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FYR of Macedonia/ 2. General objectives and principles of cultural policy  

2.1 Main features of the current cultural policy model

The general objectives of cultural policy are provided via the Constitution: civil rights and freedoms, creative autonomy, the obligation to support and develop culture, the right of the different ethnic or national groups to establish institutions for culture and art, the protection of the cultural and historical heritage, etc. During the first decade after gaining independence there was no global, recognisable concept behind the cultural policy system, neither did it follow any particular model. Any developments and changes in the cultural policy "system" were ad hoc and driven by political movement towards decentralisation, multiculturalism etc. The Law on Culture (1998) identified some objectives as being of "national interest", such as establishing general conditions for the continuity of culture; creating favourable conditions for outstanding cultural achievements; encouraging cultural diversity; cultural development etc.

Since the introduction of budget financing in the cultural sphere in 1990, financial resources are being allocated to the institutions on a yearly basis for the following items: salaries and other allowances (i.e. per diems and travelling allowances for the permanently employed staff), allowances for annual programmes, investments, heating of buildings, insurance of equipment, buildings, exhibitions, etc.

However, changes took place in the following areas:

  • privatisation of the publishing houses (1995);
  • equal recognition of public and private entities that work in the field of culture;
  • new higher taxes on cultural goods and services; and
  • symbolic privileges for donations and sponsorships for cultural activities, etc.

In December 2003, the government passed the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture. It provided the framework within which the network of the cultural institutions (national and local) was to be organised and re-allocated responsibilities for culture to the municipalities.

In 2004 for the first time a National Programme for Culture 2004-2008 was adopted by the Parliament. According to this National Programme, the basic principles of the cultural policy are:

  • attainability;
  • diversity;
  • openness;
  • responsibility; and
  • flexibility.

After the constitution of the new coalition Government (June 2017), in May 2018 a new National Strategy for Cultural Development in the Republic of Macedonia 2018-2022 was adopted by the Parliament.

See also chapter 2.3 for objectives of the National Strategy.

Chapter published: 12-02-2019

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