awarded in Moldova or Romania, and thus in the EU. The document stipulates that the university curricula in both countries will be unified in the near future, along with the mutual recognition of scientific titles.
The Romanian Cultural Institute, Romanian Ministry of Culture and Religious Denominations and the Department for Relations with the Romanian Diaspora are also very active in supporting cultural projects in the Republic of Moldova (e.g. fellowships, research projects, summer schools for artists, publishing of writers' works and other cultural publications etc).
In September 2010, the Romanian Cultural Institute "Mihai Eminescu" was opened in Chisinau. The Romanian Ambassador to the Republic of Moldova commented that this event was an instrument of modern cultural diplomacy.
Starting with 2006 a series of foreign film festivals were organised, supported by foreign embassies in Moldova, including the film festivals of Francophone countries, Great Britain, Japan, USA, Israel and Poland. In the same period, also with the support of foreign embassies, memorable concerts were organised, such as "Contemporary music from Japan", "Music generated by fine art", "The piano nights", "American music in Moldova", and the concert variant of Mozart's opera "The magic flute", among other cultural events. In 2009 – 2010, the organisation of these events became a tradition. The cultural agenda of the month of September is overloaded with cultural events, both local and international such as: the "Autumn Vocalize", "Queen Violin", "Ethno Jazz" Festivals; the week of Federico Fellini films, the Romanian Film Festival, national bazaar of pottery. These are just some of the events.
More sporadically, training, language courses, and research grants are implemented and partially financed by such organisations as the Goethe-Institute, the British Council, and the Alliance Française.
Special articles of the concluded agreements regulate financial conditions for participation at international cultural events listed in co-operation programmes, as well as guarantees for international exhibitions. The Ministry of Culture funds, partially, the most important international events (festivals, fairs, exhibitions) organised in Moldova. Other international cultural activities and travel expenses for participation at events abroad are funded from other sources (local budgets, sponsorship, grants etc).