COMPENDIUM CULTURAL POLICIES AND TRENDS IN EUROPE
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Intercultural Education (ICE): Organisation and Main Goals

For more information see individual Compendium country profiles: Chapter 8.3.3 "Intercultural Education"

Legend for column 2:
ARTS - introducing artistic experiences from other parts of the world;
DIV - learning about other world cultures / cultural diversity;
LING - multilingual / minority language education;
MIN - learning about the contribution of minorities living in one's own country;
REL - learning about world or minority religions;
OTH - other goals (which?)

COUNTRIES

1

2

3

4

5

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Higher Education

 

ICE Part of general curriculum?

Main goals of ICE activities

Comments / Examples

Special pro-grammes or ICE experiences?

Comments / Examples

Albania

NO

_

Except for Roma Programme (integration)

NO

"Totally unknown concept in Albanian academic institutions"

Armenia

NO

_

Exception: Schools of nat. minorities

PARTLY (since 2007 at Yerevan State University)

"Linguistics and Intercultural Relations" Dept.

Austria

YES (Competence divided between Federation/Bund and States/Länder)

DIV, LING, MIN

e.g. via the Action "Interculturality and Multilingualism – a Chance!"

YES (workshops on interculturality and multilingualism for teachers, etc.)

cf. www.projekte-interkulturell.at/

Azerbaijan

YES

ARTS, DIV, MIN, REL

Also at music, art & painting schools

YES

_

Belgium

YES (Flemish Community)

ARTS, DIV, MIN, REL

Different school levels and subjects

PARTLY

e.g. at "College of Europe" (Bruges)

Bulgaria

YES

ARTS, DIV, MIN, REL

Different school levels and subjects

YES (e.g. annual seminars to train teaching staff)

With focus on Roma history and culture

Canada

YES (provincial responsibility)

DIV, ARTS

Focus: Aboriginal and multiethnic groups and citizens

YES

Teachers' courses and guides for all educational levels

Croatia

YES (especially in East Slavonija and Krajina region)

ARTS, DIV, MIN

Nat. curriculum for "democratic society and human rights" includes ICE

YES

Special educational programmes for teachers of the Agency for Education (AZOO)

Czech Republic

YES

LING, MIN, ARTS

ICE part of all strategic materials of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports

PARTLY (courses and seminars of the "Varianty" programme)

For students & primary/secondary school teachers

Denmark

YES (with special rules in Faeroe Islands, Greenland)

DIV, MIN

Focus on adult learning /

N/A

Focus on internat. cultural relations (e.g. bilateral scholarships)

Estonia

PARTLY (part of the civic education course from 4th grade upwards)

LING, MIN, ARTS

Focus on language education and integration; role of Russian still debated

N/A

_

Finland

PARTLY (in the broader context of "internationalisation" and tolerance education)

LING, DIV, MIN, ARTS

Campaigns against ethnic discrimination in most educational institutions / Internat.  youth contacts

YES (multicultural teachers' training)

University education is "international" (content, internat. contacts); issue of the role of Swedish language

France

PARTLY (integrated in different curricula)

DIV, LING, ARTS

Growing interest in the context of the 2005 UNESCO Convention

YES (at different universities)

Research efforts (e.g. "Cultures, villes et dynamiques sociales")

Georgia

YES (in principle, Law on Secondary Education, 2005)

ARTS, LING, MIN, REL

National goals for education (2004)

N/A

_

Germany

PARTLY (broader context of civic education; Länder responsibility)

DIV, LING, REL
(ARTS in art or music schools)

Issues around Islam faith education start to be settled in some of the Länder (2012)

YES (e.g. teachers' training; further education workshops)

Recommendations of ICE Round Table of German Arts Council (all education levels)

Greece

PARTLY (mainly under responsibility of local government)

LING, MIN, REL (Muslim minority of Thrace)

Focus on integration/ social inclusion of children of migrant families

YES (teachers' training)

Concrete action regarding e.g. ethnic traditions not yet consolidated

Hungary

PARTLY (in the broader context of civic education)

DIV, LING, REL

Focus: "National values"; Roma integration

PARTLY

e.g. at Central European University

Ireland

PARTLY (focus on "participative citizenship", combating racism)

DIV, MIN, OTH 

e.g. with regard to "Traveller education" and recent immigration

YES

Irish Nat. Teachers Organisation (INTO) published Intercultural Guidelines

Italy

YES (Ministry of Education guidelines 1994 and 2007, but inconsistent implementation)

DIV, ARTS, OTH

"Intercultural inter-action" (interpersonal relations, anti- discrimination, ICE in all disciplines, skills)

PARTLY (e.g. the "Migropolis" project at Università IUAV di Venezia)

Note: Resources (e.g. "learning facilitators", "tutors" and mediators) cut down due to financial constraints

Latvia

NO

_

 

Major debate on bilingual education in Russian schools

PARTLY

"Intercult. Relations" at Latvian Academy of Culture

Liechtenstein

PARTLY (individual schools)

DIV, REL, LING

Simplified integration of foreign-language residents (Ass. for Intercult. Education)

PARTLY (e.g. at Liechtenstein Music School)

Students frequently attend foreign institutions (e.g. in Switzerland, Austria)

Lithuania

PARTLY (especially in south-east regions)

MIN, LING

Inter-ministerial guidelines (2006)

N/A

_

 

FYR of Macedonia

YES

MIN, REL, DIV, LING

Dispute on religious education in elementary schools

YES

ICE based on the Ohrid Framework Agreement (2007)

Malta

YES (Ministerial Policy Paper 2004)

DIV, ARTS, LING

Subject "Systems of Knowledge"; ICE "School Activity Pack"

N/A

_

 

Moldova

PARTLY (elements of the general school curricula and in minority regions)

MIN, DIV, LING

Manuals of the "Independent Society for Human Rights Education" (NGO)

PARTLY, but lack of experienced staff and other resources

Training of teachers/trainers (e.g. by NGO "Orhei")

The Netherlands

YES (in addition to general and decentralized activity

MIN, ARTS, OTH (heritage education)

Focus on educative cultural/arts projects; "Kosmopolis" platform

YES

Courses at different universities/academies; summer schools etc.

Norway

PARTLY (inclusion and "mainstreaming" approaches)

DIV, MIN; ARTS, REL

Cultural diversity relevant in grants allocation

N/A

_

Poland

NOT OFFICIALLY

ARTS, DIV, MIN

Small-scale initiatives (e.g. of NGOs)

PARTLY

Growing popularity of intercultural activities

Portugal

YES (ICE efforts at nat. and local levels)

ARTS, DIV

e.g. "Mus-e Project" of PT Menuhin Assoc.

N/A

_

Romania

PARTLY (especially with regard to minorities)

MIN, LING

ICE optional class in secondary schools (2008)

PARTLY (e.g. Hungarian sections of universities)

NGO Education 2000+ Centre organises teachers training

Russia

YES (focus on ethnic or national diversity and identity)

MIN, LING, REL

Issues of "ethnic" vs. "integrated" schools, inter-religious dialogue

PARTLY (e.g. "culturology" courses)

Individual initiatives to foster inter-ethnic knowledge, tolerance

San Marino

YES ("mainstreaming" approach)

ARTS, DIV, REL

Schools to strike balance between local and global dimension

YES

Focus on active and democratic citizenship, inclusion

Serbia

PARTLY (integrated in different curricula)

MIN, LING, REL, ARTS

Joint courses of civic & religious education

PARTLY

MA in Intercultural Mediation at U of Arts

Slovakia

PARTLY

DIV, MIN, LING

National Strategy in the EYID 2008 context

N/A

_

Slovenia

YES (inclusion and "mainstreaming" approach)

ARTS, DIV, LING

Active citizenship education and civic culture (since 2000)

YES (training of teachers, other professionals)

Nat. Education Institute "Catalogue of Counselling Services"

Spain

YES (national and regional activities, competencies)

DIV, LING, REL, ARTS

2007: "Education for citizenship and human rights" in curriculum

YES (including traditional arts, e.g. Flamenco)

"Resource Centre for Attention to Cultural Diversity in Education"

Sweden

YES (integrated in different curricula)

DIV, MIN, LING, ARTS

DIV "one of the main objectives of Swedish cultural policy"

N/A

_

 

Switzerland

YES (regional/local responsibility)

DIV, LING, ARTS

Popularity of language courses (e.g. Chinese)

YES

ICE teachers' training (Regio Basiliensis)

United Kingdom

YES (part of the national curriculum + cultural projects)

DIV, LING, MIN, ARTS

Studying a foreign language at secondary level is only optional

YES (at many universities)

Worldwide outreach activities (e.g. London Goldsmiths U in Asia)

Ukraine

YES (national and local responsibility)

DIV, MIN, ARTS

"Special hours dedicated to peace and tolerance"

PARTLY

Often with support from foreign cult. institutes or European bodies

Source: Compendium of Cultural Policies & Trends in Europe, 14th edition, 2013, with additional sources/websites.

Note: This overview has been drafted by Andreas Wiesand (ERICarts Institute). It will be updated by the Compendium community of practice, including by members of the Expert Groups on "Cultural Education" and "Intercultural Dialogue".