COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
Print this Page
EN DE FR  ||  About Us | Contact | Legal Notice Council of Europe LOGO  ERICarts LOGO
Print this Page
EN DE FR  Council of Europe LOGO  ERICarts LOGO

Germany/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation  

8.2.1 Trends and figures

Despite the continuously increasing number and variety of cultural and leisure-time activities since the 1970s – especially those made available by the culture and media industries – attendance and participation figures for public cultural institutions have continued to rise over the long term, though they have fluctuated widely and declined in some areas.

Table 4:    Visitors / users (in thousands), 1995, 2000, 2005-2013

 

1995

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Museums

 

 

Institutions

3 982

4 716

4 847

4 712

4 776

4 790

4 823

-

4 848

4 735

Visits in thousand

91 062

99 560

101 407

107 304

104 852

106 820

109 196

-

112 808

110 425

Theatres

 

 

Institutions (Spielstätten)

624

731

755

826

824

888

-

-

-

-

Visits in thousand

20 620

20 193

18 608

18 782

19 006

19 338

-

-

-

-

Public libraries 

 

 

Institutions

13 032

11 332

7 134

6 982

8 393

8 404

8 256

-

7 979

7 875

Active users in thousand

9 387

8 709

7 454

7 483

7 913

7 965

7 985

-

7 702

7 613

Music schools

 

 

Institutions

981

980

930

920

914

909

919

920

-

930

Pupils / students in thousand

851

868

894

901

930

958

983

1007

-

-

Cinemas

 

 

Institutions / screens

3 814

4 612

4 687

4 652

4 639

4 571

4 550

4 509

4 617

4 610

Visits in thousand

124 500

152 500

127 300

125 400

129 400

146 300

126 600

129 600

 

 

Source:    Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany), Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden, edition for the given year.

Due to the location of major cultural institutions in larger cities, the latter account for a great part of the visitors.

Table 5 provides an overview on the use of the Internet in Germany, which shows that in 2014 for fifth of the German population uses the internet. More men (85%) than women (76 %) and more young (percentage of young people between 10 and 15 years: 97%) than old people (percentage of people older than 65 years:43 %) use the internet.

Table 5:    Use of the Internet in Germany, 1997, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2011 and 2014

 

1997

2000

2005

2010

2011*

2014

People using the internet in percentage

6.5

28.6

57.9

69.4

76.0

80.0

Source:    Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany), Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden, edition for the given year.

The following Table 6 provides an overview of the expenses of private households (average size: 2 persons) for selected cultural goods and services:

Table 6:    Expenditure of private households on selected cultural goods and services, in million EUR, 2003-2012

 

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2012

All expenditure for leisure, culture and entertainment

2 616

2 784

2 748

2 772

2 928

2 940

Selected items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video and audio media

84

96

84

96

108

96

Books

144

156

144

144

144

144

Press

264

264

264

252

264

264

Visits of theatres, concerts, cinemas, circus and similar events

89

91

93

102

105

108

Visits of museums, zoos and similar locations

24

26

28

28

34

34

Source:    Compiled from Kulturfinanzbericht 2014.

In the last years, research on audience development became more important and a few surveys were conducted by cultural institutions in the field of cultural education (Zentrum für Kulturforschung 2010) or migrants as part of audiences for cultural institutions (Centre of Audience Development 2009). Surveys not only cover the perspective of cultural institution but also focus on consumer behaviour such as the 9th Barometer of Culture (Zentrum für Kulturforschung 2011), or of individuals or social groups, e.g. Youth (2nd Barometer of Culture of Youth – Zentrum für Kulturforschung 2012), people aged 50 and over (Kulturbarometer 50 + - Zentrum für Kulturforschung 2008), the cultural interests of migrants (Sinus Sociovision 2010) or analysis of people not attending cultural institutions (Mandel 2010).

There are also some specialised surveys monitoring the participation of immigrant groups in general cultural life, in particular on the use of media, such as newspapers, magazines, television use, broadcasting and videotapes. In general, normally, most migrants and Germans with a migrant background use media in both languages, in German and their native language - see for example the Jahrbuch für Kulturpolitik 2002/2003.

In December 2012 the 1st Intercultural Barometer was presented by the Zentrum für Kulturforschung. Based on a representative survey the Barometer analysed the influence of migration on arts and culture (For more see: http://www.kulturforschung.de/pdf/InterKulturBarometer_Zusammenfassung_DE.pdf).


Chapter published: 12-09-2016

Your Comments on this Chapter?