COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Malta/ 4.2 Specific policy issues and recent debates  

4.2.9 Employment policies for the cultural sector

In 2009, at EU-27 level, 3.6 million people were employed in the five main cultural sectors of economic activity (NACE 58, 59, 60, 90, 91)[1] representing 1.7% of total employment. In Malta employment in the same selected cultural sectors is estimated at around 2 929 people in 2007 (CEWG) and/or 2 800 people in 2009 (Eurostat). The percentage of total employment is given as 1.7% by Eurostat (for 2009) and estimated at 1.88% by the Creative Economy Working Group (for 2007).

For these main cultural sectors Eurostat reports the EU average (2009) of non-employees (self-employed and family workers) among all persons employed at around 24%. In about half of the EU countries, the percentage of non-employees in the cultural sectors was 20 % or less, while in Italy, the Netherlands, Ireland and Austria this proportion exceeded 30 %.  In Malta, the equivalent based on the selected main areas would be around 19.12% (560 non-employees as opposed to 2369 employees).

The figures below give a more comprehensive outlook of the cultural and creative industries, as defined by the Creative Economy Working Group.

Table 1:    Employment indicators for Malta

 

Employment

Performance (2007)

Field / area

Cultural and Creative Occupations (ISCO)[1] (2009)

Industry Employment by NACE[2](2010)

Industry employment as a share of total employment (2007)

Y
(output or income) in million EUR

GVA
(Gross Value Added) in million EUR

GVA per person employed in EUR

Heritage

1 361

1 783

0.4%

9.97

9.15

14 859

Arts

1 049

1 500

0.8%

20.72

12.00

9 601

Media

1 595

5 539

2.3%

229.21

74.15

21 092

CBS

2 890

3 852

1.4%

210.28

86.13

39 202

Total (CCIs)

6 895

12 674

4.9%

470.18

181.44

23 905

Source:    Structural Business Statistics / NSO / ETC.
Definitions:        Y: Output or income: the output of the economy or market cost of goods and services.GVA:  Gross Value Added (GVA); a measure of the value generated in the production of goods and rendering of services. It is new value generated by the economic activity.

Table 2:    CCI employment as a share of total employment, 2007

Sub-Sector

Share of total employment

Crafts

0.07%

Cultural sites

0.33%

Visual arts

0.28%

Music

0.14%

Performing arts

0.38%

Printing and publishing

1.73%

Audio-visual

0.54%

Design

0.15%

Software services

0.67%

Creative services

0.58%

Total CCIs employment

4.87%

Source:    Structural Business Statistics.

Table 3:    Percentage of employees and non-employees (self-employed) among all persons employed in cultural industries, 2007

Sub-Sector

Employees

Non-Employees[4]

Crafts

93.33%

6.67%

Cultural sites

99.02%

0.98%

Visual arts

36.47%

63.53%

Music

33.78%

66.22%

Performing arts

31.75%

68.25%

Printing and publishing

85.25%

14.75%

Audio-visual

90.79%

9.21%

Design

71.55%

28.45%

Software services

93.24%

6.76%

Creative services

85.34%

14.66%

Cultural and creative occupations

79.10%

20.90%

Source:    Structural Business Statistics.

The percentage of non-employees in cultural sectors in Malta (2007) is around 20.9%. There is an evident indication of higher rates of self-employment in areas of visual arts, performing arts and music. Also more than 25% in Design are non-employees. In many of the other areas, there is a low rate of self-employment, indicating a strong presence of companies and institutions as employers.

The first employment initiative for the cultural sector was introduced in the 2007 Budget. Persons who are employed in the public sector and who are working in a semi-professional manner in the creative spheres will now be able to request leave without pay for a definite period of time in order that they may develop or work on artistic projects. This measure will enable a number of semi-professional artists to explore the potential of a career in the creative sector without risking losing their post in the public sector.



[1]    NACE 59  - Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities; NACE 60  - Programming and broadcasting activities; NACE 90  - Creative arts and entertainment activities; NACE 91  - Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities. With some small exceptions, these groups are entirely composed of cultural classes at 4-digit level.

[2]    Workers in these occupations are not necessarily employed in CCIs. For ex.: Designers in manufacturing firms.

[3]    Workers in these industries are not necessarily all creative workers. For ex.: Accountants in an advertising agency.

[4]    Non-Employees would encompass self-employed and family workers.


Chapter published: 12-08-2015

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