3.2 Overall description of the system
Up until the beginning of the 1990s, citizens were both directly and indirectly involved in decision-making on issues considered of local importance including the field of culture. This model of self-government was, however, practically not functioning and in 1990, the independence of municipalities was abolished. Their entire competence in the field of culture was transferred to the Ministry of Culture. On July 1, 1991, the Ministry of Culture became responsible for all public cultural institutions, which had been formerly the responsibility of the municipalities. This signified the transition from a completely decentralised system, based on the principles of socialism and self-management, to (at that time) a completely centralised system.
Today, there is a single level of local self-government, consisting of 83 municipalities and the city of Skopje.
The decision-making process is shared between the Ministry of Culture, the government and the parliament. The Ministry of Culture drafts laws and documents for the government, which passes them on to the Parliamentary Committee for Culture for discussion and enactment. The Ministry of Culture appoints directors of national cultural institutions, approves their programme and work, allocates the funds etc.
In 1998, the Law on Culture was adopted, setting a framework for cultural policy decision-making and the financing of cultural activities. It includes principles and activities such as freedom of creative work; introduction of a civil concept in culture; an equal position for all public and private entities in the field of culture; introduction of a decentralised system for culture; financing of the national interest in culture by means of open competition etc. In fact, until 2003, very few items from this list have been put into practice. The new Law on Realisation of Culture was being prepared in 2010.
The new Law on Local Self-Government (2002) gave the municipality's greater independence in the field of culture.
While society has been undergoing tremendous changes (privatisation, restructuring of the economy, unemployment above 30%, social differentiation, etc.), the cultural sector had been left untouched until 2003. At this time, the Law on Culture was amended and the National Programme for Culture 2004 - 2008 was adopted by the Parliament. In December 2003, the government passed the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture, which started the process of decentralisation in the field of culture.
In 2004, the Parliament adopted the new Law on Territorial Organisation and the Law for the City of Skopje.
There have been certain changes to the architecture of the system in the past few years, especially after the Ohrid Framework Agreement (2001), for example, to facilitate the participation of the minorities in the public administration system and within the cultural policy making processes e.g. via specific councils and working groups at the Ministry of Culture etc. At the beginning of 2003, the Office for Promotion and Advancement of the Cultures of Nationalities was also established at the Ministry of Culture. It provides balanced financial support to cultural projects of all ethnic groups and since 2005; it has begun a gradual implementation of the employment policies stipulated in the Law on Culture.
In this context, in 2003 the Parliament also established the Committee on Ethnic Relations. It consists of 19 members, including seven seats reserved for ethnic Macedonian legislators and seven for ethnic Albanian deputies. The Serbian, Vlach, Turk, Romany, and Bosnian minorities have one member each. The interests of minorities not represented within the parliament are represented by the national ombudsman. The formation of the committee is part of the implementation of the Ohrid agreement. In 2010 this Committee did not work because the chairman wanted to put on the agenda several burning issues like the controversial project "Skopje 2014", the implementation of the Law on Passports etc., which was opposed by the members of the ruling coalition.
The new government (July 2011) appointed a vice prime minister for implementation of the Ohrid agreement.
See also chapter 4.2.4.