NEWSLETTER No. 11/ December 2008 

Dear Compendium friends and users,

Welcome to the 10th anniversary edition of Compendium, the information and monitoring system about Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe.

This edition of the newsletter is dedicated to all those to have contributed directly and indirectly to gathering and analysing information on cultural policies and trends in Europe.

As many will remember, some of the earliest exercises began in the late 1970s. National cultural policy reports from the Council of Europe member states were produced to provide input to the first Conference of European Ministers responsible for cultural affairs, held in Oslo, 1976. A comparative summary was later published in 1978 as "Cultural Policies in Europe" by Jacques Depaigne.

Around the same time, UNESCO published a series of cultural policy monographs which served as background material for their MONDIACULT World Conference on Cultural Policies, held in Mexico City, 1982. The final conference document noted the inequalities in the level of information collected in the various countries (especially cultural statistics) and the need to train researchers who could continue to further develop the field of applied cultural policy research.

Since this time, several important exercises have been achieved from Culturelink's Current State and Trends in Cultural Policy and Life in UNESCO Member States (initiated in 1991) to the Österreichischen Kulturdokumentation's, Cultural Policy and Cultural Administration in Europe: 42 outlines (published in 1996). Various groups of specialists working on methodological frameworks to collect comparative cultural statistics emerged within institutions such as UNESCO, EUROSTAT and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

Emerging as a child of the Council of Europe's National Cultural Policy Review Programme, the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe is part of this journey. It has been formed by the Council of Europe and ERICarts in co-operation with a community of dedicated individuals, some involved in the pioneering exercises to compile cultural policy information and statistics. Joined by a new generation of researchers, their common goal continues to be the further development of cultural policy research and to bring transparency to the field of cultural policy making.

We would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your involvement in the continuous development of the Compendium system over the past ten years. We are looking forward to working with you over the next ten!

As always, we look forward to hearing from you about how the Compendium system can work best for you. Please do complete our confidential User Survey. The results of this will inform further improvements over the coming year.

With best wishes from the Compendium Team
Kathrin Merkle, Danielle Cliche and Andreas Wiesand

Compendium Community Celebrates its 10th Anniversary in Baku

Baku GroupHosted by the Azerbaijan Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the 10th Anniversary celebrations were held from the 4-5 December 2008 in Baku.
In addition to the Compendium Community of Practice of independent national authors, who form the backbone of the Compendium, other cultural policy researchers from Europe and neighbouring regions participated in the event.

The meeting welcomed the "Baku Declaration" of the preceding Conference of Cultural Ministers, which mentions the Compendium as one of the important instruments facilitating intercultural dialogue.

Memory Lane - Compendium Highlights 1998-2008


Compendium concept developed trial edition with 7 countries


First Compendium edition published as a loose leaf binder covering 14 countries


Compendium goes online


System expanded to 28 countries, comparative view introduced


Living observatory: Compendium authors meet for the first time in Strasbourg


Monitoring activities introduced to chart changes in cultural policy priorities and financing; CUPIX launched


Berlin Recommendation: Authors adopt a framework to collect cultural financing statistics. Compendium is used as a teaching tool around the world.


Amsterdam Decision: Compendium authors take up priority issues - social cohesion, cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue and citizenship education adopted by the Council of Europe Summit with Heads of State and Government in Warsaw


Authors meet in Budapest to adopt new strategy on intercultural dialogue and international cultural cooperation combining policy information and cases of good practice.


Zagreb Connections: Authors exchange with experts working on an EU study addressing intercultural dialogue and with Educult. Full relaunch of Compendium system with new spaces to address transversal policy issues.


Baku Celebrations on the 10th anniversary with new horizons to expand transregional partnerships. Compendium currently covers 43 countries.

Cultural Policy News in Europe Updates 2008

A complete listing of new information and data by country is provided in the Compendium Updates section of the website.

Below is a selection of highlights from 2008


Azerbaijan: The Ministry of Culture and Tourism has initiated a process to reorganise the cultural houses and community cultural clubs system, aimed at broadening the platform for participation in cultural life.
Belgium: A new strategic Advisory Council for Culture, Youth, Sport and Media was set up in 2008, comprising representatives of community-based organisations and independent experts in Flanders.
Canada: A reorganisation of responsibilities created the new Department of Canadian Heritage and Official Languages. Responsibility for multiculturalism was transferred to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Denmark: A new Centre for Culture and Experience Economy was established to improve cooperation between culture, business, universities and research institutions.
Finland: The regional Arts Councils, which were directly responsible to the Ministry, were made an administrative part of the Arts Council of Finland.
Georgia: Following parliamentary elections in May 2008, a new State Minister for Georgian Diasporas was created and is responsible for maintaining and promoting the Georgian language abroad.
Ireland: In 2008, the government appointed a Junior Minister to assist the Arts, Sport and Tourism Minister in handling the arts portfolio.
Italy: The Ministry for Communications was abolished by the new coalition (May 2008). A newly created Under Secretary of State for Information, Communication and Publishing located in the Prime Minister's Office will be responsible for regulatory and financial activities.
FYR Macedonia: As a candidate for the EU since January 2008, Macedonia now has access to EU funds for culture. A Culture Contact Point has been set up to help access these funds.
Netherlands: From 2009, the public funding infrastructure in the Netherlands will change which will have an impact on all types of arts organisations.
Portugal: The Ministry of Culture recently underwent a reorganisation as part of the Programme to Reorganise the Central Government Administration. This had implications for national arts organisations.
Russia: The Ministry of Culture was re-established in May 2008 to elaborate state policy, introduce regulations, manage state property and deliver state services concerned with all cultural and heritage sectors.
Ukraine: Structural reform of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism is expected to change the role of the Ministry to become a bridge between the state and artistic and cultural environments. Several new departments are envisaged.


Belgium: A new Participation Decree in Flanders creates a policy framework and allocates additional resources to facilitate access to culture. It is aimed at people living in poverty, disabled persons, prisoners, families with children, individuals from different cultural backgrounds, etc.
Croatia: The rules for distributing the Fund for the Promotion of Diversity and Pluralism of Electronic Media were decided in 2008.
Denmark: Denmark became the first country in the world to adopt definitive legislation in the field of music in 1976. In 2008, a new Law on Music was adopted.
England: At least two companies issued legal challenges to proposed reductions or withdrawals of funding by Arts Council England for 2008-affecting almost 20% of recipients.
Estonia: In October 2008, the government proposed a bill to raise the level of VAT on concerts, performances and on books.
Finland: If a draft law on universities is passed by Parliament in spring 2009 it will effectively privatise the four art universities.
Ireland: A new Broadcasting Bill was published in May 2008 which places greater emphasis on the rights of viewers and listeners.
Italy: Due to the international and Italian financial crisis in the first half of 2008, state cultural expenditure for heritage and performing arts suffered drastic cuts, the extent of which will only become visible when the Budget Law 2009 is passed.
Liechtenstein: The new Cultural Promotion Act 2008 includes issues such as participation, freedom of artistic and cultural expression, promotion of innovative forms of culture, division of state responsibilities and international exchange.
FYR Macedonia: A new Performing Arts Law is being prepared to correct problems that have arisen in relation to the special retirement age for ballet dancers and brass instrumentalists working in music institutions.
Netherlands: A draft for a new (Multi)Media Act was submitted to the parliament.
Poland: An amendment to the Act on Conducting and Organising Cultural Activity (2008) introduces boards of trustees in public cultural institutions.
Russia: Legal limitations on the economic activities of state funded institutions are increasing. Since 2008 they have been refused the right to administer funds from non-budget sources.
San Marino: In June 2008, an Agreement on Cooperation in Bibliographic Services was signed between San Marino and Italy, allowing San Marino libraries to become part of the Italian national system.
Scotland: In March 2008 a new bill was introduced to abolish the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen and establish a new national arts development agency, Creative Scotland.
Slovenia: The new Cultural Heritage Protection Act wasadopted in 2008. It represents further development of the system that bridges the old socialist regime and democratic order based on private property.
Spain: The new Cinema Act seeks to manage and promote cinema and audiovisual activities and to create conditions for preservation of film and audiovisual heritage.


Azerbaijan: The new State Programme on Poverty Reduction and Economic Development 2008-2013 will include programmes for cultural development.
Belgium: New policy strategy in Flanders to support interculturalism and address diversity is focused on Participation, Personnel and Programming. Ministry of Culture pursues intercultural employment policies and launches a new information portal to record intercultural experiences.
Croatia: In October 2008, the first attempt to provide direct support for the culture industries as a special field of cultural creativity was launched by the Ministry of Culture, in cooperation with the Ministry of Economy.
Denmark: One of the overall aims in Danish cultural policy is to revitalise Danish cultural heritage and to stimulate and consolidate Danish monoculture and identity as a medium counteracting cultural relativism and multiculturalism.
Estonia: The economic recession in 2008 has led to debates on cultural funding mechanisms and highlights the need to engage artists and researchers in cultural policy making.
Finland: The 2009 budget process will address the pension rights of artists whose work has been financed for long periods by non-taxable grants.
Hungary: The success of Music Export Hungary prompted the founding of Klassz, to support the mobility of musicians in the fields of classical and contemporary music.
Ireland: The Arts Council's high profile campaign for a budget increase in 2008 has not been successful and there will be many challenges as Ireland enters a period of recession.
Italy: In October 2008 a motion was passed in the House of Representatives to create separate classes for the children of immigrants who can't speak Italian; this measure is justified as a means to "prevent racism and encourage integration".
Latvia: One of the goals of the Cultural Canon project launched in 2008 by the Ministry of Culture is to foster the establishment of common cultural values.
FYR Macedonia: In 2008, the Ministry announced a new position of ‘national artist'. The title will confer honourable status, as well as a higher salary, better pensions etc to distinguished artists.
Netherlands: A new 10 point cultural participation plan is being introduced which will be supported by a new and independent arts education and amateur arts fund.
Norway: Cultural institutions and organisations have been advised to integrate diversity perspectives in their ordinary activities, rather than develop diversity as a new sector of culture.
Portugal: The INOV - ART programme was set up to help those involved in the creative arts, particularly those under of 35 years, to obtain skills by attending one of the 200 sponsored training programmes abroad.
Slovenia: The Minister for Culture has set new cultural policy priorities including legislation, access to culture, infrastructure, improvement in working conditions, support for creativity, promotion of culture and tax incentives.
Spain: The new DG for Cultural Industries and Policies will present a comprehensive plan to promote the sector in 2009.
UK: In 2008, a new strategic approach to the creative industries was published – Creative Britain: New Talents for the New Economy – which indicates 26 new commitments for government and industry.
Ukraine: The Action Plan for Ukraine 2008-2011 was signed between the Council of Europe and Ukraine which is to provide support for projects on the protection and promotion of cultural and natural diversity.


Canada: Between 2008 and 2011, the Department of Canadian Heritage's budget will be reduced by 29.4%. Job cuts of 11.9% are also planned.
Bulgaria: New data on participation shows that the number of visitors to the theatre, cinema and museums and galleries remains stable.
Croatia: Between 2004 and 2007 there was an increase of 50.64% in the budget of the Ministry of Culture.
Denmark: Latest statistics show that the share of the state budget allocated for culture in 2006 was 3.5% as compared to 2.3 % in 2005.
Finland: Reliance on the profits of the state lottery company to fund arts and culture has decreased from 70% in 2001 to 44.6% in the state budget of 2008.
Georgia: In 2008, the state budget for culture showed a significant increase in support for Georgian cultural heritage and serious declines in the level of support for music and dramatic arts.
Ireland: There will be a rise in the annuity available for artists from Aosdána, the association of creative artists, from euro 12 180 to euro 20 000 over the next three years.
Italy: The Report on Italian Foundations 2008 lists their total support for the arts and culture at more than 500 million euro, 430 of which is coming from banking foundations.
Latvia: The study Creative Industry Research. Update of Statistics (2008) shows that the number of employees as well as annual turnover in the creative industries is constantly growing.
FYR Macedonia: Statistics show that the number of performances at professional theatres, amateur theatres and philharmonic and professional symphony orchestras decreased significantly.
Netherlands: New cultural participation survey results show that the "ageing" of audiences at traditional cultural events seems to have stopped. Significant increases of young people (12-17 years) visiting museums and performing arts events were recorded.
Norway: In the period 2003 to 2006, the proportion of public grants to projects concerning cultural diversity increased from 4.2% to 7.5%.
Northern Ireland: Despite significant cuts to the Culture Department, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland's budget will be increased by GBP 7.55 million between 2008/09 and 2010/2011.
Portugal: The percentage of the budget allocated to the Ministry of Culture in the last two years has been only 0.4%, compared to 0.6% over the previous ten years.
Russia: Subsidies to support Creative Union members will increase from 30 million RUB in 2009 to 50 million in 2010 and 80 million in 2011. (approx. 800 000 EUR – 1.4 million EUR – 2.1 million EUR)
Serbia: Latest figures for public cultural expenditure per capita in Serbia show a reduction from 18.22 euros (2004) to 15.52 euros (2006).
Slovenia: In September 2008 salaries for public cultural workers were increased by 16% to bring them into line with other public salaries.
Spain: Latest figures show that employment in the cultural sector grew 37% between 2000 and 2006.
UK: Recently published data of Creative Industries Economic Estimates found that the sector grew by an average of 6% per annum between 1997 and 2005, compared to an average of 3% for the rest of the economy.
Ukraine: The 2008 budget of the Ukrainian Ministry of Culture and Tourism increased by 30% from 2007 figures. The salaries of cultural employees also increased by 35%.


Azerbaijan: The 5th Islamic Conference of Culture Ministers proclaimed Baku as the Islamic Culture Capital for 2009.
: CAD 30 million (= approx 18 million EUR) per year will be invested over the next two years to encourage citizens' involvement in their communities through local arts and heritage activities.
Belgium: Amendments were made to the Flemish Local Cultural Policy Decree, including changes to the way municipalities apply for funding; the way cultural centres and public libraries are funded; as well as a fusion of the support centres for local cultural policy and for public libraries.
Bulgaria: Local authorities are increasingly independent and are drawing up their own cultural policies, as well as taking decisions on their co-financing and development. The city of Sofia is the first local authority in Bulgaria to introduce a grant programme to support culture.
Croatia: In 2008, Zagreb became headquarters of ASSITEJ International, promoting the work of theatre for children and youth.
Denmark: The Local Government Reform has had serious implications for art and culture, including the closure of 120 local libraries, and other arts organisations such as local theatres.
Estonia: New funding programmes launched by the Ministry have recently focused on smaller minority groups and regional cultures.
Hungary: Continued decentralisation is clearly visible with significant growth in the cultural spending of local governments, up 78% between 2002 and 2007.
Italy: New legislation being proposed for the opera sector calls for greater input from local authorities, especially municipalities, to offset major cuts expected in 2009.
Latvia: Regional reform will be completed in 2009 and will lead to a possible decentralisation of responsibilities for culture.
FYR Macedonia: In 2008, the project "Active citizenship and participatory cultural policy" was promoted to find suitable mechanisms for systematic cultural development in local communities.
Poland: The project Multimedia City (2010-2012) was introduced in Nowy Sącz - Małopolskie Voivodeship. It will cost over 26.5 million euro.
Russia: In 2008, the Ministry for Regional Development supported a new Finno-Ugric Newspaper and the Ministry of Culture supported the launch of a web portal of the Finno-Ugric Cultural Centre.
Scotland: A larger role for Scotland's 32 local authorities as "key partners" in the arts is being developed.
Serbia: The NGO Academica (Uzice) has started to animate and promote the creative sector in South-East Serbia.
Slovenia: With the planned establishment of the regional government level on 1 January 2009, state funding for local cultural activities is due to stop. This will have an impact on regional and municipal cultural institutions.
UK: A Cultural Planning Toolkit 2008 aims to provide planners with a set of tools to embed culture in local community agendas.
Ukraine: The first German-Ukrainian intercultural school was opened in Kyiv in September 2008.


Answering Your Questions

Contact the Compendium Editors for overall questions and comments:

Kathrin Merkle Council of Europe

Danielle Cliche, Andreas Wiesand, ERICarts

Contact the Web Master with your technical questions:

Joerg Torkler, Medianale Group

Copyright (C) 2008 Compendium. All rights reserved.