COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Key Resources / Informations générales / Hintergrunddokumente

Digitisation and Culture / Digitalisation et culture / Digitalisierung und Kultur

Council of Europe / Conseil de l'Europe / Europarat

3rd CoE Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation, Tallinn September 2016
The Estonian Government hosted the Exchange under the title “Culture 4D: Digitisation, Data, Disruptions, Diversity”. Among the topics of the event, "Big Data" played a key role (cf. the Conference Reader). This issue is also the main theme of a draft Resolution on Big Data for Culture, Literacy and Democracy prepared by a working group in early 2017, which is to be dealt with by the responsible CoE Committee (CDCPP) and the Committee of Ministers. This draft stipulates:
"All forms of cultural data management should enable citizens to be empowered through an open culture both online and offline, while respecting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms. Action is also required to foster critical digital literacy among citizens and cultural workers. This strengthens democracy and prepares Internet users to deal with the challenges ahead namely to be responsible citizens online who can manage the automated collection and processing of their data."

2nd CoE Platform Exchange in Linz/Austria, September 2015
The 2nd Platform Exchange explored how digitisation can best be used for facilitating access to and participation in culture and creativity, with a view to strengthening democratic participation (see final report).

Why democracy needs the arts and culture
Inpt paper by Jaroslav Anděl, Artistic Director-at-large, DOX Center for Contemporary Art, Prague for the Linz Conference - Second Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Smart Creativity, Smart Democracy", Linz, September 2015.

Digital Culture, a Challenge and an Opportunity for Art Museums
Input paper by Pierre-Yves Desaive, Head of Digital Media and Contemporary Art, Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium for the Linz Conference - Second Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Smart Creativity, Smart Democracy", Linz, September 2015.

Overcoming Barriers to Creativity through Digitisation
Input paper by Dr. Divina Frau-Meigs, Sorbonne Nouvelle University for the Linz Conference - Second Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Smart Creativity, Smart Democracy", Linz, September 2015.

"European cultures in the cloud": Mapping the impact of digitisation on the cultural sector
Input paper by Dr. Divina Frau-Meigs, Sorbonne Nouvelle University for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens", Baku, July 2014.

Possible recommendations for creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens
Input paper by Dr. Divina Frau-Meigs, Sorbonne Nouvelle University for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens", Baku, July 2014.

Digital shift and a pressure to survive – new audiences, new demands, new business models
Input paper by Dr. Aleksandra Uzelac, IRMO for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens", Baku, July 2014.

Need for new regulation to enhance creativity in the digital age: the cases of user-generated content and cultural heritage institutions
Input paper by Leonhard Dobusch, Freie Universität Berlin for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens", Baku, July 2014.

Empowering citizens through media literacy education
Input paper by Manuel Pinto, University of Minho for the Baku Conference – First Platform Exchange on Culture and Digitisation "Creating an enabling environment for digital culture and for empowering citizens", Baku, July 2014.

Digitisation and cultural democracy, an (as yet) unfulfilled promise
Think piece prepared by Joost Smiers for the CultureWatchEurope initiative of the Council of Europe.

Connecting institutions and citizens in the digital age
Final report of the Council of Europe World Forum for Democracy held on the 27-29 November 2013 

European Union / Union Européenne / Europäische Union

Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on promoting access to culture via digital means (06/2015)
This document, prepared by Ms. Cristina Da Milano and Mr. Niels Righolt on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC), aims to analyse the challenges and future possibilities for European cultural organisations in the current environment of fast technological change, global competition, and tight budgets. It also identifies examples of practices that appear to be the most efficient or mostly used to support audience development via digital means, in a broad spectrum of sectors.

New Business Models in the Cultural and Creative Sectors CCSs
Paper prepared, at the request of DG EAC, by the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) and written by Dr. Cornelia Dümcke.

Promoting Access via Digital Means (03/2015)
Paper prepared, at the request of DG EAC, by the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC) and written by Mr. Niels Righo.

2015 Information society statistics
Recent statistical data on different aspects of the information society in the European Union (EU), focusing on the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use by individuals and within households.

Council of the European Union conclusions on the digitisation and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation

Digitisation of cultural heritage to boost innovation

Survey Report on Digitisation in European Cultural Heritage Institutions 2014

Survey Report on Digitisation in European Cultural Heritage Institutions 2012

European Commission’s Reflection Group on Bringing Europe’s Cultural Heritage Online: The New Renaissance

UNESCO

United Nations Creative Economy Report 2013 [United Nations Creative Economy Report 2013 Special Edition]

UNESCO’s Hangzhou Declaration: Placing Culture at the Heart of Sustainable Development Policies

UNESCO’s WSIS+10 Report: Renewing the Knowledge Societies Vision for Peace and Sustainable Development

Research / Recherches / Forschung

France: Les publics in situ et en ligne (02/2017)
Que savons-nous aujourd’hui des publics in situ et des publics en ligne, des usages que les uns et les autres font de l’offre proposée par les équipements culturels, et surtout des relations qu’ils entretiennent ? Ce numéro de Culture et Recherche (Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication) est l’occasion d’un retour réflexif sur différentes initiatives de mise en ligne de contenus, de médiation numérique et d’étude sur leur réception menées au sein de musées, services d’archives, bibliothèques ou structures de spectacle vivant.
This new edition of a magazine of the French Ministry of Culture and Communication provides an overview of different online initiatives conducted by museums, archives, libraries and performing arts facilities.

For a Diversified Networked Culture (03/2015)
This study, prepared by te Centre d’études sur l’intégration et la mondialisation (CEIM), affiliated to the Université du Québec in Montréal, investigates concrete challenges to the diversity of cultural expressions in the digital era, studies measures or policies aiming to implement the 2005 Convention principles in the digital environment and proposes new specific operational guidelines in order to transform the 2005 UNESCO Convention into "an important instrument of the global cultural governance in the digital era."

Pratiques culturelles en ligne en France et en Europe (2007-2014)
[Cultural Online Activities in France and Europe / Kulturelle Online-Aktivitäten in Frankreich und Europa]
Roxane Laurent, Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques (DEPS), Ministry of Culture and Communication, has published in the series CULTURE CHIFFRES, no. 2015-2, an instructive new dossier with different «points of evidence and comparison» (in French).

ICOM’s Lisbon Declaration: Support Culture and Museums to Face the Global Crisis and Build the Future

IFLA 2013 Trend Report: Riding the waves or caught in the tide? Navigating the Evolving Information Environment

 WAN-IFRA’s 2010 Strategy Report: New revenue models for newspaper companies. The Paid vs. Free Content Debate

 WIPO’s Study on Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for Libraries and Archives