8.1.1 Overview of strategies, programmes and direct or indirect forms of support
The various authorities propose financial aids and advisory help (on professional, legal matters, etc.) to artists, in all disciplines, at all scales of public action: state (departments of the ministry, Regional Directorates of Cultural Affairs), municipal, departmental and regional cultural departments and offices. These aids or support can be either directly granted by the departments or through their operators (agencies, public institutions, etc.), for example:
Besides, artists in France can benefit from the help and assistance of many specialised professional networks, in particular the bodies that collect and redistribute copyright income (see chapter 8.1.4).
Private foundations and sponsors also contribute to support the artistic and creative life: for example Fondation Cartier, Fondation de France, Fondation Pierre Bergé-Yves Saint Laurent, Fondation Jean-Luc Lagardère, Fondation d'entreprise Hermès, Fondation Polignac, Fondation Banque Populaire. In 2009, culture was the main field of intervention for 22% of French foundations (see report on sponsorship, foundations, and cultural associations 2012, http://www.culture-proximite.org) - this share remains quite stable as it was 21% in 2001.
The Centre national des arts plastiques (National Centre of Visual Arts) lists, in special guides available on-line, 140 private and public aids in favour of artists and 196 residences for artists, curators, art critics, art theorists and historians (http://www.cnap.fr).