8.1.2 Special artists funds
At the federal level, support to artists is provided through artists' organisations and bodies such as the Visual Arts Foundation, the German Literature Fund, the Sociocultural Fund and the Federal Foundation for the Performing Arts as well as projects implemented by the German Music Council. This support encompasses nationally prominent exhibitions of contemporary art, competitions, scholarships and prizes, for example, as well as other appropriate forms of support. Resources are also provided by the Federal Government via the Cultural Foundation of the Länder. Since the 1970s, there has been a federal programme for art purchases and a federal collection of contemporary art. Federal funding is also available for German artists' residencies abroad at facilities such as the German Academy at the Villa Massimo in Rome or at the new Villa Tarabya, inaugurated in October 2011, in the area of the German Embassy in Instanbul.
Support for artists is provided mainly by the municipalities and the Länder through a wide variety of instruments. In addition to the support programmes for the various fields of artistic endeavour existing at Land level, the individual Land foundations for the arts and culture play a particularly important role in this context. Widespread forms of support at Land and municipal level include financial assistance for art projects, the purchase of works of art, the commissioning of artwork, the awarding of scholarships, the provision of facilities for exhibitions and performances as well as studios and workshops, the awarding of monetary prizes and the granting of publication subsidies. Support is also provided through municipal art lending libraries and programmes such as "Art on Buildings" and "Art in Public Spaces" as well as through business management advisory services for artists and financial help with business start-ups.